The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Importance - Polygenic risk scores comprising millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be useful for population-wide coronary heart disease (CHD) screening.
Objective - To determine whether a polygenic risk score improves prediction of CHD compared with a guideline-recommended clinical risk equation.
Design, Setting, and Participants - A retrospective cohort study of the predictive accuracy of a previously validated polygenic risk score was assessed among 4847 adults of white European ancestry, aged 45 through 79 years, participating in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and 2390 participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) from 1996 through December 31, 2015, the final day of follow-up. The performance of the polygenic risk score was compared with that of the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association pooled cohort equations.
Exposures - Genetic risk was computed for each participant by summing the product of the weights and allele dosage across 6 630 149 SNPs. Weights were based on an international genome-wide association study.
Main Outcomes and Measures - Prediction of 10-year first CHD events (including myocardial infarctions, fatal coronary events, silent infarctions, revascularization procedures, or resuscitated cardiac arrest) assessed using measures of model discrimination, calibration, and net reclassification improvement (NRI).
Results - The study population included 4847 adults from the ARIC study (mean [SD] age, 62.9 [5.6] years; 56.4% women) and 2390 adults from the MESA cohort (mean [SD] age, 61.8 [9.6] years; 52.2% women). Incident CHD events occurred in 696 participants (14.4%) and 227 participants (9.5%), respectively, over median follow-up of 15.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 6.3 years) and 14.2 (IQR, 2.5 years) years. The polygenic risk score was significantly associated with 10-year CHD incidence in ARIC with hazard ratios per SD increment of 1.24 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.34) and in MESA, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.58). Addition of the polygenic risk score to the pooled cohort equations did not significantly increase the C statistic in either cohort (ARIC, change in C statistic, -0.001; 95% CI, -0.009 to 0.006; MESA, 0.021; 95% CI, -0.0004 to 0.043). At the 10-year risk threshold of 7.5%, the addition of the polygenic risk score to the pooled cohort equations did not provide significant improvement in reclassification in either ARIC (NRI, 0.018, 95% CI, -0.012 to 0.036) or MESA (NRI, 0.001, 95% CI, -0.038 to 0.076). The polygenic risk score did not significantly improve calibration in either cohort.
Conclusions and Relevance - In this analysis of 2 cohorts of US adults, the polygenic risk score was associated with incident coronary heart disease events but did not significantly improve discrimination, calibration, or risk reclassification compared with conventional predictors. These findings suggest that a polygenic risk score may not enhance risk prediction in a general, white middle-aged population.
BACKGROUND - The relation between burden of risk factors, familial coronary artery disease (CAD), and known genetic variants underlying CAD and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels is not well-explored in clinical samples. We aimed to investigate the association of these measures with age at onset of CAD requiring revascularizations in a clinical sample of patients undergoing first-time coronary angiography.
METHODS - 1599 individuals (mean age 64 years [min-max 29-96 years], 28% women) were genotyped (from blood drawn as part of usual clinical care) in the Copenhagen area (2010-2014). The burden of common genetic variants was measured as aggregated genetic risk scores (GRS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered in genome-wide association studies.
RESULTS - Self-reported familial CAD (prevalent in 41% of the sample) was associated with -3.2 years (95% confidence interval -4.5, -2.2, p<0.0001) earlier need of revascularization in sex-adjusted models. Patients with and without familial CAD had similar mean values of CAD-GRS (unweighted scores 68.4 vs. 68.0, p = 0.10, weighted scores 67.7 vs. 67.5, p = 0.49) and LDL-C-GRS (unweighted scores 58.5 vs. 58.3, p = 0.34, weighted scores 63.3 vs. 61.1, p = 0.41). The correlation between the CAD-GRS and LDL-C-GRS was low (r = 0.14, p<0.001). In multivariable adjusted regression models, each 1 standard deviation higher values of LDL-C-GRS and CAD-GRS were associated with -0.70 years (95% confidence interval -1.25, -0.14, p = 0.014) and -0.51 years (-1.07, 0.04, p = 0.07) earlier need for revascularization, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS - Young individuals presenting with CAD requiring surgical interventions had a higher genetic burden of SNPs relating to LDL-C and CAD (although the latter was statistically non-significant), compared with older individuals. However, the absolute difference was modest, suggesting that genetic screening can currently not be used as an effective prediction tool of when in life a person will develop CAD. Whether undiscovered genetic variants can still explain a "missing heritability" in early-onset CAD warrants more research.
BACKGROUND - Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death globally. Although therapy with statins decreases circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the incidence of CHD, additional events occur despite statin therapy in some individuals. The genetic determinants of this residual cardiovascular risk remain unknown.
METHODS - We performed a 2-stage genome-wide association study of CHD events during statin therapy. We first identified 3099 cases who experienced CHD events (defined as acute myocardial infarction or the need for coronary revascularization) during statin therapy and 7681 controls without CHD events during comparable intensity and duration of statin therapy from 4 sites in the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network. We then sought replication of candidate variants in another 160 cases and 1112 controls from a fifth Electronic Medical Records and Genomics site, which joined the network after the initial genome-wide association study. Finally, we performed a phenome-wide association study for other traits linked to the most significant locus.
RESULTS - The meta-analysis identified 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms at a genome-wide level of significance within the LPA/PLG locus associated with CHD events on statin treatment. The most significant association was for an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism within LPA/PLG (rs10455872; minor allele frequency, 0.069; odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-1.86; P=2.6×10). In the replication cohort, rs10455872 was also associated with CHD events (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.57; P=0.009). The association of this single nucleotide polymorphism with CHD events was independent of statin-induced change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.24; P=0.004) and persisted in individuals with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤70 mg/dL (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-4.75; P=0.015). A phenome-wide association study supported the effect of this region on coronary heart disease and did not identify noncardiovascular phenotypes.
CONCLUSIONS - Genetic variations at the LPA locus are associated with CHD events during statin therapy independently of the extent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering. This finding provides support for exploring strategies targeting circulating concentrations of lipoprotein(a) to reduce CHD events in patients receiving statins.
INTRODUCTION - Kidney stone risk factors are understudied among Asians. Our study objective was to investigate associations of obesity and other chronic diseases with incident kidney stones among the urban Chinese.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - Included in this study are two prospective cohorts: the Shanghai Women's Health Study (N = 69,166) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (N = 58,054). Incident kidney stones were determined by self-report in 2004 and 2008. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the associations of study variables with stone risk with adjustment of demographics, medical history, and dietary intakes.
RESULTS - There were 2653 incident stones over 1,007,958 person-years of follow-up. Overall incidence rates (per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI]) were 2.10 (1.99, 2.21) among women and 3.80 (3.59, 4.02) among men. Higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with risk (BMI ≥25 vs 18.5-24.9 kg/m, women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14 [95% CI 1.01, 1.28]; men: HR = 1.17 [1.03, 1.32]). High waist-hip ratio (≥0.80 and ≥0.90 for women and men, respectively) was associated with risk (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27 for women; HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05, 1.35 for men). Coronary heart disease or stroke history was associated with risk in women only (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10, 1.56). Hypertension history was associated with risk in men only (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.11, 1.45). No significant association with diabetes mellitus was observed.
CONCLUSIONS - Among the Chinese, kidney stone incidence in men is almost twice that of women. Obesity is a shared risk factor. Hypertension history is associated with risk in men, whereas history of coronary heart disease or stroke is associated with risk in women.
Context - Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in people who are white and Chinese but not black or Hispanic. Vitamin D binding globulin (VDBG) avidly binds 25(OH)D, reducing its bioavailability, and differs in isoform and concentration by race.
Objective - Evaluate associations of VDBG with CHD and whether accounting for VDBG or estimating bioavailable 25(OH)D explains the heterogeneity of the association of 25(OH)D with CHD.
Design and Setting - We conducted a case-cohort study within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants with an incident CHD event over 12 years of follow-up (n = 538) and a randomly assigned subcohort (n = 999) were included. We measured baseline 25(OH)D, VDBG, and isoforms using mass spectrometry and estimated bioavailable 25(OH)D from published equations.
Results - VDBG was associated with an increased risk of CHD [hazard ratio, 1.77 (95% confidence interval, 1.46 to 2.14) per standard deviation increment, P < 0.0001], without evidence of heterogeneity by race or isoform (each P for interaction > 0.1). Low total 25(OH)D was differentially associated with CHD events, by race, with or without adjustment for VDBG (P for interaction = 0.04 or 0.05, respectively). Associations of 25(OH)D with CHD were strengthened with adjustment for VDBG among participants who were white or Chinese, and bioavailable 25(OH)D was associated with CHD events only among white participants.
Conclusions - High VDBG concentration was associated with CHD events in all racial and ethnic groups. Incorporation of VDBG strengthened existing associations of 25(OH)D with CHD but did not explain racial heterogeneity in associations of 25(OH)D with CHD.
Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society
BACKGROUND - Common diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD) are complex in etiology. The interaction of genetic susceptibility with lifestyle factors may play a prominent role. However, gene-lifestyle interactions for CHD have been difficult to identify. Here, we investigate interaction of smoking behavior, a potent lifestyle factor, with genotypes that have been shown to associate with CHD risk.
METHODS - We analyzed data on 60 919 CHD cases and 80 243 controls from 29 studies for gene-smoking interactions for genetic variants at 45 loci previously reported to be associated with CHD risk. We also studied 5 loci associated with smoking behavior. Study-specific gene-smoking interaction effects were calculated and pooled using fixed-effects meta-analyses. Interaction analyses were declared to be significant at a value of <1.0×10 (Bonferroni correction for 50 tests).
RESULTS - We identified novel gene-smoking interaction for a variant upstream of the gene. Every T allele of rs7178051 was associated with lower CHD risk by 12% in never-smokers (=1.3×10) in comparison with 5% in ever-smokers (=2.5×10), translating to a 60% loss of CHD protection conferred by this allelic variation in people who smoked tobacco (interaction value=8.7×10). The protective T allele at rs7178051 was also associated with reduced expression in human aortic endothelial cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Exposure of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells to cigarette smoke extract led to induction of CONCLUSIONS: Allelic variation at rs7178051 that associates with reduced expression confers stronger CHD protection in never-smokers than in ever-smokers. Increased vascular expression may contribute to the loss of CHD protection in smokers.
© 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Importance - Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Understanding the relative contributions of cardiovascular disease event types to the excess burden of cardiovascular disease is important for developing effective strategies to improve outcomes.
Objective - To determine absolute rates and risk differences of incident heart failure (HF), coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke in participants with vs without CKD.
Design, Setting and Participants - We pooled participants without prevalent cardiovascular disease from 3 community-based cohort studies: the Jackson Heart Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The Jackson Heart Study was conducted between 2000 and 2010, the Cardiovascular Health Study was conducted between 1989 and 2003, and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis was conducted between 2000 and 2012.
Exposures - Chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, calculated using the combined creatinine-cystatin C CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration Equation.
Main Outcomes and Measures - Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rates (IRs) and risk differences of adjudicated incident HF, CHD, and stroke, comparing participants with vs without CKD.
Results - Among 14 462 participants, the mean (SD) age was 63 (12) years, 59% (n = 8533) were women, and 44% (n = 6363) were African American. Overall, 1461 (10%) had CKD (mean [SD] estimated glomerular filtration rate, 49  mL/min/1.73 m2). Unadjusted IRs for participants with and without CKD, respectively, were 22.0 (95% CI, 19.3-24.8) and 6.2 (95% CI, 5.8-6.7) per 1000 person-years for HF; 24.5 (95% CI, 21.6-27.5) and 8.4 (95% CI, 7.9-9.0) per 1000 person-years for CHD; and 13.4 (95% CI, 11.3-15.5) and 4.8 (95% CI, 4.4-5.3) for stroke. Adjusting for demographics, cohort, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and tobacco use, risk differences comparing participants with vs without CKD (per 1000 person-years) were 2.3 (95% CI, 1.2-3.3) for HF, 2.3 (95% CI, 1.2-3.4) for CHD, and 0.8 (95% CI, 0.09-1.5) for stroke. Among African American and Hispanic participants, adjusted risk differences comparing participants with vs without CKD for HF were 3.5 (95% CI, 1.5-5.5) and 7.8 (95% CI, 2.2-13.3) per 1000 person-years, respectively.
Conclusions and Relevance - Among 3 diverse community-based cohorts, CKD was associated with an increased risk of HF that was similar in magnitude to CHD and greater than stroke. The excess risk of HF associated with CKD was particularly large among African American and Hispanic individuals. Efforts to improve health outcomes for patients with CKD should prioritize HF in addition to CHD prevention.
BACKGROUND - We explored whether, the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) coronary and abdominal risk scores measured at 18 to 30 years of age and changes in these scores would more strongly predict coronary artery calcium (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) assessed 25 years later, than scores measured 25 years later.
METHODS AND RESULTS - In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, 3008 participants had measurements of risk score components at 5-year intervals beginning at 18 to 30 years of age. CAC and AAC were assessed at 43 to 55 years of age. Odds ratios (ORs) for the presence and extent of CAC/AAC per/point higher score and c-statistics for predicting CAC/AAC were calculated. The prevalence of CAC was 28% and AAC was 53%. For each 1 point higher PDAY score, the odds of CAC were higher using baseline scores than year 25 scores (OR, 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.33 versus OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.11-1.14). For AAC, ORs at years 0 and 25 were similar (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.24-1.34 versus OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.19-1.26). C-statistic for CAC prediction was higher at year 0 than year 25 (0.731 versus 0.705) but similar at years 0 and 25 for AAC (0.665 versus 0.670). ORs for CAC were highest at baseline, and, for AAC, ORs were highest at year 10. Including change in PDAY scores with baseline scores improved prediction.
CONCLUSIONS - Atherosclerosis risk and change in risk assessed in young adulthood years before subclinical atherosclerosis imaging provide strong prediction of future subclinical atherosclerosis. CAC and AAC reflect chronic risk exposure in addition to risk measured at the time of study.
© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Cardiovascular disease burden and treatment patterns among patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in the United States remain poorly described. In 2013, the FH Foundation launched the Cascade Screening for Awareness and Detection (CASCADE) of FH Registry to address this knowledge gap.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1295 adults with heterozygous FH enrolled in the CASCADE-FH Registry from 11 US lipid clinics. Median age at initiation of lipid-lowering therapy was 39 years, and median age at FH diagnosis was 47 years. Prevalent coronary heart disease was reported in 36% of patients, and 61% exhibited 1 or more modifiable risk factors. Median untreated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 239 mg/dL. At enrollment, median LDL-C was 141 mg/dL; 42% of patients were taking high-intensity statin therapy and 45% received >1 LDL-lowering medication. Among FH patients receiving LDL-lowering medication(s), 25% achieved an LDL-C <100 mg/dL and 41% achieved a ≥50% LDL-C reduction. Factors associated with prevalent coronary heart disease included diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.82) and hypertension (2.48; 1.92-3.21). Factors associated with a ≥50% LDL-C reduction from untreated levels included high-intensity statin use (7.33; 1.86-28.86) and use of >1 LDL-lowering medication (1.80; 1.34-2.41).
CONCLUSIONS - FH patients in the CASCADE-FH Registry are diagnosed late in life and often do not achieve adequate LDL-C lowering, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk factors. These findings highlight the need for earlier diagnosis of FH and initiation of lipid-lowering therapy, more consistent use of guideline-recommended LDL-lowering therapy, and comprehensive management of traditional coronary heart disease risk factors.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Ezetimibe lowers plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by inhibiting the activity of the Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein. However, whether such inhibition reduces the risk of coronary heart disease is not known. Human mutations that inactivate a gene encoding a drug target can mimic the action of an inhibitory drug and thus can be used to infer potential effects of that drug.
METHODS - We sequenced the exons of NPC1L1 in 7364 patients with coronary heart disease and in 14,728 controls without such disease who were of European, African, or South Asian ancestry. We identified carriers of inactivating mutations (nonsense, splice-site, or frameshift mutations). In addition, we genotyped a specific inactivating mutation (p.Arg406X) in 22,590 patients with coronary heart disease and in 68,412 controls. We tested the association between the presence of an inactivating mutation and both plasma lipid levels and the risk of coronary heart disease.
RESULTS - With sequencing, we identified 15 distinct NPC1L1 inactivating mutations; approximately 1 in every 650 persons was a heterozygous carrier for 1 of these mutations. Heterozygous carriers of NPC1L1 inactivating mutations had a mean LDL cholesterol level that was 12 mg per deciliter (0.31 mmol per liter) lower than that in noncarriers (P=0.04). Carrier status was associated with a relative reduction of 53% in the risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio for carriers, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.25 to 0.87; P=0.008). In total, only 11 of 29,954 patients with coronary heart disease had an inactivating mutation (carrier frequency, 0.04%) in contrast to 71 of 83,140 controls (carrier frequency, 0.09%).
CONCLUSIONS - Naturally occurring mutations that disrupt NPC1L1 function were found to be associated with reduced plasma LDL cholesterol levels and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).