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Obliterative bronchiolitis is a potentially life-threatening noninfectious pulmonary complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the only pathognomonic manifestation of pulmonary chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). In the current study, we identified a novel effect of IL-26 on transplant-related obliterative bronchiolitis. Sublethally irradiated NOD/Shi-scidIL2rγ(null) mice transplanted with human umbilical cord blood (HuCB mice) gradually developed clinical signs of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) such as loss of weight, ruffled fur, and alopecia. Histologically, lung of HuCB mice exhibited obliterative bronchiolitis with increased collagen deposition and predominant infiltration with human IL-26(+)CD26(+)CD4 T cells. Concomitantly, skin manifested fat loss and sclerosis of the reticular dermis in the presence of apoptosis of the basilar keratinocytes, whereas the liver exhibited portal fibrosis and cholestasis. Moreover, although IL-26 is absent from rodents, we showed that IL-26 increased collagen synthesis in fibroblasts and promoted lung fibrosis in a murine GVHD model using IL-26 transgenic mice. In vitro analysis demonstrated a significant increase in IL-26 production by HuCB CD4 T cells following CD26 costimulation, whereas Ig Fc domain fused with the N-terminal of caveolin-1 (Cav-Ig), the ligand for CD26, effectively inhibited production of IL-26. Administration of Cav-Ig before or after onset of GVHD impeded the development of clinical and histologic features of GVHD without interrupting engraftment of donor-derived human cells, with preservation of the graft-versus-leukemia effect. These results therefore provide proof of principle that cGVHD of the lungs is caused in part by IL-26(+)CD26(+)CD4 T cells, and that treatment with Cav-Ig could be beneficial for cGVHD prevention and therapy.
Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
BACKGROUND AIMS - Umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) is an effective treatment for benign and malignant diseases. Late effects of CBT are not well described in the literature. In the present study, we present our experience of new-onset allergies in long-term survivors after CBT.
METHODS - After an initial patient had a severe peanut allergic reaction after CBT, all CBT patients were prospectively followed for new allergy development. Fifty patients received CBT between March 2006 and June 2011.
RESULTS - The median follow-up after CBT was 447 days (range, 12-2022). At the time of analysis, 30 patients were alive, with 3-year survival of 55.5%; median follow-up of surviving patients was 910 days (range, 68-2022). The allergic syndrome developed in five patients, with the cumulative incidence of new allergies at 2 years of 18.4% (95% confidence interval, 10.8-26). The median time to onset of new allergy after transplantation was 298 days (range, 250-809).
CONCLUSIONS - Allergy development has been linked to a delayed maturation of the immune system in several studies. We present the first case series of patients who had new allergies after CBT. Further study of this novel complication as well as counseling of patients after CBT would be important.
Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
HSCT can be curative for many PID. Little is known about the outcome of HSCT for patients with PID in the developing countries. We retrospectively reviewed all children with PID who received HSCT at KHCC in Jordan between August 2003 and October 2011. Twenty-eight patients were identified. The median age was 16 months (3 months-17 yr). Patients' diagnoses were SCID (n = 16), CHS (n = 3), HLH (n = 3), WAS (n = 2), Griscelli syndrome (n = 1), ALPS (n = 1), Omenn's syndrome (n = 1), and DiGeorge syndrome (n = 1). Seventeen patients received HLA-matched related HSCT, eight received maternal un-manipulated haploidentical HSCT, and three received unrelated cord blood transplantation. Nine patients (32%) developed BCGosis secondary to reactivation of pretransplant vaccination. Three died while still receiving anti-tuberculosis drugs, one still on treatment, and all others have recovered. Six patients had graft failure; four of them received no conditioning regimens. At a median follow up of 32 months (range 1-67), 21 patients are alive, with overall survival of 72%. We conclude that HSCT for PID patients can be performed with a good outcome in developing countries; however, delayed diagnosis or referral and BCG reactivation are unique challenges.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Engraftment and OS after umbilical CBT is highly dependent on the TNC. The contribution of the wash step to cell loss and ultimately the dose of cells available for transplant is not well described. To investigate the amount of cell loss after washing and its impact on major outcomes compared to pre-cryopreserved TNC, we analyzed data from patients prospectively enrolled on a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute sponsored cord blood transplant study between 1999 and 2003. There were 310 patients ≤18 yr of age with malignant (N = 218) or non-malignant (N = 92) disease enrolled on this trial. Only single CBU were used. All CBU were thawed and washed using an identical process. The median TNC after thawing and washing (PTW) was 5.43 × 10(7) /kg (79% recovery of cells). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was significantly higher in patients receiving a PTW TNC ≥2.5 × 10(7) /kg (p = 0.01). The cumulative incidence of TRM was higher among patients receiving post-thaw-and-wash TNC <2.5 × 10(7) /kg (p = 0.039). In conclusion, receiving a PTW TNC of <2.5 × 10(7) /kg resulted in worse neutrophil engraftment and increased transplant-related mortality compared to a PTW TNC of ≥2.5 × 10(7) /kg.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Obesity has become a pandemic, affecting both children and adults. We sought to determine the effect of obesity among 200 children who were prospectively enrolled on a multicenter cord blood transplant (CBT) trial. All patients received myeloablative preparative regimens. Children were classified into groups according to body mass index percentile. Normal weight was defined as body mass index between the 5th and 85th percentile (n=117), overweight between the 85th and 95th percentile (n=35) and obesity above 95th percentile (n=39) for age and gender. A total of 55 patients (27%) had AML, 113 patients (57%) had ALL and 32 patients (16%) had other malignant diseases. There was no evidence for a difference in all major characteristics among the groups. Time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment, TRM, risk of acute GVHD, disease-free survival and OS were not significantly different in overweight or obese patients compared with normal weight patients. There was a trend towards increased risk of chronic GVHD in obese patients (P=0.05) compared with normal weight patients. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence from this sample that obesity has an effect on multiple outcomes after unrelated CBT in children with malignant diseases.
BACKGROUND AIMS - Previous studies have shown that rapid recovery of the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) is associated with improved transplant outcomes after related and unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). No consistent association has been reported between lymphocyte recovery and transplant outcome after cord blood transplantation (CBT).
METHODS - We reviewed the records of 40 consecutive CBT patients at our institution to determine the impact of lymphocyte recovery on transplant outcome.
RESULTS - The majority of patients (83%) received CBT for hematologic malignancies. Patients with ALC ≥150/μL at 30 days post-CBT had decreased non-relapse mortality (NRM) (P = 0.011) and improved survival (P = 0.013) compared with ALC <150/μL. Patients with ALC <100/μL at 30 days post-CBT had a significantly higher rate of graft failure than those with ALC ≥100/μL (four of 10 versus one of 29; P = 0.011). ALC was positively correlated with the nucleated cell dose and inversely correlated with the patient's age. There was no relationship between disease risk, type of conditioning regimen, anti-thymocyte globulin and number of cord units on ALC recovery.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results indicate that ALC 30 days post-CBT is a surrogate for engraftment, and that low ALC (<150/μL) identifies an 'at-risk' population of patients after CBT. Studies are needed to determine ways to increase ALC cell numbers post-CBT, including ex vivo-expanded natural killer cells using adoptive immunotherapy, which might improve outcome after CBT.
Total body irradiation (TBI)-based conditioning regimens for pediatric patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) beyond first complete remission (CR1) are controversial. Because the long-term morbidity of busulfan (Bu)-based regimens appears to be lower, determining efficacy is critical. We retrospectively evaluated 151 pediatric patients with AML beyond CR1, comparing outcomes in 90 patients who received a TBI-based conditioning regimen and 61 patients who received a Bu-based conditioning regimen. There were no differences between the 2 groups with respect to age, sex, duration of CR1, time from most recent remission to transplantation, or donor source. The probability of relapse at 2 years also did not differ between the 2 groups (26% and 27%, respectively; P=.93). No significant difference in event-free survival (EFS) (P=.29) or overall survival (OS) (P=.11) was noted between the 2 groups. These findings were supported by a multivariate analysis in which TBI was not associated with improved EFS (hazard ratio [HR]=1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.66-2.10; P=.58) or OS (HR=1.42; 95% CI=0.76-2.64; P=.27). Shorter CR1 and receiving an HLA-mismatched transplant adversely affected EFS and OS in this cohort. Our study provides no evidence of an advantage to using TBI in children with AML beyond CR1. A prospective, randomized study is needed to confirm these results.
Preengraftment syndrome (PES) is a known complication following unrelated cord blood transplant (CBT) that has not been well characterized. We sought to determine the incidence and clinical outcome of PES among 326 patients <18 years of age who were prospectively enrolled on a multicenter CBT trial. All patients received a myeloablative (MA) transplant and a single cord blood unit (CBU). PES developed in 20% of the patients at a median of 10 days (range: 5-24). Patients receiving a CBU with a total nucleated cell (TNC) count of >5 x 10(7)/kg had significantly higher risk of developing PES (P = .02). There were significantly higher rates of grade II-V (P < .001), grade III-IV (P < .001) acute and chronic (P = .002) graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) in those who developed PES. In a multivariate analysis, PES did not significantly affect overall survival (OS) (P = .38). We conclude that PES is common following CB transplant (CBT) and additional more intensive immune suppression might be considered to decrease the risk of developing aGVHD and cGVHD.
In the absence of a related donor, unrelated cord blood transplant (CBT) may be a potential option for patients with a primary immune deficiency (PID). Most published experience consists of single-center data using multiple preparative regimens and GVHD prophylaxis. We report the results of a multicenter prospective trial of unrelated CBT for PID. A total of 24 children with PID, with a median age of 1 year (range: 0.23-7.81 years) and a median weight of 10.5 kg (range: 4-24.4 kg) received unrelated CBT between 1999 and 2003. All patients received a fully ablative conditioning regimen with identical GVHD prophylaxis and supportive care. Most patients (79%) received a 1 or 2 HLA Ag-mismatched cord unit with a median nucleated cell infused of 9.3 x 10(7)/kg (range: 1.0-31.2) and a median CD34 of 2.7 x 10(5)/kg 2.9 (range: 0.6-84.5). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment by day 42 was 58% (95% CI: 38-79%) at a median of 19 days. Cumulative incidence estimates of grade III-IV acute GVHD at day 100 and chronic GVHD at 1 year were 29% (95% CI: 10-48%) and 24% (95% CI: 3-44%), respectively. The probability of survival at 180 days and 1 year was 66.7% (95% CI: 44.3-81.7%) and 62.5% (95% CI: 40.3-78.4%), respectively. Unrelated CBT should be considered in children with PID.