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Tolbutamide methyl hydroxylation and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities were reconstituted in systems containing recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 2C10(2C9) and the optimal conditions for the systems were compared with those of bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation by CYP1A1, theophylline 8-hydroxylation by CYP1A2, bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation by CYP2D6, chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation by CYP2E1, and testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation by CYP3A4. CYP2C10 required cytochrome b5 (b5) for optimal rates of tolbutamide and S-warfarin oxidations and b5 could be replaced by apo-b5; apo-b5 and b5 effects on the reconstituted systems have already been reported in systems containing CYP3A4 for the oxidation of testosterone and nifedipine and for the rapid reduction of CYP3A4 by NADPH-P450 reductase (H. Yamazaki et al., 1996, J. Biol. Chem. 271, 27438-27444). Stopped-flow studies, however, suggested that apo-b5 as well as b5 did not cause stimulation of the reduction of CYP2C10 by NADPH-P450 reductase, while the reduction rates were dependent on the substrates in reconstituted systems. Chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation by CYP2E1 was stimulated by b5, but not by apo-b5, in reconstituted systems. Neither apo- nor holo-b5 increased bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity by CYP1A1 or 2D6 or theophylline 8-hydroxylation by CYP1A2. Interestingly, we found that testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation by CYP3A4 was stimulated by CYP1A2 (and also by a modified form in which the first 36 residues of the native human protein were removed) and CYP1A1 as well as by b5, and such stimulations were not seen when other P450 proteins (e.g., CYP2C10, 2D6, or 2E1) were added to the reconstituted systems. In contrast, substrate oxidations by CYP2C10 and CYP2E1 were not stimulated by other P450 proteins. The present results suggest that there are differences in optimal conditions for reconstitution of substrate oxidations by various forms of human P450 enzymes, and in some P450-catalyzed reactions protein-protein interactions between P450 and b5 and other P450 proteins are very important in some oxidations catalyzed by CYP2C10, 2E1, and 3A4.
Chlorzoxazone's disposition after oral administration was determined in 20 young healthy Caucasian men and a similar group of Japanese men. The drug's plasma concentrations were significantly higher and its rate of elimination slower in Japanese compared to Caucasian men. Accordingly, chlorzoxazone's oral clearance was smaller (40%) in Japanese men and a similar difference (30%) was still apparent after normalizing for body weight (3.74 +/- 1.23 versus 5.05 +/- 1.41 ml.min-1.kg-1, P < .05). This slower elimination was associated with a reduced (fractional) clearance by 6-hydroxylation (2.34 +/- 1.04 ml.min-1.kg-1 versus 3.23 +/- 1.10, P < .05). Because such metabolism is mediated by cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), these findings suggest a lower level of the enzyme's catalytic activity in Japanese men. This was confirmed by in vitro studies with microsomes prepared from livers of individuals representative of the two racial groups. CYP2E1 levels were lower (61% P < .002) and CYP2E1-mediated chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase (22%, P < .001) and aniline 4-hydroylase (35%, P < .0001) activities were reduced in Japanese preparations compared to those from Caucasians. No relationships were found between measures of CYP2E1 activity, both in vivo and in vitro, and genomic polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 gene identified by Rsal/Pstl and Dral restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Collectively, these data show an interracial difference in CYP2E1 activity. Because this enzyme is importantly involved in the activation of environmental procarcinogens, such a difference may account, in part, for the lower rate of some cancers, e.g., lung cancer, in Japanese compared to Caucasians men.
Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2E1 is of interest because of its role in the oxidation of numerous drugs and carcinogens. The purification of the protein from human liver is difficult, and we report the development of a system for relatively high-level expression in Escherichia coli. A cDNA was prepared from liver cDNA by polymerase chain reaction methods and several variants with modified 5'-termini were constructed. Analysis of seven of these indicated that the highest levels of expression were found when the first 21 codons of the native sequence were deleted and the Trp immediately following the resulting N-terminal Met was changed to Ala (GCT). Levels of 40-nmol membrane-bound P450 2E1 (liter culture)-1 were routinely recovered. The recombinant P450 2E1 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the bacterial membranes in two ion-exchange steps in > 80% yield. Ferric P450 2E1 was isolated in a mixed spin state. The enzyme was active in chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation; the addition of human liver cytochrome b5 lowered the Km for the substrate and increased Vmax. N-Terminal amino acid sequence analysis yielded the expected first 21 residues. The expression system should facilitate the availability of human P450 2E1 and antibodies for studies of the enzyme.
The effects of zoxazolamine (ZOX) and related centrally acting muscle relaxants on striatal dopamine (DA) metabolism and turnover, and substantia nigra zona compacta DA neuronal impulse flow were studied in rats. ZOX, chlorzoxazone and mephenesin, but not meprobamate, chloral hydrate, diazepam, pentobarbital, ethanol or dantrolene, decreased striatal DA metabolism without affecting striatal DA concentrations. More specifically, ZOX, as a representative muscle relaxant, was shown to decrease striatal DA turnover without directly affecting DA synthesis, catabolism, reuptake, or release. ZOX decreased nigral DA neuronal firing rates and dramatically decreased firing rate variability (normally many of the cells fire with bursting firing patterns but after ZOX the cells often fired with a very regular pacemaker-like firing pattern). ZOX and related centrally acting muscle relaxants appear to decrease striatal DA turnover by decreasing both neuronal firing rate and firing rate variability. The possible relationships between DA neuronal activity and muscle tone are discussed.