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Using In Vitro Pull-Down and In-Cell Overexpression Assays to Study Protein Interactions with Arrestin.
Perry NA, Zhan X, Gurevich EV, Iverson TM, Gurevich VV
(2019) Methods Mol Biol 1957: 107-120
MeSH Terms: Animals, Arrestin, Biological Assay, COS Cells, Chlorocebus aethiops, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Immobilized Proteins, Mice, Protein Binding, Protein Interaction Mapping, Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Show Abstract · Added April 1, 2019
Nonvisual arrestins (arrestin-2/arrestin-3) interact with hundreds of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes and dozens of non-receptor signaling proteins. Here we describe the methods used to identify the interaction sites of arrestin-binding partners on arrestin-3 and the use of monofunctional individual arrestin-3 elements in cells. Our in vitro pull-down assay with purified proteins demonstrates that relatively few elements in arrestin engage each partner, whereas cell-based functional assays indicate that certain arrestin elements devoid of other functionalities can perform individual functions in living cells.
0 Communities
2 Members
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12 MeSH Terms
Myosin IIA drives membrane bleb retraction.
Taneja N, Burnette DT
(2019) Mol Biol Cell 30: 1051-1059
MeSH Terms: Actins, Animals, Blister, COS Cells, Cell Membrane, Cell Membrane Structures, Cell Movement, Cell Surface Extensions, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cytokinesis, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeletal Proteins, HeLa Cells, Humans, Myosin Type II, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIA, Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIB
Show Abstract · Added March 27, 2019
Membrane blebs are specialized cellular protrusions that play diverse roles in processes such as cell division and cell migration. Blebbing can be divided into three distinct phases: bleb nucleation, bleb growth, and bleb retraction. Following nucleation and bleb growth, the actin cortex, comprising actin, cross-linking proteins, and nonmuscle myosin II (MII), begins to reassemble on the membrane. MII then drives the final phase, bleb retraction, which results in reintegration of the bleb into the cellular cortex. There are three MII paralogues with distinct biophysical properties expressed in mammalian cells: MIIA, MIIB, and MIIC. Here we show that MIIA specifically drives bleb retraction during cytokinesis. The motor domain and regulation of the nonhelical tailpiece of MIIA both contribute to its ability to drive bleb retraction. These experiments have also revealed a relationship between faster turnover of MIIA at the cortex and its ability to drive bleb retraction.
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1 Members
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18 MeSH Terms
Structural Model of Ghrelin Bound to its G Protein-Coupled Receptor.
Bender BJ, Vortmeier G, Ernicke S, Bosse M, Kaiser A, Els-Heindl S, Krug U, Beck-Sickinger A, Meiler J, Huster D
(2019) Structure 27: 537-544.e4
MeSH Terms: Animals, Binding Sites, COS Cells, Chlorocebus aethiops, Ghrelin, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Models, Molecular, Mutagenesis, Site-Directed, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, Receptors, Ghrelin
Show Abstract · Added March 21, 2020
The peptide ghrelin targets the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR) to signal changes in cell metabolism and is a sought-after therapeutic target, although no structure is known to date. To investigate the structural basis of ghrelin binding to GHSR, we used solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, site-directed mutagenesis, and Rosetta modeling. The use of saturation transfer difference NMR identified key residues in the peptide for receptor binding beyond the known motif. This information combined with assignment of the secondary structure of ghrelin in its receptor-bound state was incorporated into Rosetta using an approach that accounts for flexible binding partners. The NMR data and models revealed an extended binding surface that was confirmed via mutagenesis. Our results agree with a growing evidence of peptides interacting via two sites at G protein-coupled receptors.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
A protective human monoclonal antibody targeting the West Nile virus E protein preferentially recognizes mature virions.
Goo L, Debbink K, Kose N, Sapparapu G, Doyle MP, Wessel AW, Richner JM, Burgomaster KE, Larman BC, Dowd KA, Diamond MS, Crowe JE, Pierson TC
(2019) Nat Microbiol 4: 71-77
MeSH Terms: Aedes, Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Cell Line, Chlorocebus aethiops, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Protein Domains, Vero Cells, Viral Envelope Proteins, West Nile Fever, West Nile Virus Vaccines, West Nile virus
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2019
West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flavivirus genus, is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in the United States. The development of neutralizing antibodies against the flavivirus envelope (E) protein is critical for immunity and vaccine protection. Previously identified candidate therapeutic mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) target epitopes within the E domain III lateral ridge and the domain I-II hinge region, respectively. To explore the neutralizing antibody repertoire elicited by WNV infection for potential therapeutic application, we isolated ten mAbs from WNV-infected individuals. mAb WNV-86 neutralized WNV with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 2 ng ml, one of the most potently neutralizing flavivirus-specific antibodies ever isolated. WNV-86 targets an epitope in E domain II, and preferentially recognizes mature virions lacking an uncleaved form of the chaperone protein prM, unlike most flavivirus-specific antibodies. In vitro selection experiments revealed a neutralization escape mechanism involving a glycan addition to E domain II. Finally, a single dose of WNV-86 administered two days post-infection protected mice from lethal WNV challenge. This study identifies a highly potent human neutralizing mAb with therapeutic potential that targets an epitope preferentially displayed on mature virions.
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1 Members
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18 MeSH Terms
Protective antibodies against Eastern equine encephalitis virus bind to epitopes in domains A and B of the E2 glycoprotein.
Kim AS, Austin SK, Gardner CL, Zuiani A, Reed DS, Trobaugh DW, Sun C, Basore K, Williamson LE, Crowe JE, Slifka MK, Fremont DH, Klimstra WB, Diamond MS
(2019) Nat Microbiol 4: 187-197
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cricetinae, Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine, Encephalomyelitis, Equine, Epitope Mapping, Epitopes, Female, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Mice, Protein Domains, Vero Cells, Viral Envelope Proteins
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2019
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus with a high case mortality rate in humans. EEEV is a biodefence concern because of its potential for aerosol spread and the lack of existing countermeasures. Here, we identify a panel of 18 neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the EEEV E2 glycoprotein, several of which have 'elite' activity with 50 and 99% effective inhibitory concentrations (EC and EC) of less than 10 and 100 ng ml, respectively. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis and neutralization escape mapping analysis revealed epitopes for these mAbs in domains A or B of the E2 glycoprotein. A majority of the neutralizing mAbs blocked infection at a post-attachment stage, with several inhibiting viral membrane fusion. Administration of one dose of anti-EEEV mAb protected mice from lethal subcutaneous or aerosol challenge. These experiments define the mechanistic basis for neutralization by protective anti-EEEV mAbs and suggest a path forward for treatment and vaccine design.
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17 MeSH Terms
Multifunctional Pan-ebolavirus Antibody Recognizes a Site of Broad Vulnerability on the Ebolavirus Glycoprotein.
Gilchuk P, Kuzmina N, Ilinykh PA, Huang K, Gunn BM, Bryan A, Davidson E, Doranz BJ, Turner HL, Fusco ML, Bramble MS, Hoff NA, Binshtein E, Kose N, Flyak AI, Flinko R, Orlandi C, Carnahan R, Parrish EH, Sevy AM, Bombardi RG, Singh PK, Mukadi P, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, Ohi MD, Saphire EO, Lewis GK, Alter G, Ward AB, Rimoin AW, Bukreyev A, Crowe JE
(2018) Immunity 49: 363-374.e10
MeSH Terms: 3T3 Cells, Adult, Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, CHO Cells, Cell Line, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cricetulus, Disease Models, Animal, Drosophila, Ebolavirus, Female, Ferrets, Glycoproteins, Guinea Pigs, Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola, Humans, Immunoglobulin G, Jurkat Cells, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Knockout, THP-1 Cells, Vero Cells
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Ebolaviruses cause severe disease in humans, and identification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are effective against multiple ebolaviruses are important for therapeutics development. Here we describe a distinct class of broadly neutralizing human mAbs with protective capacity against three ebolaviruses infectious for humans: Ebola (EBOV), Sudan (SUDV), and Bundibugyo (BDBV) viruses. We isolated mAbs from human survivors of ebolavirus disease and identified a potent mAb, EBOV-520, which bound to an epitope in the glycoprotein (GP) base region. EBOV-520 efficiently neutralized EBOV, BDBV, and SUDV and also showed protective capacity in relevant animal models of these infections. EBOV-520 mediated protection principally by direct virus neutralization and exhibited multifunctional properties. This study identified a potent naturally occurring mAb and defined key features of the human antibody response that may contribute to broad protection. This multifunctional mAb and related clones are promising candidates for development as broadly protective pan-ebolavirus therapeutic molecules.
Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
The Marburgvirus-Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody MR191 Targets a Conserved Site to Block Virus Receptor Binding.
King LB, Fusco ML, Flyak AI, Ilinykh PA, Huang K, Gunn B, Kirchdoerfer RN, Hastie KM, Sangha AK, Meiler J, Alter G, Bukreyev A, Crowe JE, Saphire EO
(2018) Cell Host Microbe 23: 101-109.e4
MeSH Terms: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Binding Sites, Carrier Proteins, Cell Line, Chlorocebus aethiops, Crystallography, X-Ray, Drosophila melanogaster, Humans, Marburgvirus, Membrane Glycoproteins, Receptors, Virus, Tobacco, Vero Cells, Viral Envelope Proteins, Viral Fusion Proteins, Virus Attachment
Show Abstract · Added March 17, 2018
Since their first identification 50 years ago, marburgviruses have emerged several times, with 83%-90% lethality in the largest outbreaks. Although no vaccines or therapeutics are available for human use, the human antibody MR191 provides complete protection in non-human primates when delivered several days after inoculation of a lethal marburgvirus dose. The detailed neutralization mechanism of MR191 remains outstanding. Here we present a 3.2 Å crystal structure of MR191 complexed with a trimeric marburgvirus surface glycoprotein (GP). MR191 neutralizes by occupying the conserved receptor-binding site and competing with the host receptor Niemann-Pick C1. The structure illuminates previously disordered regions of GP including the stalk, fusion loop, CXCC switch, and an N-terminal region of GP2 that wraps about the outside of GP1 to anchor a marburgvirus-specific "wing" antibody epitope. Virus escape mutations mapped far outside the MR191 receptor-binding site footprint suggest a role for these other regions in the GP quaternary structure.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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20 MeSH Terms
Heterologous phosphorylation-induced formation of a stability lock permits regulation of inactive receptors by β-arrestins.
Tóth AD, Prokop S, Gyombolai P, Várnai P, Balla A, Gurevich VV, Hunyady L, Turu G
(2018) J Biol Chem 293: 876-892
MeSH Terms: Angiotensin II, Animals, COS Cells, Chlorocebus aethiops, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Immunoblotting, Microscopy, Confocal, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Phosphorylation, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, beta-Arrestins
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
β-Arrestins are key regulators and signal transducers of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The interaction between receptors and β-arrestins is generally believed to require both receptor activity and phosphorylation by GPCR kinases. In this study, we investigated whether β-arrestins are able to bind second messenger kinase-phosphorylated, but inactive receptors as well. Because heterologous phosphorylation is a common phenomenon among GPCRs, this mode of β-arrestin activation may represent a novel mechanism of signal transduction and receptor cross-talk. Here we demonstrate that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol myristate acetate, G-coupled GPCR, or epidermal growth factor receptor stimulation promotes β-arrestin2 recruitment to unliganded AT angiotensin receptor (ATR). We found that this interaction depends on the stability lock, a structure responsible for the sustained binding between GPCRs and β-arrestins, formed by phosphorylated serine-threonine clusters in the receptor's C terminus and two conserved phosphate-binding lysines in the β-arrestin2 N-domain. Using improved FlAsH-based serine-threonine clusters β-arrestin2 conformational biosensors, we also show that the stability lock not only stabilizes the receptor-β-arrestin interaction, but also governs the structural rearrangements within β-arrestins. Furthermore, we found that β-arrestin2 binds to PKC-phosphorylated ATR in a distinct active conformation, which triggers MAPK recruitment and receptor internalization. Our results provide new insights into the activation of β-arrestins and reveal their novel role in receptor cross-talk.
© 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
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12 MeSH Terms
Functional defects in TcdB toxin uptake identify CSPG4 receptor-binding determinants.
Gupta P, Zhang Z, Sugiman-Marangos SN, Tam J, Raman S, Julien JP, Kroh HK, Lacy DB, Murgolo N, Bekkari K, Therien AG, Hernandez LD, Melnyk RA
(2017) J Biol Chem 292: 17290-17301
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins, Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies, CHO Cells, Caco-2 Cells, Chlorocebus aethiops, Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans, Clostridium difficile, Cricetinae, Cricetulus, Glucosyltransferases, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Membrane Proteins, Protein Binding, Protein Domains
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
is a major nosocomial pathogen that produces two exotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, with TcdB thought to be the primary determinant in human disease. TcdA and TcdB are large, multidomain proteins, each harboring a cytotoxic glucosyltransferase domain that is delivered into the cytosol from endosomes via a translocation domain after receptor-mediated endocytosis of toxins from the cell surface. Although there are currently no known host cell receptors for TcdA, three cell-surface receptors for TcdB have been identified: CSPG4, NECTIN3, and FZD1/2/7. The sites on TcdB that mediate binding to each receptor are not defined. Furthermore, it is not known whether the combined repetitive oligopeptide (CROP) domain is involved in or required for receptor binding. Here, in a screen designed to identify sites in TcdB that are essential for target cell intoxication, we identified a region at the junction of the translocation and the CROP domains that is implicated in CSPG4 binding. Using a series of C-terminal truncations, we show that the CSPG4-binding site on TcdB extends into the CROP domain, requiring three short repeats for binding and for full toxicity on CSPG4-expressing cells. Consistent with the location of the CSPG4-binding site on TcdB, we show that the anti-TcdB antibody bezlotoxumab, which binds partially within the first three short repeats, prevents CSPG4 binding to TcdB. In addition to establishing the binding region for CSPG4, this work ascribes for the first time a role in TcdB CROPs in receptor binding and further clarifies the relative roles of host receptors in TcdB pathogenesis.
© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
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19 MeSH Terms
Identification and Characterization of the First Selective Y Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator.
Schubert M, Stichel J, Du Y, Tough IR, Sliwoski G, Meiler J, Cox HM, Weaver CD, Beck-Sickinger AG
(2017) J Med Chem 60: 7605-7612
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Regulation, Animals, Arrestins, COS Cells, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cyclohexanols, GTP-Binding Proteins, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Models, Molecular, Receptors, Neuropeptide Y, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added March 17, 2018
The human Y receptor (YR) and its cognate ligand, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), are involved in the regulation of energy expenditure, satiety, and food intake. This system represents a potential target for the treatment of metabolic diseases and has been extensively investigated and validated in vivo. Here, we present the compound tBPC (tert-butylphenoxycyclohexanol), a novel and selective YR positive allosteric modulator that potentiates YR activation in G-protein signaling and arrestin3 recruitment experiments. The compound has no effect on the binding of the orthosteric ligands, implying its allosteric mode of action at the YR and evidence for a purely efficacy-driven positive allosteric modulation. Finally, the ability of tBPC to selectively potentiate YR agonism initiated by PP was confirmed in mouse descending colon mucosa preparations expressing native YR, demonstrating YR positive allosteric modulation in vitro.
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2 Members
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12 MeSH Terms