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TGF-β signals through a receptor complex composed of 2 type I and 2 type II (TGF-βRII) subunits. We investigated the role of macrophage TGF-β signaling in fibrosis after AKI in mice with selective monocyte/macrophage TGF-βRII deletion (macrophage TGF-βRII-/- mice). Four weeks after injury, renal TGF-β1 expression and fibrosis were higher in WT mice than macrophage TGF-βRII-/- mice, which had decreased renal macrophages. The in vitro chemotactic response to f-Met-Leu-Phe was comparable between bone marrow-derived monocytes (BMMs) from WT and macrophage TGF-βRII-/- mice, but TGF-βRII-/- BMMs did not respond to TGF-β. We then implanted Matrigel plugs suffused with either f-Met-Leu-Phe or TGF-β1 into WT or macrophage TGF-βRII-/- mice. After 6 days, f-Met-Leu-Phe induced similar macrophage infiltration into the Matrigel plugs of WT and macrophage TGF-βRII-/- mice, but TGF-β induced infiltration only in WT mice. We further determined the number of labeled WT or TGF-βRII-/- BMMs infiltrating into WT kidneys 20 days after ischemic injury. There were more labeled WT BMMs than TGF-βRII-/- BMMs. Therefore, macrophage TGF-βRII deletion protects against the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis following severe ischemic renal injury. Chemoattraction of macrophages to the injured kidney through a TGF-β/TGF-βRII axis is a heretofore undescribed mechanism by which TGF-β can mediate renal fibrosis during progressive renal injury.
RATIONALE - The pulmonary phenotype of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) in adults includes foamy alveolar type 2 cells, inflammation, and lung remodeling, but there is no information about ontogeny or early disease mediators.
OBJECTIVES - To establish the ontogeny of HPS lung disease in an animal model, examine disease mediators, and relate them to patients with HPS1.
METHODS - Mice with mutations in both HPS1/pale ear and HPS2/AP3B1/pearl (EPPE mice) were studied longitudinally. Total lung homogenate, lung tissue sections, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were examined for phospholipid, collagen, histology, cell counts, chemokines, surfactant protein D (SP-D), and S-nitrosylated SP-D. Isolated alveolar epithelial cells were examined for expression of inflammatory mediators, and chemotaxis assays were used to assess their importance. Pulmonary function test results and BAL from patients with HPS1 and normal volunteers were examined for clinical correlation.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - EPPE mice develop increased total lung phospholipid, followed by a macrophage-predominant pulmonary inflammation, and lung remodeling including fibrosis. BAL fluid from EPPE animals exhibited early accumulation of both SP-D and S-nitrosylated SP-D. BAL fluid from patients with HPS1 exhibited similar changes in SP-D that correlated inversely with pulmonary function. Alveolar epithelial cells demonstrated expression of both monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in juvenile EPPE mice. Last, BAL from EPPE mice and patients with HPS1 enhanced migration of RAW267.4 cells, which was attenuated by immunodepletion of SP-D and MCP-1.
CONCLUSIONS - Inflammation is initiated from the abnormal alveolar epithelial cells in HPS, and S-nitrosylated SP-D plays a significant role in amplifying pulmonary inflammation.
p120 loss destabilizes E-cadherin and could therefore result in tumor and/or metastasis-promoting activities similar to those caused by E-cadherin downregulation. Previously, we reported that p120 is essential in the intestine for barrier function, epithelial homeostasis and survival. Conditional p120 ablation in the mouse intestine induced severe inflammatory bowel disease, but long-term cancer-related studies were impossible because none of the animals survived longer than 21 days. Here, we used a tamoxifen-inducible mouse model (Vil-Cre-ER(T2);p120(fl/fl)) to limit the extent of p120 ablation and thereby enable long-term studies. Reducing p120 KO to ∼10% of the intestinal epithelium produced long-lived animals outwardly indistinguishable from controls. Effects of prolonged p120 absence were then evaluated at intervals spanning 2 to 18 months. At all time points, immunostaining revealed microdomains of p120-null epithelium interspersed with normal epithelium. Thus, stochastic p120 ablation is compatible with crypt progenitor cell function and permitted lifelong renewal of the p120-null cells. Consistent with previous observations, a barrier defect and frequent infiltration of neutrophils was observed, suggesting that focal p120 loss generates a microenvironment disposed to chronic inflammation. We report that 45% of these animals developed tumors within 18 months of tamoxifen induction. Interestingly, β-catenin was upregulated in the majority, but none of the tumors were p120 null. Although further work is required to directly establish mechanism, we conclude that limited p120 ablation can promote tumorigenesis by an indirect non-cell autonomous mechanism. Given that byproducts of inflammation are known to be highly mutagenic, we suggest that tumorigenesis in this model is ultimately driven by the lifelong inability to heal chronic wounds and the substantially increased rates of stochastic gene mutation in tissue microenvironments subjected to chronic inflammation. Indeed, although technical issues precluded direct identification of mutations, β-catenin upregulation in human colon cancer almost invariably reflects mutations in APC and/or β-catenin.
Chronic inflammation is an important underlying condition for ovarian tumor development, growth and progression. Since chemokine networks are activated by inflammation, patterns of chemokine gene expression were investigated in ovarian cancer cells. Chemokine specific microarrays were performed after mouse (ID8) and human (SKOV-3) ovarian surface epithelial cancer cells were exposed to the inflammatory agent bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 microg/ml) and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1, 10 ng/ml) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF, 10 ng/ml). In the mouse ID8 cells, LPS, IL-1 and TNF led to robust upregulation of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) chemokines CXCL1/2, mouse homologues of human growth-regulated oncogenes (GRO). Other chemokines, interferong inducible protein (IP)-10 (CXCL10), CCL7 and CCL20 were moderately upregulated. ID8 cells constitutively expressed CXCL16 and CCL2, but only CCL2 expression was enhanced by LPS, IL-1 and TNF. In the human SKOV-3 cells, LPS had no effect on chemokines expression due to the absence of the LPS receptor, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, IL-1 and TNF induced GROalpha/beta (CXCL1/2) in human SKOV-3 cells in a similar manner as observed with mouse ID8 cells. In SKOV-3 cells, IL-8 (CXCL8) was highly expressed and other chemokines GROgamma (CXCL3) and CCL20 were moderately expressed in response to IL-1 and TNF. The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a known mediator of cytokine and chemokines signaling. The NFkappaB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 attenuated expression of inflammatory-induced chemokines in the mouse and human ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, the results indicate that KC/GRO chemokines are the principal chemokines induced by LPS and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF via NFkappaB signaling in ovarian surface epithelial cancer cells.
The three basic cell types in the migrating slug of Dictyostelium discoideum show differential chemotactic response to cyclic AMP (cAMP) and differential sensitivity to suppression of the chemotaxis by ammonia.The values of these parameters indicate a progressive maturation of chemotactic properties during the transdifferentiation of slug cell types.We present a model that explains the localization of the three cell types within the slug based on these chemotactic differences and on the maturation of their chemotactic properties.
Human S100A2 is an EF-hand calcium-binding S100 protein that is localized mainly in the nucleus and functions as tumor suppressor. In addition to Ca2+ S100A2 binds Zn2+ with a high affinity. Studies have been carried out to investigate whether Zn2+ acts as a regulatory ion for S100A2, as in the case of Ca2+. Using the method of competition with the Zn2+ chelator 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol, an apparent Kd of 25 nM has been determined for Zn2+ binding to S100A2. The affinity lies close to the range of intracellular free Zn2+ concentrations, suggesting that S100A2 is able to bind Zn2+ in the nucleus. Two Zn2+-binding sites have been identified using site directed mutagenesis and several spectroscopic techniques with Cd2+ and Co2+ as probes. In site 1 Zn2+ is bound by Cys21 and most likely by His 17. The binding of Zn2+ in site 2 induces the formation of a tetramer, whereby the Zn(2+) is coordinated by Cys2 from each subunit. Remarkably, only binding of Zn2+ to site 2 substantially weakens the affinity of S100A2 for Ca2+. Analysis of the individual Ca2+-binding constants revealed that the Ca2+ affinity of one EF-hand is decreased about 3-fold, whereas the other EF-hand exhibits a 300-fold decrease in affinity. These findings imply that S100A2 is regulated by both Zn2+ and Ca2+, and suggest that Zn2+ might deactivate S100A2 by inhibiting response to intracellular Ca2+ signals.
In this study, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of S100A2 and S100A4 in adenocarcinomas of the stomach and esophagus. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase reaction analysis on 72 tumors revealed frequent overexpression of S100A2 and S100A4 in Barrett's adenocarcinomas (BAs) (P < .01). Immunohistochemical analysis on tumor tissue microarrays that contained 187 tumors showed absent to weak staining for S100A2 in all normal gastric mucosa samples, whereas normal esophageal mucosa samples demonstrated moderate to strong nuclear staining. Contrary to the nuclear expression of S100A2 in normal esophageal mucosa, two thirds of Barrett's dysplasia and BAs that overexpressed S100A2 demonstrated stronger cytosolic staining than nuclear staining (P < .001). Overexpression of S100A2 protein was more frequently seen in well-differentiated tumors than in others (P = .02). Moderate to strong staining of S100A4 was detected in two thirds of tumors and was frequently observed in the presence of Barrett's esophagus (P = .02). Similar to S100A2, the expression of S100A4 was predominantly cytosolic in two thirds of the tumors (P = .001). There was a significant correlation between S100A4 overexpression and lymph node metastasis (N(2)-N(4)) (P = .027). These results demonstrate frequent cytosolic overexpression of S100A2 and S100A4 in BAs. Further studies are ongoing to understand the biological significance of these S100A proteins in Barrett's tumorigenesis.
The chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates the pro-inflammatory effects of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) generated in allergic inflammation. The CRTH2 receptor shares greatest sequence similarity with chemoattractant receptors compared with prostanoid receptors. To investigate the structural determinants of CRTH2 ligand binding, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of putative mCRTH2 ligand-binding residues, and we evaluated mutant receptor ligand binding and functional properties. Substitution of alanine at each of three residues in the transmembrane (TM) helical domains (His-106, TM III; Lys-209, TM V; and Glu-268, TM VI) and one in extracellular loop II (Arg-178) decreased PGD(2) binding affinity, suggesting that these residues play a role in binding PGD(2). In contrast, the H106A and E268A mutants bound indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, with an affinity similar to the wild-type receptor. HEK293 cells expressing the H106A, K209A, and E268A mutants displayed reduced inhibition of intracellular cAMP and chemotaxis in response to PGD(2), whereas the H106A and E268A mutants had functional responses to indomethacin similar to the wild-type receptor. Binding of PGE(2) by the E268A mutant was enhanced compared with the wild-type receptor, suggesting that Glu-268 plays a role in determining prostanoid ligand selectivity. Replacement of Tyr-261 with phenylalanine did not affect PGD(2) binding but decreased the binding affinity for indomethacin. These results provided the first details of the ligand binding pocket of an eicosanoid-binding chemoattractant receptor.
Experimental therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are focused on enhanced clearance of neurotoxic Abeta peptides from brain. Microglia can be neuroprotective by phagocytosing Abeta; however, this comes at the cost of activated innate immunity that causes paracrine damage to neurons. Here, we show that ablation of E prostanoid receptor subtype 2 (EP2) significantly increased microglial-mediated clearance of Abeta peptides from AD brain sections and enhanced microglial Abeta phagocytosis in cell culture. The enhanced phagocytosis was PKC-dependent and was associated with elevated microglial secretion of the chemoattractant chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1. This suggested that microglial activation is negatively regulated by EP2 signaling through suppression of prophagocytic cytokine secretion. However, despite this enhancement of Abeta phagocytosis, lack of EP2 completely suppressed Abeta-activated microglia-mediated paracrine neurotoxicity. These data demonstrate that blockade of microglial EP2 is a highly desirable mechanism for AD therapy that can maximize neuroprotective actions while minimizing bystander damage to neurons.
Cells that display chemokine receptors are capable of responding to a gradient of chemokine with a motility response that can translate into a chemotactic response. This continuous response to the chemokine sometimes requires that the chemokine receptor be internalized and recycled back to the membrane. We have shown that ligand activation of the CXC chemokine receptor, CXCR2, results in movement of the receptor into clathrin coated pits, followed by movement into the early endosome, the sorting endosome, then on to the recycling endosome prior to trafficking back into the plasma membrane compartment. Prolonged exposure to saturating concentrations of the ligand results in movement of a large percentage of the receptor into the late endosome and on to the lysosome for degradation. Mutation of the receptor in a manner which impairs receptor internalization by altering the binding of adaptor proteins AP-2 or beta arrestin to CXCR2, results in a marked reduction in the chemotactic response. Chemokine receptors also activate multiple intracellular signals that lead to the activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kappaB). Transformation is often associated with a constitutive activation of NF-kappaB, leading to endogenous expression of chemokines and their receptors. This creates an autocrine loop with NF-kappaB in the activated state, and altered cxpression of factors that promote tumour angiogenesis and escape from apoptosis. We have shown that the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in human melanoma tumours is accompanied by constitutive activation of the NF-kappaB inducing kinase (NIK) as well as the constitutive activation of AKT. As these factors that modulate the expression of anti-apoptotic factors work together, the tumour cells exhibit enhanced survival and growth. This never ending cycle of activation of NF-kappaB, leading to enhanced production of chemokines, enhanced activation of AKT and NF-kappaB, and enhanced transcription of inhibitors of apoptosis and chemokines, is one that has been used to foster the growth of the tumour to the disadvantage of the host. Thus we propose that blocking CXCR2 and/or NF-kappaB offers potential therapeutic promise for a number of chronic inflammatory conditions and cancers, including malignant melanoma.