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We report that IL-17 significantly increases the secretion of CXCL1 and CXCL5 from mammary carcinoma cells, which is downregulated by TGF-β through the type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII). Carcinoma cells with conditional knockout of TβRII (Tgfbr2(KO)) have enhanced sensitivity to IL-17a in the stimulation of chemokine secretion. During polyoma middle T (PyMT) induced tumor progression, levels of Th17 inducing cytokines TGF-β, IL-6, IL-23 were increased in PyMT/Tgfbr2(KO) tumors, which was associated with an increased number of Th17 cells. IL-17 increased the suppressive function of MDSCs on T cells through the upregulation of Arg, IDO, and COX2. Treatment of PyMT/Tgfbr2(KO) mice with anti-IL-17 Ab decreased carcinoma growth and metastatic burden. Analysis of human breast cancer transcriptome databases showed a strong association between IL-17 gene expression and poor outcome in lymph node positive, estrogen receptor negative or luminal B subtypes suggesting potential therapeutic approaches.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most lethal neoplasms, is characterized by an expanded stroma with marked fibrosis (desmoplasia). We previously generated pancreas epithelium-specific TGF-β receptor type II (Tgfbr2) knockout mice in the context of Kras activation (mice referred to herein as Kras+Tgfbr2KO mice) and found that they developed aggressive PDAC that recapitulated the histological manifestations of the human disease. The mouse PDAC tissue showed strong expression of connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), a profibrotic and tumor-promoting factor, especially in the tumor-stromal border area, suggesting an active tumor-stromal interaction. Here we show that the PDAC cells in Kras+Tgfbr2KO mice secreted much higher levels of several Cxc chemokines compared with mouse pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia cells, which are preinvasive. The Cxc chemokines induced Ctgf expression in the pancreatic stromal fibroblasts, not in the PDAC cells themselves. Subcutaneous grafting studies revealed that the fibroblasts enhanced growth of PDAC cell allografts, which was attenuated by Cxcr2 inhibition. Moreover, treating the Kras+Tgfbr2KO mice with the CXCR2 inhibitor reduced tumor progression. The decreased tumor progression correlated with reduced Ctgf expression and angiogenesis and increased overall survival. Taken together, our data indicate that tumor-stromal interactions via a Cxcr2-dependent chemokine and Ctgf axis can regulate PDAC progression. Further, our results suggest that inhibiting tumor-stromal interactions might be a promising therapeutic strategy for PDAC.
Although acute lung inflammation in response to local or systemic infection involves myeloid and nonmyeloid cells, the interplay between different cell types remains poorly defined. Since NF-kappaB is a key transcription factor for innate immunity, we investigated whether dysregulated NF-kappaB activation in myeloid cells impacts inflammatory signaling in nonmyeloid cells and generation of neutrophilic lung inflammation in response to systemic endotoxemia. We generated bone marrow chimeras by fetal liver transplantation of cells deficient in IkappaBalpha or p50 into lethally irradiated NF-kappaB reporter transgenic mice. No differences were apparent between bone marrow chimeras in the absence of an inflammatory stimulus; however, following intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IkappaBalpha- or p50-deficient bone marrow chimeras showed increased NF-kappaB activation in nonhematopoietic cells, exaggerated neutrophilic inflammation, and higher mortality compared with untransplanted reporter mice and wild-type bone marrow chimeras. Primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from IkappaBalpha(-/-) or p50(-/-) exhibited increased NF-kappaB activation and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 production after LPS treatment compared with wild-type cells, and coculture of BMDM with lung epithelial (A549) cells resulted in increased NF-kappaB activation in A549 cells and excess IL-8 production by these epithelial cells. These studies indicate an important role for inhibitory members of the NF-kappaB family acting specifically within myeloid cells to limit inflammatory responses in the lungs.
Wound healing requires a complex series of reactions and interactions among cells and their mediators, resulting in an overlapping series of events including coagulation, inflammation, epithelialization, formation of granulation tissue, matrix and scar formation. Cytokines and chemokines promote inflammation, angiogenesis, facilitate the passage of leukocytes from circulation into the tissue, and contribute to the regulation of epithelialization. They integrate inflammatory events and reparative processes that are important for modulating wound healing. Thus both cytokines and chemokines are important targets for therapeutic intervention. The chemokine-mediated regulation of angiogenesis is highly sophisticated, fine tuned, and involves pro-angiogenic chemokines, including CXCL1-3, 5-8 and their receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. CXCL1 and CXCR2 are expressed in normal human epidermis and are further induced during the wound healing process of human burn wounds, especially during the inflammatory, epithelialization and angiogenic processes. Human skin explant studies also show CXCR2 is expressed in wounded keratinocytes and Th/1/Th2 cytokine modulation of CXCR2 expression correlates with proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. Murine excision wound healing, chemical burn wounds and skin organ culture systems are valuable models for examining the role of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in wound healing.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia usually results from a deficit of the innate immune system. To investigate whether inflammatory signalling by airway epithelial cells provides a pivotal line of defence against P. aeruginosa infection, we utilized two separate lines of inducible transgenic mice that express a constitutive activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) pathway (IKTA) or a dominant inhibitor of NF-kappaB (DNTA) in airway epithelial cells. Compared with control mice, IKTA mice showed an enhanced host response to P. aeruginosa infection with greater neutrophil influx into the lungs, increased expression of Glu-Leu-Arg-positive (ELR(+)) CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), superior bacterial clearance and improved survival at 24 h after infection. Neutrophil depletion abrogated the improvement in host defence identified in IKTA mice. In contrast, DNTA mice showed impaired responses to P. aeruginosa infection with higher bacterial colony counts in the lungs, decreased neutrophilic lung inflammation and lower levels of KC in lung lavage fluid. DNTA mice given recombinant KC at the time of P. aeruginosa infection demonstrated improved neutrophil recruitment to the lungs and enhanced bacterial clearance. Our data indicate that the NF-kappaB pathway in airway epithelial cells plays an essential role in defence against P. aeruginosa through generation of CXC chemokines and recruitment of neutrophils.
Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) and their scavenger receptor (SR) binding partners play a central role in atherosclerosis and by analogy may play a role in chronic kidney disease pathogenesis. The present study was designed to investigate in C57BL/6 mice the effects of hypercholesterolemia on renal injury severity and oxLDL generation after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). The expression profiles of CD36, SR class AI/II (SR-A), lectin-like receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein-1 (Lox-1), and SR that binds phosphatidylserine and oxLDL (SR-PSOX/CXCL16) were examined. Four experimental groups were studied: sham and UUO male mice on either a high-fat Western diet or a control diet. Significantly more oxLDL accumulated in the tubulointerstitium of hypercholesterolemic mice compared with normocholesterolemic mice after 14 days of UUO (P < 0.01). Total kidney collagen was significantly higher in the obstructed kidneys of hypercholesterolemic mice compared with normocholesterolemic mice on day 14 (P < 0.01). After 14 days of obstruction, the number of interstitial F4/80+ macrophages and NF-kappaB activation increased in hypercholesterolemic mice compared with normocholesterolemic mice (P < 0.01). In normal kidneys, CD36, SR-A, Lox-1, and CXCL16 were primarily localized to renal tubular epithelia. After ureteral obstruction, CD36 increased at day 7; SR-A and Lox-1 progressively decreased in a time-dependent manner; and CXCL16 increased significantly with the onset of obstruction (P < 0.01). Strong tubular expression suggests that in addition to inflammatory interstitial cells, renal tubular scavenger receptors may help to orchestrate the inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways that are activated by oxLDL.
The present study explores the mechanisms by which human prostatic carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) induce tumorigenesis in initiated but nonmalignant human prostatic epithelial cells (BPH-1). CAF express elevated levels of both transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12). TGF-beta inhibits the growth of BPH-1 cells in vitro, but was found to be necessary for the tumorigenic response to CAF. This counterintuitive result suggested that the TGF-beta signaling system was involved in other processes relating to tumorigenesis. The SDF-1 receptor, CXCR4, is expressed at low levels in benign prostate tissue and in BPH-1 cells in culture. However, CXCR4 levels increase during prostate cancer progression. CXCR4 was found to be induced and localized to the cell membrane in BPH1 cells by CAF-conditioned medium and by CAF cells in tissue recombinants. TGF-beta was both necessary and sufficient to allow the detection of membrane-localized CXCR4 in BPH1 cells. Suppression of epithelial cell CXCR4 expression abrogated the tumorigenic response to CAF. SDF-1, secreted by CAF, acts via the TGF-beta-regulated CXCR4 to activate Akt in the epithelial cells. This mechanism elicits tumorigenesis and obviates the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-beta. Thus, tumor stroma can contribute to carcinogenesis through synergism between TGF-beta, SDF-1, and CXCR4. These experiments suggest mechanisms by which TGF-beta can shift its role from an inhibitor to a promoter of proliferation during tumor progression. Both the TGF-beta and SDF-1 pathways are targets of drug discovery efforts; these data suggest potential benefits in the cotargeting of these pathways.
Human cytomegaloviruses (HCMVs) are important pathogens in immunocompromised patients and newborns. The viral chemokine, vCXCL-1, of the Toledo (Tol) strain of HCMV has been implicated in HCMV virulence. Chimpanzee CMV (CCMV) has several genes with similarity to the vCXCL-1(Tol) gene, UL146. In order to test whether the CCMV viral chemokine, vCXCL-1(CCMV), is similar to vCXCL-1(Tol), we characterized its function in vitro. Receptor binding, activation, chemotaxis, signaling, and apoptosis in neutrophils were compared between vCXCL-1(Tol) and vCXCL-1(CCMV) and host chemokines. Although the homologues had similar activation potentials, chemotactic properties, and signaling, vCXCL-1(CCMV) had a approximately 70-fold lower affinity for CXCR2 and displayed differences in integrin upregulation and neutrophil apoptosis. These data demonstrate that in spite of extensive amino acid variability in vCXCL-1, CCMV may provide a model for assessing the role of vCXCL-1 in CMV pathogenesis in vivo.
It is readily apparent that the process of heart development is an intricate one, in which cells derived from many embryonic sources coalesce and coordinate their behaviors and development, resulting in the mature heart. The behaviors and mechanisms of this process are complex, and still incompletely understood. However, it is readily apparent that communication between diverse cell types must be involved in this process. The signaling that emanates from epicardial and endocardial sources is the focus of this review.
The continuous production of the CXC ligand 1 (CXCL1) chemokine by melanoma cells is a major effector of tumor growth. We have previously shown that the constitutive expression of this chemokine is dependent upon transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), stimulating protein-1 (SP1), high-mobility group-I/Y (HMGI/Y), CAAT displacement protein (CDP) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In this study, we demonstrate for the first time the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of CXCL1 through PARP-1 in melanoma cells. In its inactive state, PARP-1 binds to the CXCL1 promoter in a sequence-specific manner and prevents binding of NF-kappaB (p65/p50) to its element. However, activation of the PARP-1 enzymatic activity enhances CXCL1 expression, owing to the loss of PARP-1 binding to the CXCL1 promoter, accompanied by enhanced binding of p65 to the promoter. The delineation of the role of NF-kappaB-interacting factors in the putative CXCL1 enhanceosome will provide key information in developing strategies to block constitutive expression of this and other chemokines in cancer and to develop targeted therapy.