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Treatment with the TLR4 agonist MPLA augments innate resistance to common bacterial pathogens. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which MPLA augments innate immunocyte functions are not well characterized. This study examined the importance of MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling for leukocyte mobilization, recruitment, and activation following administration of MPLA. MPLA potently induced MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling. A single injection of MPLA caused rapid mobilization and recruitment of neutrophils, a response that was largely mediated by the chemokines CXCL1 and -2 and the hemopoietic factor G-CSF. Rapid neutrophil recruitment and chemokine production were regulated by both pathways although the MyD88-dependent pathway showed some predominance. In further studies, multiple injections of MPLA potently induced mobilization and recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes. Neutrophil recruitment after multiple injections of MPLA was reliant on MyD88-dependent signaling, but effective monocyte recruitment required activation of both pathways. MPLA treatment induced expansion of myeloid progenitors in bone marrow and upregulation of CD11b and shedding of L-selectin by neutrophils, all of which were attenuated in MyD88- and TRIF-deficient mice. These results show that MPLA-induced neutrophil and monocyte recruitment, expansion of bone marrow progenitors and augmentation of neutrophil adhesion molecule expression are regulated by both the MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways.
© Society for Leukocyte Biology.
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3, as a cofactor in co-repressor complexes containing silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT) and nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR), has been shown to repress gene transcription in a variety of contexts. Here, we reveal a novel role for HDAC3 as a positive regulator of IL-1-induced gene expression. Various experimental approaches involving RNAi-mediated knockdown, conditional gene deletion or small molecule inhibitors indicate a positive role of HDAC3 for transcription of the majority of IL-1-induced human or murine genes. This effect was independent from the gene regulatory effects mediated by the broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) and thus suggests IL-1-specific functions for HDAC3. The stimulatory function of HDAC3 for inflammatory gene expression involves a mechanism that uses binding to NF-κB p65 and its deacetylation at various lysines. NF-κB p65-deficient cells stably reconstituted to express acetylation mimicking forms of p65 (p65 K/Q) had largely lost their potential to stimulate IL-1-triggered gene expression, implying that the co-activating property of HDAC3 involves the removal of inhibitory NF-κB p65 acetylations at K122, 123, 314 and 315. These data describe a novel function for HDAC3 as a co-activator in inflammatory signaling pathways and help to explain the anti-inflammatory effects frequently observed for HDAC inhibitors in (pre)clinical use.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-β (Aβ). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1α significantly protected neurons from Aβ-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1α. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24h following the exposure. The Aβ-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F(2)-isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1α. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1α was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against Aβ neurotoxicity in CXCR2-/- mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
CXCL5, a member of the CXC family of chemokines, contributes to neutrophil recruitment during lung inflammation, but its regulation is poorly understood. Because the T cell-derived cytokine IL-17A enhances host defense by triggering production of chemokines, particularly in combination with TNF-α, we hypothesized that IL-17A would enhance TNF-α-induced expression of CXCL5. Intratracheal coadministration of IL-17A and TNF-α in mice induced production of CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL5, which was associated with increased neutrophil influx in the lung at 8 and 24 h. The synergistic effects of TNF-α and IL17A were greatly attenuated in Cxcl5(-/-) mice at 24 h, but not 8 h, after exposure, a time when CXCL5 expression was at its peak in wild-type mice. Bone marrow chimeras produced using Cxcl5(-/-) donors and recipients demonstrated that lung-resident cells were the source of CXCL5. Using differentiated alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells derived from human fetal lung, we found that IL-17A enhanced TNF-α-induced CXCL5 transcription and stabilized TNF-α-induced CXCL5 transcripts. Whereas expression of CXCL5 required activation of NF-κB, IL-17A did not increase TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation. Apical costimulation of IL-17A and TNF-α provoked apical secretion of CXCL5 by human ATII cells in a transwell system, whereas basolateral costimulation led to both apical and basolateral secretion of CXCL5. The observation that human ATII cells secrete CXCL5 in a polarized fashion may represent a mechanism to recruit neutrophils in host defense in a fashion that discriminates the site of initial injury.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia usually results from a deficit of the innate immune system. To investigate whether inflammatory signalling by airway epithelial cells provides a pivotal line of defence against P. aeruginosa infection, we utilized two separate lines of inducible transgenic mice that express a constitutive activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) pathway (IKTA) or a dominant inhibitor of NF-kappaB (DNTA) in airway epithelial cells. Compared with control mice, IKTA mice showed an enhanced host response to P. aeruginosa infection with greater neutrophil influx into the lungs, increased expression of Glu-Leu-Arg-positive (ELR(+)) CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), superior bacterial clearance and improved survival at 24 h after infection. Neutrophil depletion abrogated the improvement in host defence identified in IKTA mice. In contrast, DNTA mice showed impaired responses to P. aeruginosa infection with higher bacterial colony counts in the lungs, decreased neutrophilic lung inflammation and lower levels of KC in lung lavage fluid. DNTA mice given recombinant KC at the time of P. aeruginosa infection demonstrated improved neutrophil recruitment to the lungs and enhanced bacterial clearance. Our data indicate that the NF-kappaB pathway in airway epithelial cells plays an essential role in defence against P. aeruginosa through generation of CXC chemokines and recruitment of neutrophils.
We have demonstrated recently that the glycoinositolphospholipid (GIPL) molecule from the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is a TLR4 agonist with proinflammatory effects. Here, we show that GIPL-induced neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity is mediated by at least two pathways: one, where IL-1beta acts downstream of TNF-alpha, and a second, which is IL-1beta- and TNFRI-independent. Moreover, NKT cells participate in this proinflammatory cascade, as in GIPL-treated CD1d(-/-) mice, TNF-alpha and MIP-2 levels are reduced significantly. As a consequence of this inflammatory response, spleen and lymph nodes of GIPL-treated mice have an increase in the percentage of T and B cells expressing the CD69 activation marker. Cell-transfer experiments demonstrate that T and B cell activation by GIPL is an indirect effect, which relies on the expression of TLR4 by other cell types. Moreover, although signaling through TNFRI contributes to the activation of B and gammadelta+ T cells, it is not required for increasing CD69 expression on alphabeta+ T lymphocytes. It is interesting that T cells are also functionally affected by GIPL treatment, as spleen cells from GIPL-injected mice show enhanced production of IL-4 following in vitro stimulation by anti-CD3. Together, these results contribute to the understanding of the inflammatory properties of the GIPL molecule, pointing to its potential role as a parasite-derived modulator of the immune response during T. cruzi infection.
The present study was undertaken to determine whether the mice depleted of alphabeta or gammadelta T cells show resistance to acute polymicrobial sepsis caused by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). T-cell receptor beta knockout (betaTCRKO) and T-cell receptor delta knockout (deltaTCRKO) mice were used. An additional group of mice was treated with an antibody against the alphabeta T-cell receptor to induce alphabeta T-cell depletion; a subset of alphabeta T cell-deficient mice was also treated with anti-asialoGM1 to deplete natural killer (NK) cells. The mice underwent CLP and were monitored for survival, temperature, acid-base balance, bacterial counts, and cytokine production. The betaTCRKO mice and the wild-type mice treated with anti-beta T-cell receptor (anti-TCRbeta) antibody showed improved survival after CLP compared with wild-type mice. The treatment of alphabeta T cell-deficient mice with anti-asialoGM1further improved survival after CLP, especially when the mice were treated with imipenem. The improved survival observed in alphabeta T cell-deficient mice was associated with less hypothermia, improved acid-base balance, and decreased production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL) 6 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 2. Compared with wild-type controls, the overall survival was not improved in deltaTCRKO mice. The concentrations of IL-6 and MIP-2 in plasma and cytokine mRNA expression in tissues were not significantly different between wild-type and deltaTCRKO mice. These studies indicate that mice depleted of alphabeta but not of gammadelta T cells are resistant to mortality in an acutely lethal model of CLP. The depletion of NK cells caused further survival benefit in alphabeta T cell-deficient mice. These findings suggest that alphabeta T and NK cells mediate or facilitate CLP-induced inflammatory injury.
The Duffy blood group Ag (dfy) binds selective CXC and CC chemokines at high affinity and is expressed on erythrocytes and endothelial cells. However, it does not transmit a signal via G proteins, as occurs with other seven-transmembrane receptors. We hypothesized that dfy functions as a chemokine reservoir and regulates inflammation by altering soluble chemokine concentrations in the blood and tissue compartments. We determined whether Duffy Ag "loss-of-function" phenotypes (human and murine) are associated with alterations in plasma chemokine concentrations during the innate inflammatory response to LPS. Plasma CXCL8 and CCL2 concentrations from humans homozygous for the GATA-1 box polymorphism, a dfy polymorphism that abrogates erythrocyte chemokine binding, were higher than in heterozygotes following LPS stimulation of their whole blood in vitro. Similarly, dfy(-/-) mice showed higher plasma MIP-2 concentrations than dfy(+/+) mice following LPS stimulation of whole blood in vitro. We then determined the relative contributions of erythrocyte and endothelial Duffy Ag in modifying chemokine concentrations and neutrophil recruitment in the lungs following intratracheal LPS administration in dfy(-/-) and dfy(+/+) mice reconstituted with dfy(-/-) or dfy(+/+) marrow. Mice lacking endothelial dfy expression had higher MIP-2 and keratinocyte chemoattractant concentrations in the airspaces. Mice lacking erythrocyte dfy had higher MIP-2 and keratinocyte chemoattractant concentrations in the lung tissue vascular space, but lower plasma chemokine concentrations associated with attenuated neutrophil recruitment into the airspaces. These data indicate that dfy alters soluble chemokine concentrations in blood and local tissue compartments and enhances systemic bioavailability of chemokines produced during local tissue inflammation.
These studies evaluated the effects treatment with glucan phosphate, a soluble polysaccharide immunomodulator, on the inflammatory response induced by burn injury and on resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn wound infection. Mice were exposed to 35% total body surface area burns and were resuscitated with lactated Ringer's (LR) solution alone or LR supplemented with glucan phosphate (40 mg/kg). Glucan phosphate treatment attenuated burn-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs in spleen, lung, and heart. Plasma concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and IL-10 were also decreased in burned mice treated with glucan phosphate compared with vehicle-treated controls. Early postburn mortality was not significantly different between control (20%) and glucan phosphate-treated (10%) mice, but there was a small improvement in acid-base balance in the glucan phosphate-treated group. Mice received a second injection of glucan phosphate or LR on day 4 postburn and were infected by topical application of P. aeruginosa to the burn wound on day 5. Glucan phosphate treatment significantly improved survival in mice exposed to P. aeruginosa burn wound infection. The improved survival correlated with lower bacterial burden in the burn wound, attenuated production of proinflammatory cytokines, and enhanced production of Th1 cytokines. These studies show that glucan phosphate treatment attenuates burn-induced inflammation and increases resistance to P. aeruginosa burn wound infection in an experimental model of burn injury.
Pleural inflammation underlies many pleural diseases, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) is a novel seven-transmembrane receptor with immunoregulatory roles. We hypothesized that PAR(2) is present on mesothelial cells and can induce pleural inflammation. PAR(2) was detected by immunohistochemistry in all (19 parietal and 11 visceral) human pleural biopsies examined. In cultured murine mesothelial cells, a specific PAR(2)-activating peptide (SLIGRL-NH(2)) at 10, 100, and 1,000 muM stimulated a 3-, 42-, and 1,330-fold increase of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 release relative to medium control, respectively (P < 0.05 all) and a 2-, 32-, and 75-fold rise over the control peptide (LSIGRL-NH(2), P < 0.05 all). A similar pattern was seen for TNF-alpha release. Known physiological activators of PAR(2), tryptase, trypsin, and coagulation factor Xa, also stimulated dose-dependent MIP-2 release from mesothelial cells in vitro. Dexamethasone inhibited the PAR(2)-mediated MIP-2 release in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, pleural fluid MIP-2 levels in C57BL/6 mice injected intrapleurally with SLIGRL-NH(2) (10 mg/kg) were significantly higher than in mice injected with LSIGRL-NH(2) or PBS (2,710 +/- 165 vs. 880 +/- 357 vs. 88 +/- 46 pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). Pleural fluid neutrophil counts were higher in SLIGRL-NH(2) group than in the LSIGRL-NH(2) and PBS groups (by 40- and 26-fold, respectively; P < 0.05). This study establishes that activation of mesothelial cell PAR(2) potently induces the release of inflammatory cytokines in vitro and neutrophil recruitment into the pleural cavity in vivo.