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STUDY DESIGN - Previous works suggested that neutralizing intratumoral lactic acidosis combined with glucose deprivation may deliver an effective approach to control tumor. We did a pilot clinical investigation, including a nonrandomized (57 patients with large HCC) and a randomized controlled (20 patients with large HCC) studies.
METHODS - The patients were treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with or without bicarbonate local infusion into tumor.
RESULTS - In the nonrandomized controlled study, geometric mean of viable tumor residues (VTR) in TACE with bicarbonate was 6.4-fold lower than that in TACE without bicarbonate (7.1% [95% CI: 4.6%-10.9%] vs 45.6% [28.9%-72.0%]; p<0.0001). This difference was recapitulated by a subsequent randomized controlled study. TACE combined with bicarbonate yielded a 100% objective response rate (ORR), whereas the ORR treated with TACE alone was 44.4% (nonrandomized) and 63.6% (randomized). The survival data suggested that bicarbonate may bring survival benefit.
CONCLUSION - Bicarbonate markedly enhances the anticancer activity of TACE.Clinical trail registration: ChiCTR-IOR-14005319.
OBJECTIVES - To evaluate the accuracy and change over time of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging for assessing residual blood flow after transarterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma with drug-eluting beads at 2 different follow-up intervals.
METHODS - Data from 16 tumors treated by transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads were successfully obtained. As part of the study, patients provided consent to undergo contrast-enhanced US examinations the morning before embolization, 1 to 2 weeks after embolization, and the morning before follow-up contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) (1 month after embolization). Blinded review of contrast-enhanced US and MRI/CT studies were performed by 2 radiologists who evaluated residual flow as no change, partial change, or no residual flow. Inter- and intra-reader variability rates were calculated before discordant individual reads were settled by consensus.
RESULTS - The only adverse event reported during the contrast-enhanced US examinations was a single episode of transient back pain. Contrast-enhanced US at 1 to 2 weeks after embolization (n = 14) resulted in 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy. Contrast-enhanced US 1 month after embolization (n = 15) resulted in 75% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 92% negative predictive value, and 93% accuracy. Inter-reader agreement was 86% for contrast-enhanced US at 1 to 2 weeks, 93% for contrast-enhanced US at 1 month, and 100% for contrast-enhanced MRI/CT at 1 month, whereas intra-reader agreement was 71% for contrast-enhanced US at 1 to 2 weeks, 87% for contrast-enhanced US at 1 month, and 91% for MRI/CT.
CONCLUSIONS - Contrast-enhanced US imaging at 1 to 2 weeks after the procedure may be a viable alternative to MRI/CT for evaluating residual blood flow after transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads, albeit with a higher degree of reader variability.
© 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES - The end point of chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma is qualitative. We intended to determine the feasibility of measuring intra-arterial pressure changes after chemoembolization and hypothesized that pressures would increase in the distal hepatic artery after the procedure.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Before and after chemoembolization, systemic (S) systolic and mean pressures were measured along with celiac (C), lobar (L), and distal (D) hepatic artery pressures with a pressure wire. Corrected pressures were defined as a ratio with S as the denominator to account for intraprocedural S changes. Changes in the systolic and mean corrected pressures at each location (C/S, L/S, and D/S) were evaluated using paired t tests. Pressure changes in patients with and without tumor response using the Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors were also compared.
RESULTS - Sixteen tumors were treated in 15 patients. One patient had bilobar tumors with separate supplying arteries. The only significant pressure change was systolic D/S (P = .02), while mean D/S approached significance (P = .08). C/S and L/S did not change significantly after chemoembolization. Eleven of 16 patients had a complete response, whereas the other five had a partial response after chemoembolization. When comparing complete to partial responders, no changes in systolic or mean C/S, L/S, or D/S reached statistical significance (all P > .05).
CONCLUSIONS - Measuring change in hepatic artery pressures is feasible. Distal intra-arterial corrected pressures increase significantly after chemoembolization. Further study to determine the ability to predict tumor necrosis at follow-up imaging is warranted.
Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - Transarterial chemoembolization regimens for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary, without a gold-standard method. The present study was performed to evaluate outcomes in patients with HCC treated with doxorubicin/ethiodized oil (DE), cisplatin/doxorubicin/mitomycin-c/ethiodized oil (CDM), or doxorubicin drug-eluting beads (DEBs).
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Patients received the same regimen at all visits, without crossover. Groups were compared based on Child-Pugh disease status, tumor/node/metastasis stage, and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage. Imaging outcomes were assessed based on modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors to calculate tumor response (ie, sum of complete and partial response), progressive disease (PD), and time to progression (TTP).
RESULTS - A total of 228 infusions were performed in 122 patients: 59 with DE, 30 with CDM, and 33 with DEBs. The groups had similar Child-Pugh status (P = .45), tumor/node/metastasis stages (P = .5), and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer scores (P = .22). Follow-up duration was similar among groups (P = .24). Patients treated with DE underwent significantly more treatments (2.3 ± 1.4) than those treated with CDM (1.6 ± 0.7; P = .004) or DEBs (1.4 ± 0.6; P<.0001). Compared with DE (51%), tumor response was significantly more common with CDM (84%; P = .003) or DEBs (82%; P = .004). PD was significantly more likely with DE (37%) than with CDM (13%; P = .02) or DEBs (9%; P = .004). TTP was similar between groups (P = .07). CDM and DEBs were similar in regard to disease progression (P = .6) and response (P = .83).
CONCLUSIONS - During a similar follow-up period, patients treated with CDM or DEB chemoembolization showed a significantly higher response rate and a lower incidence of tumor progression, with fewer required treatment sessions, than those treated with DE chemoembolization.
Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - Abscess formation is a common serious adverse event after intraarterial therapy for hepatic malignancy in patients with colonized bile ducts. The combination of antibiotic prophylaxis and bowel preparation has been used to prevent hepatic abscess. We describe our outcomes with moxifloxacin prophylaxis alone without bowel preparation.
CONCLUSION - Ten patients underwent 25 procedures and were followed for a median of 250 days. No abscesses developed. Our results suggest moxifloxacin alone may suffice for prophylaxis.
While hepatic arterial chemoembolization is efficacious for a number of malignancies, there is scant data regarding treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We report a complete radiographic response at one year from diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic carcinoma. Gemcitabine/cisplatin based chemoembolization may be of potential benefit for patients with liver-dominant metastases from pancreatic carcinoma. Given the typical survival of 6 months or less in this patient group with standard therapies, further research is warranted.
OBJECTIVE - To identify clinical features associated with survival after hepatic arterial chemoembolization (HACE) for uveal melanoma metastasis.
METHODS - Retrospective case series including 11 men and 10 women with uveal melanoma metastasis.
RESULTS - The hepatic angiographic pattern of metastasis was infiltrative in 12 patients (57%) and nodular in 9 patients (43%). The infiltrative pattern was associated with ciliary body involvement by the primary tumor (Fisher exact test, P = .01) and extrascleral tumor extension (Fisher exact test, P = .01). Mean survival after the first HACE treatment was 7.6 months overall, 3.7 months for the patients with the infiltrative pattern, and 12.7 months for those with the nodular pattern. This difference was highly significant (Kaplan-Meier, P < .001). Chromosome 8p was found to be deleted in 4 patients with the infiltrative pattern and in no patients with the nodular pattern.
CONCLUSIONS - The hepatic metastasis pattern can be used to predict response to and survival after HACE. Loss of chromosome 8p may be a biomarker for the infiltrative metastasis pattern. Hepatic arterial chemoembolization may play an important role in the treatment of hepatic metastasis from uveal melanoma in patients with the nodular metastatic pattern. Regular screening for hepatic metastasis in patients with uveal melanoma may be beneficial in identifying those who would benefit from HACE.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and its incidence is increasing in the United States and elsewhere. The prognosis of HCC patients depends not only on tumour stage but also on the background liver function reservoir. Current options for the treatment of HCC are surgical resection, liver transplantation, transcatheter arterial embolization, chemotherapy, and percutaneous ablation therapy. The choice of optimal treatment for individual patients, especially those at an earlier cancer stage, is sometimes controversial. Short-term prognosis of HCC patients has been much improved recently due to advances in early diagnosis and treatment, although long-term prognosis is as yet far from satisfactory as indicated by the overall survival at 10 years after apparently curative treatment of only 22-35%. Prevention of HCC recurrence, or tertiary prevention, is one of the most challenging tasks in current hepatology.
PURPOSE - To evaluate outcomes of downstaging patients with advanced (American liver tumor study group stage III/IV) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) to allow eligibility for orthotopic liver transplant (OLT).
METHODS - From 1999 to 2006, 202 patients with HCC were referred for transplant evaluation. Seventy-six (37.6%) patients with stage III/IV HCC were potential transplant candidates if downstaging was achieved by TACE. OLT was considered based on follow-up imaging findings. The number of patients who were successfully downstaged within the Milan criteria, tumor response using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria, findings at explant, and outcomes after transplant were tracked.
RESULTS - Eighteen of 76 (23.7%) patients had adequate downstaging to qualify for OLT under the Milan criteria. By Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, 27/76 (35.5%) patients had a partial response, 22/76 (29%) had stable disease, and 27/76 (35.5%) had progressive disease. Seventeen of 76 (22.4%) patients who met other qualifications underwent OLT after successful downstaging (13/38 stage III;4/38 stage IV). Explant review demonstrated 28 identifiable tumors in which post-TACE necrosis was greater than 90% in 21 (75%). At a median of 19.6 months (range 3.6-104.7), 16/17 (94.1%) patients who underwent OLT are alive. One patient expired 11 months after OLT secondary to medical comorbidities. One of 17 (6%) OLT patients had recurrent HCC. This patient underwent resection of a pulmonary metastasis and is alive, 63.6 months from OLT.
CONCLUSION - Selected patients with stage III/IV HCC can be downstaged to Milan criteria with TACE. Importantly, patients who are successfully downstaged and transplanted have excellent midterm disease-free and overall survival, similar to stage II HCC.