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BACKGROUND - Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 antibodies may be an early marker of the diagnosis and recurrence of human papillomavirus-driven oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OPC).
METHODS - This study identified 161 incident oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) cases diagnosed at the University of Pittsburgh (2003-2013) with pretreatment serum. One hundred twelve had preexisting clinical HPV testing with p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridization (87 were dual-positive [HPV-OPC], and 25 were dual-negative [HPV-negative]); 62 had at least 1 posttreatment serum sample. Eighty-six of the 161 tumors were available for additional HPV16 DNA/RNA testing (45 were dual-positive [HPV16-OPC], and 19 were dual-negative [HPV16-negative). HPV16 E6 antibody testing was conducted with multiplex serology. The following were evaluated: 1) the sensitivity and specificity of HPV16 E6 serology for distinguishing HPV-OPC and HPV16-OPC from HPV-negative OPC, 2) HPV16 E6 antibody decay after treatment with linear models accommodating correlations in variance estimates, and 3) pre- and posttreatment HPV16 E6 levels and the risk of recurrence with Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS - Seventy-eight of 87 HPV-OPCs were HPV16 E6-seropositive (sensitivity, 89.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 81.3%-95.2%), and 24 of 25 HPV-negative OPCs were HPV16 E6-seronegative (specificity, 96.0%; 95% CI, 79.6%-99.9%). Forty-two of 45 HPV16-OPCs were HPV16 E6-seropositive (sensitivity, 93.3%; 95% CI, 81.7%-98.6%), and 18 of 19 HPV16-negative OPCs were HPV16 E6-seronegative (specificity, 94.7%; 95% CI, 74.0%-99.9%). Posttreatment HPV16 E6 antibody levels did not decrease significantly from the baseline (P = .575; median follow-up, 307 days) and were not associated with the risk of recurrence. However, pretreatment HPV16 E6 seropositivity was associated with an 86% reduced risk of local/regional recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.03-0.68; P = .015).
CONCLUSIONS - HPV16 E6 antibodies may have potential clinical utility for the diagnosis and/or prognosis of HPV-OPC. Cancer 2017;123:4382-90. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
© 2017 American Cancer Society.
The integrity and propagation of the genome depend upon the fidelity of DNA processing events, such as replication, damage recognition, and repair. Requisite to the numerous biochemical tasks required for DNA processing is the generation and manipulation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). As the primary eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein, Replication Protein A (RPA) protects ssDNA templates from stray nuclease cleavage and untimely reannealment. More importantly, RPA also serves as a platform for organizing access to ssDNA for readout of the genetic code, recognition of aberrations in DNA, and processing by enzymes. We have proposed that RPA's ability to adapt to such a broad spectrum of multiprotein machinery arises in part from its modular organization and interdomain flexibility. While requisite for function, RPA's modular flexibility has presented many challenges to providing a detailed characterization of the dynamic architecture of the full-length protein. To enable the study of RPA's interdomain dynamics and responses to ssDNA binding by biophysical methods including NMR spectroscopy, we have successfully produced recombinant full-length RPA in milligram quantities at natural abundance and enriched with NMR-active isotopes.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY - Recent publications have reported an association between colon cancer and human papillomaviruses (HPV), suggesting that HPV infection of the colonic mucosa may contribute to the development of colorectal cancer.
METHODS - The GP5+/GP6+ PCR reverse line blot method was used for detection of 37 types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in DNA from paraffin-embedded or frozen tissues from patients with colorectal cancer (n = 279) and normal adjacent tissue (n = 30) in three different study populations, including samples from the United States (n = 73), Israel (n = 106) and Spain (n = 100). Additionally, SPF10 PCR was run on all samples (n = 279) and the Innogenetics INNO-LiPA assay was performed on a subset of samples (n = 15).
RESULTS - All samples were negative for all types of HPV using both the GP5+/GP6+ PCR reverse line blot method and the SPF10 INNO-LiPA method.
CONCLUSIONS - We conclude that HPV types associated with malignant transformation do not meaningfully contribute to adenocarcinoma of the colon.
The study of DNA tumor viruses has been invaluable in uncovering the cellular nodes and pathways that contribute to oncogenesis. Perhaps one of the best-studied oncoproteins encoded by a DNA tumor virus is adenovirus E1A, which modifies the function of key regulatory proteins such as retinoblastoma (Rb) and the chromatin remodeling protein p400. Although the interaction of E1A with Rb has long been known to target regulation of the E2F transcription factors, the downstream target of the E1A-p400 interaction has remained elusive. We have recently reported that a critical downstream link of the E1A-p400 nexus is the oncoprotein transcription factor c-Myc. Through its interaction with p400, E1A stabilizes Myc and promotes formation of Myc-p400 complexes on chromatin, leading to activation of Myc target genes. These findings point to an important role for p400 in Myc function and reveal that E1A drives oncogenesis by tapping into two important transcriptional networks: those of E2F and Myc.
Lipid species changes for SV40-transformed fibroblasts from wild-type or from diacylglycerol kinase-epsilon (DGKepsilon) or diacylglycerol kinase-alpha (DGKalpha) knockout mice were determined for glycerophospholipids, polyphosphatidylinositides (GPInsP n ) and diacylglycerol (DAG) using direct infusion mass spectrometry. Dramatic differences in arachidonate (20:4 fatty acid)-containing lipids were observed for multiple classes of glycerophospholipids and polyphosphatidylinositides between wild-type and DGKepsilon knockout cells. However, no difference was observed in either the amount or the acyl chain composition of DAG between DGKepsilon knockout and wild-type cells, suggesting that DGKepsilon catalyzed the phosphorylation of a minor fraction of the DAG in these cells. The differences in arachidonate content between the two cell lines were greatest for the GPInsP n lipids and lowest for DAG. These findings indicate that DGKepsilon plays a significant role in determining the enrichment of GPInsP n with 20:4 and that there is a pathway for the selective translocation of arachidonoyl phosphatidic acid from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast, no substantial difference was observed in the acyl chain composition of any class of glycerophospholipid or diacylglycerol between lipid extracts from fibroblasts from wild-type mice or from DGKalpha knockout mice. However, the cells from the DGKalpha knockout mice had a higher concentration of DAG, consistent with the lack of downregulation of the major fraction of DAG by DGKalpha, in contrast with DGKepsilon that is primarily responsible for enrichment of GPInsP n with arachidonoyl acyl chains.
We sought to develop and optimize a hybridoma-based technology for generating human hybridomas that secrete virus-specific monoclonal antibodies for clinical diagnosis and therapy. We developed a novel electrofusion protocol for efficiently fusing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B cells with myeloma partners. We tested seven myeloma cell lines and achieved highest efficiency when the HMMA 2.5 line was used. We optimized the electrofusion process by improving cell treatments before and after electrofusion as well as varying cell ratios, fusion medium and other experimental parameters. Our fusion efficiency increased remarkably to 0.43%, a significant improvement over the efficiency of previous PEG-based or other electrofusion methods. Using the optimized protocol, we obtained human hybridomas that secrete fully human monoclonal antibodies against two major human respiratory pathogens: respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and an influenza H3N2 vaccine virus strain. In conclusion, we have developed an efficient and routine approach for the generation of human hybridomas secreting functional human virus-specific monoclonal antibodies.
Adenovirus E1A drives oncogenesis by targeting key regulatory pathways that are critical for cellular growth control. The interaction of E1A with p400 is essential for many E1A activities, but the downstream target of this interaction is unknown. Here, we present evidence that the oncoprotein transcription factor Myc is the target of this interaction. We show that E1A stabilizes Myc protein via p400 and promotes the coassociation of Myc and p400 at Myc target genes, leading to their transcriptional induction. We also show that E1A requires Myc for its ability to activate Myc-dependent gene expression and induce apoptosis, and that forced expression of Myc is sufficient to rescue the activity of an E1A-mutant defective in p400 binding. Together, these findings establish that Myc, via p400, is an essential downstream target of E1A.
A T-cell subset, defined as CD4(+)CD25(hi) (regulatory T-cells [Treg cells]), was recently shown to suppress T-cell activation. We demonstrate that human Treg cells isolated from healthy donors express the HIV-coreceptor CCR5 and are highly susceptible to HIV infection and replication. Because Treg cells are present in very few numbers and are difficult to expand in vitro, we genetically modified conventional human T-cells to generate Treg cells in vitro by ectopic expression of FoxP3, a transcription factor associated with reprogramming T-cells into a Treg subset. Overexpression of FoxP3 in naïve human CD4(+) T-cells recapitulated the hyporesponsiveness and suppressive function of naturally occurring Treg cells. However, FoxP3 was less efficient in reprogramming memory T-cell subset into regulatory cells. In addition, FoxP3-transduced T-cells also became more susceptible to HIV infection. Remarkably, a portion of HIV-positive individuals with a low percentage of CD4(+) and higher levels of activated T-cells have greatly reduced levels of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(hi) T-cells, suggesting disruption of the Treg cells during HIV infection. Targeting and disruption of the T-cell regulatory system by HIV may contribute to hyperactivation of conventional T-cells, a characteristic of HIV disease progression. Moreover, the ability to reprogram human T-cells into Treg cells in vitro will greatly aid in decoding their mechanism of suppression, their enhanced susceptibility to HIV infection, and the unique markers expressed by this subset.
The SV40 large T-antigen has been widely used to convert various cell types to a transformed phenotype, and also to induce progressive tumours in transgenic animals. The objectives of this review are to compare and discuss three different approaches to generate epididymal epithelial cell lines using the large T-antigen. In the first approach, retroviral transfection of primary cultures was used to immortalize canine epididymal cells in vitro; the other two approaches used transgenic mice expressing the large T-antigen. In one of these in vivo approaches, a construct consisting of the coding sequence of a temperature sensitive (ts) SV40 large T-antigen was inserted in a mouse genome. When the cells are exposed to the permissive temperature of 33 degrees C, functional expression of the large T-antigen occurs and cells start to proliferate. In the second in vivo approach a tissue-specific promoter, the 5kb GPX5 promoter, was used to direct expression of the large T-antigen to the epididymal duct epithelium.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), whereas the closely related virus HTLV-2 has not been associated with such malignant conditions. HTLV-1 Tax1 oncoprotein transforms a rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-1) much more efficiently than does HTLV-2 Tax2. By using a differential display analysis, we isolated MAGI-3 as a Tax1-inducible gene in Rat-1 cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed that Tax1 induced MAGI-3 in Rat-1 cells. MAGI-3 has multiple PDZ domains and interacted with Tax1 but not Tax2 in 293T cells. The interaction of Tax1 with MAGI-3 was dependent on a PDZ domain-binding motif, which is missing in Tax2. The interaction of Tax1 with MAGI-3 altered their respective subcellular localization, and moreover, the interaction correlated well with the high transforming activities of Tax1 in Rat-1 cells relative to Tax2. MAGI-3 mRNA and the allied MAGI-1, but not MAGI-2, were expressed in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. Our results suggest that the interaction of Tax1 and MAGI-3 alters their respective biological activities, which may play a role in transformation by Tax1 as well as in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated diseases.