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Discovery and Structure-Based Optimization of Potent and Selective WD Repeat Domain 5 (WDR5) Inhibitors Containing a Dihydroisoquinolinone Bicyclic Core.
Tian J, Teuscher KB, Aho ER, Alvarado JR, Mills JJ, Meyers KM, Gogliotti RD, Han C, Macdonald JD, Sai J, Shaw JG, Sensintaffar JL, Zhao B, Rietz TA, Thomas LR, Payne WG, Moore WJ, Stott GM, Kondo J, Inoue M, Coffey RJ, Tansey WP, Stauffer SR, Lee T, Fesik SW
(2020) J Med Chem 63: 656-675
MeSH Terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic, Cell Cycle, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation, Chromatin, Crystallography, X-Ray, Drug Design, Drug Discovery, Epigenetic Repression, Genes, myc, Humans, Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Quinolones, Structure-Activity Relationship, WD40 Repeats
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
WD repeat domain 5 (WDR5) is a member of the WD40-repeat protein family that plays a critical role in multiple chromatin-centric processes. Overexpression of WDR5 correlates with a poor clinical outcome in many human cancers, and WDR5 itself has emerged as an attractive target for therapy. Most drug-discovery efforts center on the WIN site of WDR5 that is responsible for the recruitment of WDR5 to chromatin. Here, we describe discovery of a novel WDR5 WIN site antagonists containing a dihydroisoquinolinone bicyclic core using a structure-based design. These compounds exhibit picomolar binding affinity and selective concentration-dependent antiproliferative activities in sensitive MLL-fusion cell lines. Furthermore, these WDR5 WIN site binders inhibit proliferation in MYC-driven cancer cells and reduce MYC recruitment to chromatin at MYC/WDR5 co-bound genes. Thus, these molecules are useful probes to study the implication of WDR5 inhibition in cancers and serve as a potential starting point toward the discovery of anti-WDR5 therapeutics.
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16 MeSH Terms
The intrinsically disordered region of the cytokinetic F-BAR protein Cdc15 performs a unique essential function in maintenance of cytokinetic ring integrity.
Mangione MC, Snider CE, Gould KL
(2019) Mol Biol Cell 30: 2790-2801
MeSH Terms: Cell Cycle Proteins, Cell Division, Cytokinesis, Cytoskeletal Proteins, GTP-Binding Proteins, Protein Domains, Schizosaccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins, src Homology Domains
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Successful separation of two daughter cells (i.e., cytokinesis) is essential for life. Many eukaryotic cells divide using a contractile apparatus called the cytokinetic ring (CR) that associates dynamically with the plasma membrane (PM) and generates force that contributes to PM ingression between daughter cells. In important membrane-CR scaffolds include the paralogous F-BAR proteins Cdc15 and Imp2. Their conserved protein structure consists of the archetypal F-BAR domain linked to an SH3 domain by an intrinsically disordered region (IDR). Functions have been assigned to the F-BAR and SH3 domains. In this study we probed the function of the central IDR. We found that the IDR of Cdc15 is essential for viability and cannot be replaced by that of Imp2, whereas the F-BAR domain of Cdc15 can be swapped with several different F-BAR domains, including that of Imp2. Deleting part of the IDR results in CR defects and abolishes calcineurin phosphatase localization to the CR. Together these results indicate that Cdc15's IDR has a nonredundant essential function that coordinates regulation of CR architecture.
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9 MeSH Terms
MDM2 antagonists overcome intrinsic resistance to CDK4/6 inhibition by inducing p21.
Vilgelm AE, Saleh N, Shattuck-Brandt R, Riemenschneider K, Slesur L, Chen SC, Johnson CA, Yang J, Blevins A, Yan C, Johnson DB, Al-Rohil RN, Halilovic E, Kauffmann RM, Kelley M, Ayers GD, Richmond A
(2019) Sci Transl Med 11:
MeSH Terms: Analysis of Variance, Animals, Blotting, Western, Cell Cycle, Cell Survival, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21, DNA Replication, Dimethyl Sulfoxide, Humans, Immunoprecipitation, MCF-7 Cells, Melanoma, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Nude, Proteomics, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2, Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay
Show Abstract · Added September 27, 2019
Intrinsic resistance of unknown mechanism impedes the clinical utility of inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6i) in malignancies other than breast cancer. Here, we used melanoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) to study the mechanisms for CDK4/6i resistance in preclinical settings. We observed that melanoma PDXs resistant to CDK4/6i frequently displayed activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway, and inhibition of this pathway improved CDK4/6i response in a p21-dependent manner. We showed that a target of p21, CDK2, was necessary for proliferation in CDK4/6i-treated cells. Upon treatment with CDK4/6i, melanoma cells up-regulated cyclin D1, which sequestered p21 and another CDK inhibitor, p27, leaving a shortage of p21 and p27 available to bind and inhibit CDK2. Therefore, we tested whether induction of p21 in resistant melanoma cells would render them responsive to CDK4/6i. Because p21 is transcriptionally driven by p53, we coadministered CDK4/6i with a murine double minute (MDM2) antagonist to stabilize p53, allowing p21 accumulation. This resulted in improved antitumor activity in PDXs and in murine melanoma. Furthermore, coadministration of CDK4/6 and MDM2 antagonists with standard of care therapy caused tumor regression. Notably, the molecular features associated with response to CDK4/6 and MDM2 inhibitors in PDXs were recapitulated by an ex vivo organotypic slice culture assay, which could potentially be adopted in the clinic for patient stratification. Our findings provide a rationale for cotargeting CDK4/6 and MDM2 in melanoma.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
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21 MeSH Terms
Extensive loss of cell-cycle and DNA repair genes in an ancient lineage of bipolar budding yeasts.
Steenwyk JL, Opulente DA, Kominek J, Shen XX, Zhou X, Labella AL, Bradley NP, Eichman BF, Čadež N, Libkind D, DeVirgilio J, Hulfachor AB, Kurtzman CP, Hittinger CT, Rokas A
(2019) PLoS Biol 17: e3000255
MeSH Terms: Base Sequence, Cell Cycle, DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Evolution, Molecular, Genes, Fungal, Phenotype, Phylogeny, Saccharomycetales
Show Abstract · Added August 26, 2019
Cell-cycle checkpoints and DNA repair processes protect organisms from potentially lethal mutational damage. Compared to other budding yeasts in the subphylum Saccharomycotina, we noticed that a lineage in the genus Hanseniaspora exhibited very high evolutionary rates, low Guanine-Cytosine (GC) content, small genome sizes, and lower gene numbers. To better understand Hanseniaspora evolution, we analyzed 25 genomes, including 11 newly sequenced, representing 18/21 known species in the genus. Our phylogenomic analyses identify two Hanseniaspora lineages, a faster-evolving lineage (FEL), which began diversifying approximately 87 million years ago (mya), and a slower-evolving lineage (SEL), which began diversifying approximately 54 mya. Remarkably, both lineages lost genes associated with the cell cycle and genome integrity, but these losses were greater in the FEL. E.g., all species lost the cell-cycle regulator WHIskey 5 (WHI5), and the FEL lost components of the spindle checkpoint pathway (e.g., Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 1 [MAD1], Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 2 [MAD2]) and DNA-damage-checkpoint pathway (e.g., Mitosis Entry Checkpoint 3 [MEC3], RADiation sensitive 9 [RAD9]). Similarly, both lineages lost genes involved in DNA repair pathways, including the DNA glycosylase gene 3-MethylAdenine DNA Glycosylase 1 (MAG1), which is part of the base-excision repair pathway, and the DNA photolyase gene PHotoreactivation Repair deficient 1 (PHR1), which is involved in pyrimidine dimer repair. Strikingly, the FEL lost 33 additional genes, including polymerases (i.e., POLymerase 4 [POL4] and POL32) and telomere-associated genes (e.g., Repressor/activator site binding protein-Interacting Factor 1 [RIF1], Replication Factor A 3 [RFA3], Cell Division Cycle 13 [CDC13], Pbp1p Binding Protein [PBP2]). Echoing these losses, molecular evolutionary analyses reveal that, compared to the SEL, the FEL stem lineage underwent a burst of accelerated evolution, which resulted in greater mutational loads, homopolymer instabilities, and higher fractions of mutations associated with the common endogenously damaged base, 8-oxoguanine. We conclude that Hanseniaspora is an ancient lineage that has diversified and thrived, despite lacking many otherwise highly conserved cell-cycle and genome integrity genes and pathways, and may represent a novel, to our knowledge, system for studying cellular life without them.
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9 MeSH Terms
Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of naked cuticle homolog 2 stimulates cell-surface delivery of transforming growth factor-α for epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation.
Cao Z, Singh B, Li C, Markham NO, Carrington LJ, Franklin JL, Graves-Deal R, Kennedy EJ, Goldenring JR, Coffey RJ
(2019) Traffic 20: 357-368
MeSH Terms: A Kinase Anchor Proteins, Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing, Animals, Caco-2 Cells, Calcium-Binding Proteins, Cell Cycle Proteins, Cell Membrane, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, Dinoprostone, Dogs, ErbB Receptors, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells, Protein Transport, Signal Transduction, Transforming Growth Factor alpha, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
The classic mode of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated transactivation of the receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation occurs via matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-mediated cleavage of plasma membrane-anchored EGFR ligands. Herein, we show that the Gαs-activating GPCR ligands vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and prostaglandin E (PGE ) transactivate EGFR through increased cell-surface delivery of the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) in polarizing madin-darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 cells. This is achieved by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2), previously shown to bind TGFα and direct delivery of TGFα-containing vesicles to the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells. VIP and PGE rapidly activate protein kinase A (PKA) that then phosphorylates NKD2 at Ser-223, a process that is facilitated by the molecular scaffold A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12). This phosphorylation stabilized NKD2, ensuring efficient cell-surface delivery of TGFα and increased EGFR activation. Thus, GPCR-triggered, PKA/AKAP12/NKD2-regulated targeting of TGFα to the cell surface represents a new mode of EGFR transactivation that occurs proximal to ligand cleavage by MMPs.
© 2019 The Authors. Traffic published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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18 MeSH Terms
NDR Kinase Sid2 Drives Anillin-like Mid1 from the Membrane to Promote Cytokinesis and Medial Division Site Placement.
Willet AH, DeWitt AK, Beckley JR, Clifford DM, Gould KL
(2019) Curr Biol 29: 1055-1063.e2
MeSH Terms: Actin Cytoskeleton, Cell Cycle Checkpoints, Cytokinesis, Mitosis, Phosphorylation, Protein Kinases, Schizosaccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
In animals and fungi, cytokinesis is facilitated by the constriction of an actomyosin contractile ring (CR) [1]. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the CR forms mid-cell during mitosis from clusters of proteins at the medial cell cortex called nodes [2]. The anillin-like protein Mid1 localizes to nodes and is required for CR assembly at mid-cell [3]. When CR constriction begins, Mid1 leaves the division site. How Mid1 disassociates and whether this step is important for cytokinetic progression has been unknown. The septation initiation network (SIN), analogous to the Hippo pathway of multicellular organisms, is a signaling cascade that triggers node dispersal, CR assembly and constriction, and septum formation [4, 5]. We report that the terminal SIN kinase, Sid2 [6], phosphorylates Mid1 to drive its removal from the cortex at CR constriction onset. A Mid1 mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by Sid2 remains cortical during cytokinesis, over-accumulates in interphase nodes following cell division in a manner dependent on the SAD kinase Cdr2, advances the G2/M transition, precociously recruits other CR components to nodes, pulls Cdr2 aberrantly into the CR, and reduces rates of CR maturation and constriction. When combined with cdr2 mutants that affect node assembly or disassembly, gross defects in division site positioning result. Our findings identify Mid1 as a key Sid2 substrate for SIN-mediated remodeling of the division site for efficient cytokinesis and provide evidence that nodes serve to integrate signals coordinating cell cycle progression and cytokinesis.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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9 MeSH Terms
Beta cell secretion of miR-375 to HDL is inversely associated with insulin secretion.
Sedgeman LR, Beysen C, Ramirez Solano MA, Michell DL, Sheng Q, Zhao S, Turner S, Linton MF, Vickers KC
(2019) Sci Rep 9: 3803
MeSH Terms: Animals, Biological Transport, Cell Cycle, Humans, Insulin, Insulin Secretion, Insulin-Secreting Cells, Islets of Langerhans, Lipoproteins, HDL, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, MicroRNAs
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of biomarkers for cellular phenotypes and disease, and are bioactive signals within intercellular communication networks. Previously, we reported that miRNAs are secreted from macrophage to high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and delivered to recipient cells to regulate gene expression. Despite the potential importance of HDL-miRNAs, regulation of HDL-miRNA export from cells has not been fully studied. Here, we report that pancreatic islets and beta cells abundantly export miR-375-3p to HDL and this process is inhibited by cellular mechanisms that promote insulin secretion. Small RNA sequencing and PCR approaches were used to quantify beta cell miRNA export to HDL. Strikingly, high glucose conditions were found to inhibit HDL-miR-375-3p export, which was dependent on extracellular calcium. Likewise, stimulation of cAMP was found to repress HDL-miR-375-3p export. Furthermore, we found that beta cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K) channels are required for HDL-miRNA export as chemical inhibition (tolbutamide) and global genetic knockout (Abcc8) approaches inhibited HDL-miR-375-3p export. This process is not likely associated with cholesterol flux, as gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies for cholesterol transporters failed to alter HDL-miR-375-3p export. In conclusion, results support that pancreatic beta cells export miR-375-3p to HDL and this process is inversely regulated to insulin secretion.
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12 MeSH Terms
The F-BAR Domain of Rga7 Relies on a Cooperative Mechanism of Membrane Binding with a Partner Protein during Fission Yeast Cytokinesis.
Liu Y, McDonald NA, Naegele SM, Gould KL, Wu JQ
(2019) Cell Rep 26: 2540-2548.e4
MeSH Terms: Animals, COS Cells, Cell Cycle Proteins, Cell Membrane, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cytokinesis, GTPase-Activating Proteins, Microscopy, Confocal, Protein Domains, Schizosaccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins, Transfection
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
F-BAR proteins bind the plasma membrane (PM) to scaffold and organize the actin cytoskeleton. To understand how F-BAR proteins achieve their PM association, we studied the localization of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe F-BAR protein Rga7, which requires the coiled-coil protein Rng10 for targeting to the division site during cytokinesis. We find that the Rga7 F-BAR domain directly binds a motif in Rng10 simultaneously with the PM, and that an adjacent Rng10 motif independently binds the PM. Together, these multivalent interactions significantly enhance Rga7 F-BAR avidity for membranes at physiological protein concentrations, ensuring the division site localization of Rga7. Moreover, the requirement for the F-BAR domain in Rga7 localization and function in cytokinesis is bypassed by tethering an Rga7 construct lacking its F-BAR to Rng10, indicating that at least some F-BAR domains are necessary but not sufficient for PM targeting and are stably localized to specific cortical positions through adaptor proteins.
Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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12 MeSH Terms
Novel kidney dissociation protocol and image-based flow cytometry facilitate improved analysis of injured proximal tubules.
Manolopoulou M, Matlock BK, Nlandu-Khodo S, Simmons AJ, Lau KS, Phillips-Mignemi M, Ivanova A, Alford CE, Flaherty DK, Gewin LS
(2019) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 316: F847-F855
MeSH Terms: Acute Kidney Injury, Animals, Aristolochic Acids, Biomarkers, Cell Cycle, Cell Separation, Disease Models, Animal, Epithelial Cells, Flow Cytometry, Genes, Reporter, Kidney Tubules, Proximal, Luminescent Proteins, Male, Mice, Transgenic, Polyploidy, Tissue Fixation
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2019
Flow cytometry studies on injured kidney tubules are complicated by the low yield of nucleated single cells. Furthermore, cell-specific responses such as cell cycle dynamics in vivo have conventionally relied on indirect immunohistochemistry and proximal tubule markers that may be downregulated in injury. Here, we report a new tissue dissociation protocol for the kidney with an early fixation step that greatly enhances the yield of single cells. Genetic labeling of the proximal tubule with either mT/mG "tomato" or R26Fucci2aR (Fucci) cell cycle reporter mice allows us to follow proximal tubule-specific changes in cell cycle after renal injury. Image-based flow cytometry (FlowSight) enables gating of the cell cycle and concurrent visualization of the cells with bright field and fluorescence. We used the Fucci mouse in conjunction with FlowSight to identify a discrete polyploid population in proximal tubules after aristolochic acid injury. The tissue dissociation protocol in conjunction with genetic labeling and image-based flow cytometry is a tool that can improve our understanding of any discrete cell population after injury.
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16 MeSH Terms
Cyclin G1 and TASCC regulate kidney epithelial cell G-M arrest and fibrotic maladaptive repair.
Canaud G, Brooks CR, Kishi S, Taguchi K, Nishimura K, Magassa S, Scott A, Hsiao LL, Ichimura T, Terzi F, Yang L, Bonventre JV
(2019) Sci Transl Med 11:
MeSH Terms: Animals, Autophagy, Cell Compartmentation, Cell Cycle Checkpoints, Cell Dedifferentiation, Cyclin G1, Disease Models, Animal, Disease Progression, Epithelial Cells, Fibrosis, Humans, Kidney, Kidney Tubules, Proximal, LLC-PK1 Cells, Male, Mice, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Swine, TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases, Wound Healing
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2019
Fibrosis contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Severe acute kidney injury can lead to CKD through proximal tubular cell (PTC) cycle arrest in the G-M phase, with secretion of profibrotic factors. Here, we show that epithelial cells in the G-M phase form target of rapamycin (TOR)-autophagy spatial coupling compartments (TASCCs), which promote profibrotic secretion similar to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Cyclin G1 (CG1), an atypical cyclin, promoted G-M arrest in PTCs and up-regulated TASCC formation. PTC TASCC formation was also present in humans with CKD. Prevention of TASCC formation in cultured PTCs blocked secretion of profibrotic factors. PTC-specific knockout of a key TASCC component reduced the rate of kidney fibrosis progression in mice with CKD. CG1 induction and TASCC formation also occur in liver fibrosis. Deletion of CG1 reduced G-M phase cells and TASCC formation in vivo. This study provides mechanistic evidence supporting how profibrotic G-M arrest is induced in kidney injury and how G-M-arrested PTCs promote fibrosis, identifying new therapeutic targets to mitigate kidney fibrosis.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
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20 MeSH Terms