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Drug-induced cardiovascular complications are the most common adverse drug events and account for the withdrawal or severe restrictions on the use of multitudinous postmarketed drugs. In this study, we developed new in silico models for systematic identification of drug-induced cardiovascular complications in drug discovery and postmarketing surveillance. Specifically, we collected drug-induced cardiovascular complications covering the five most common types of cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, heart block, arrhythmia, cardiac failure, and myocardial infarction) from four publicly available data resources: Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, SIDER, Offsides, and MetaADEDB. Using these databases, we developed a combined classifier framework through integration of five machine-learning algorithms: logistic regression, random forest, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machine, and neural network. The totality of models included 180 single classifiers with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) ranging from 0.647 to 0.809 on 5-fold cross-validations. To develop the combined classifiers, we then utilized a neural network algorithm to integrate the best four single classifiers for each cardiovascular outcome. The combined classifiers had higher performance with an AUC range from 0.784 to 0.842 compared to single classifiers. Furthermore, we validated our predicted cardiovascular complications for 63 anticancer agents using experimental data from clinical studies, human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte assays, and literature. The success rate of our combined classifiers reached 87%. In conclusion, this study presents powerful in silico tools for systematic risk assessment of drug-induced cardiovascular complications. This tool is relevant not only in early stages of drug discovery but also throughout the life of a drug including clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance.
Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are biological molecules that play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and contribute to disease initiation, progression, and severity. Because of their ephemeral nature and rapid reactivity, these species are difficult to measure directly with high accuracy and precision. In this statement, we review current methods for measuring these species and the secondary products they generate and suggest approaches for measuring redox status, oxidative stress, and the production of individual reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We discuss the strengths and limitations of different methods and the relative specificity and suitability of these methods for measuring the concentrations of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species in cells, tissues, and biological fluids. We provide specific guidelines, through expert opinion, for choosing reliable and reproducible assays for different experimental and clinical situations. These guidelines are intended to help investigators and clinical researchers avoid experimental error and ensure high-quality measurements of these important biological species.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
It is a challenge for the human body to maintain stable blood pressure while standing. The body's failure to do so can lead to dizziness or even fainting. For decades it has been postulated that the vestibular organ can prevent a drop in pressure during a position change--supposedly mediated by reflexes to the cardiovascular system. We show--for the first time--a significant correlation between decreased functionality of the vestibular otolith system and a decrease in the mean arterial pressure when a person stands up. Until now, no experiments on Earth could selectively suppress both otolith systems; astronauts returning from space are a unique group of subjects in this regard. Their otolith systems are being temporarily disturbed and at the same time they often suffer from blood pressure instability. In our study, we observed the functioning of both the otolith and the cardiovascular system of the astronauts before and after spaceflight. Our finding indicates that an intact otolith system plays an important role in preventing blood pressure instability during orthostatic challenges. Our finding not only has important implications for human space exploration; they may also improve the treatment of unstable blood pressure here on Earth.
For most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have turned a fatal disease into a manageable chronic condition. Imatinib, the first BCR-ABL1 TKI granted regulatory approval, has been surpassed in terms of molecular responses by the second-generation TKIs nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib. Recently, ponatinib was approved as the only TKI with activity against the T315I mutation. Although all TKIs are associated with nonhematologic adverse events (AEs), experience with imatinib suggested that toxicities are typically manageable and apparent early during drug development. Recent reports of cardiovascular AEs with nilotinib and particularly ponatinib and of pulmonary arterial hypertension with dasatinib have raised concerns about long-term sequelae of drugs that may be administered for decades. Here, we review what is currently known about the cardiovascular toxicities of BCR-ABL1 TKIs, discuss potential mechanisms underlying cardiovascular AEs, and elucidate discrepancies between the reporting of such AEs between oncology and cardiovascular trials. Whenever possible, we provide practical recommendations, but we concede that cause-directed interventions will require better mechanistic understanding. We suggest that chronic myeloid leukemia heralds a fundamental shift in oncology toward effective but mostly noncurative long-term therapies. Realizing the full potential of these treatments will require a proactive rational approach to minimize long-term cardiovascular and cardiometabolic toxicities.
© 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Novel targeted cancer therapies, especially kinase inhibitors, have revolutionized the treatment of many cancers and have dramatically improved the survival of several types of malignancies. Because kinases not only are important in cancer development and progression, but also play a critical role in the cardiovascular (CV) system and metabolic homeostasis, important CV and metabolic sequelae have been associated with several types of kinase inhibitors. This paper reviews the incidences and highlights potential mechanisms of vascular and metabolic perturbations associated with 3 classes of commonly used kinase inhibitors that target the vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, the ABL kinase, and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. We propose preventive, screening, monitoring, and management strategies for CV care of patients treated with these novel agents.
Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Major developmental pathways play critical roles in wide array of human pathologies. Chemical genomic screening allows for the discovery of novel tools not only to target known pathway interactors but also to discover new, chemically tractable targets for known pathways. The zebrafish has emerged as a useful model for developmental biology and has been well characterized. The zebrafish represents a hardy conglomerate of totipotent cells that are massively and simultaneously assessing all significant pathways in parallel in an endogenous context. This represents a gold standard for biological assays, chemically targeting select pathways without causing pleiotropic effects. Here, we describe methods used to develop high content screening assays implementing transgenic zebrafish to assess phenotypic changes that have identified several classes of novel compounds that effect developmental pathways.
AIMS - Vascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We previously demonstrated that patients with T1DM have impaired endothelial function, a forme fruste of atherosclerosis, as a result of increased oxidative stress. Bilirubin has emerged as a potent endogenous antioxidant with higher concentrations associated with lower rates of myocardial infarction and stroke.
METHODS - We tested the hypothesis that increasing endogenous bilirubin using atazanavir would improve cardiometabolic risk factors and vascular function in patients with T1DM to determine whether targeting bilirubin may be a novel therapeutic approach to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in this population. In this single-arm, open-label study, we evaluated blood pressure, lipid profile, and conduit artery function in fifteen subjects (mean age 45 ± 9 years) with T1DM following a 4-day treatment with atazanavir.
RESULTS - As anticipated, atazanavir significantly increased both serum total bilirubin levels (p < 0.0001) and plasma total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.0001). Reductions in total cholesterol (p = 0.04), LDL cholesterol (p = 0.04), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.04) were also observed following atazanavir treatment. No changes were seen in either flow-mediated endothelium-dependent (p = 0.92) or nitroglycerine-mediated endothelium-independent (p = 0.68) vasodilation, measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography at baseline and post-treatment.
CONCLUSION - Increasing serum bilirubin levels with atazanavir in subjects with T1DM over 4 days favorably reduces LDL and blood pressure but is not associated with improvements in endothelial function of conduit arteries.
Based on mosaic theory, hypertension is a multifactorial disorder that develops because of genetic, environmental, anatomical, adaptive neural, endocrine, humoral, and hemodynamic factors. It has been recently proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to all of these factors and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of hypertension. Previous studies focusing on the role of vascular NADPH oxidases provided strong support of this concept. Although mitochondria represent one of the most significant sources of cellular ROS generation, the regulation of mitochondrial ROS generation in the cardiovascular system and its pathophysiological role in hypertension are much less understood. In this review, the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of hypertension and cross talk between angiotensin II signaling, pathways involved in mechanotransduction, NADPH oxidases, and mitochondria-derived ROS are considered. The possible benefits of therapeutic strategies that have the potential to attenuate mitochondrial oxidative stress for the prevention/treatment of hypertension are also discussed.