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Modifications of cardiolipin (CL) levels or compositions are associated with changes in mitochondrial function in a wide range of pathologies. We have made the discovery that acetaminophen remodels CL fatty acids composition from tetralinoleoyl to linoleoyltrioleoyl-CL, a remodeling that is associated with decreased mitochondrial respiration. Our data show that CL remodeling causes a shift in electron entry from complex II to the β-oxidation electron transfer flavoprotein quinone oxidoreductase (ETF/QOR) pathway. These data demonstrate that electron entry in the respiratory chain is regulated by CL fatty acid composition and provide proof-of-concept that pharmacological intervention can be used to modify CL composition.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.
Cytochrome (cyt) c can uncouple from the respiratory chain following mitochondrial stress and catalyze lipid peroxidation. Accumulating evidence shows that this phenomenon impairs mitochondrial respiratory function and also initiates the apoptotic cascade. Therefore, under certain conditions a pharmacological approach that can inhibit cyt c catalyzed lipid peroxidation may be beneficial. We recently showed that acetaminophen (ApAP) at normal pharmacologic concentrations can prevent hemoprotein-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in vitro and in vivo by reducing ferryl heme to its ferric state. We report here, for the first time, that ApAP inhibits cytochrome c-catalyzed oxidation of unsaturated free fatty acids and also the mitochondrial phospholipid, cardiolipin. Using isolated mitochondria, we also showed that ApAP inhibits cardiolipin oxidation induced by the pro-apoptotic protein, tBid. We found that the IC(50) of the inhibition of cardiolipin oxidation by ApAP is similar in both intact isolated mitochondria and cardiolipin liposomes, suggesting that ApAP penetrates well into the mitochondria. Together with our previous results, the findings presented herein suggest that ApAP is a pleiotropic inhibitor of peroxidase catalyzed lipid peroxidation. Our study also provides a potentially novel pharmacological approach for inhibiting the cascade of events that can result from redox cycling of cyt c.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We report herein that oxidation of a mitochondria-specific phospholipid tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin (L(4)CL) by cytochrome c and H(2)O(2) leads to the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) via a novel chemical mechanism that involves cross-chain peroxyl radical addition and decomposition. As one of the most bioactive lipid electrophiles, 4-HNE possesses diverse biological activities ranging from modulation of multiple signal transduction pathways to the induction of intrinsic apoptosis. However, where and how 4-HNE is formed in vivo are much less understood. Recently a novel chemical mechanism has been proposed that involves intermolecular dimerization of fatty acids by peroxyl bond formation; but the biological relevance of this mechanism is unknown because a majority of the fatty acids are esterified in phospholipids in the cellular membrane. We hypothesize that oxidation of cardiolipins, especially L(4)CL, may lead to the formation of 4-HNE via this novel mechanism. We employed L(4)CL and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) as model compounds to test this hypothesis. Indeed, in experiments designed to assess the intramolecular mechanism, more 4-HNE is formed from L(4)CL and DLPC oxidation than 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatydylcholine. The key products and intermediates that are consistent with this proposed mechanism of 4-HNE formation have been identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Identical products from cardiolipin oxidation were identified in vivo in rat liver tissue after carbon tetrachloride treatment. Our studies provide the first evidence in vitro and in vivo for the formation 4-HNE from cardiolipin oxidation via cross-chain peroxyl radical addition and decomposition, which may have implications in apoptosis and other biological activities of 4-HNE.
Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is uniquely involved in the detoxification of oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Our previous studies showed that Gpx4 is essential for mouse survival and that Gpx4 deficiency makes cells vulnerable to oxidative injury. In the present study, we generated two lines of transgenic mice overexpressing Gpx4 (Tg(GPX4) mice) using a genomic clone containing the human GPX4 gene. Both lines of Tg-(GPX4) mice, Tg5 and Tg6, had elevated levels of Gpx4 (mRNA and protein) in all tissues investigated, and overexpression of Gpx4 did not cause alterations in activities of glutathione peroxidase 1, catalase, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The human GPX4 transgene rescued the lethal phenotype of null mutation of the mouse Gpx4 gene, indicating that the transgene can replace the essential role of mouse Gpx4 in mouse development. Cell death induced by t-butylhydroperoxide and diquat was significantly less in murine embryonic fibroblasts from Tg(GPX4) mice compared with wild type mice. Liver damage and lipid peroxidation induced by diquat were reduced significantly in Tg(GPX4) mice. In addition, diquat-induced apoptosis was decreased in Tg(GPX4) mice, as evidenced by attenuated caspase-3 activation and reduced cytochrome c release from mitochondria. These data demonstrate that Gpx4 plays a role in vivo in the mechanism of apoptosis induced by oxidative stress that most likely occurs through oxidative damage to mitochondrial phospholipids such as cardiolipin.
The phosphoglycerides profile of six species of mammalian kidney (guinea pig, pig, cat, dog, mouse and rat) and their in vitro response to the endogenous phospholipases were determined by TLC technology in conjunction with densitometric measurements. Changes in their phospholipids profile subsequent to in vitro incubation of whole tissue homogenate of these kidneys for 60 min, at pH 7.4, 38 degrees C, and prior to phospholipids extraction have shown that the deacylation of the endogenous cardiolipin (CL) is the most prevalent lipolytic event of all mammalian kidneys studied. Concurrent with the deacylation of CL, there was also formation of monolysocardiolipin (MLCL) and a reduction in CL level. To a much lesser extent, lyso alkenyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (LPE) was also produced concomitant with a decrease of the endogenous alkenyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) level. The deacylation of PE plasmalogen to its lyso form confirms the action of endogenous PLA(2) releasing sn-2 fatty acids.
Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ca2+-dependent membrane interaction has long been recognized as a general property of the annexin (ANX) family of proteins. More recently, it has become clear that ANXs can also undergo Ca2+-independent membrane interactions at mildly acidic pH. Here we use site-directed spin labeling in combination with circular dichroism and biochemical labeling methods to compare the structure and membrane topography of these two different membrane-bound forms of ANX12. Our results reveal strong similarities between the solution structure and the structure of the Ca2+-dependent membrane-bound form at neutral pH. In contrast, all Ca2+-independent membrane interactions tested resulted in large scale conformational changes and membrane insertion. Pairs of spin labels that were in close proximity across the interface of different domains of the protein in both the soluble and Ca2+-dependent membrane form were >25 A apart in the Ca2+-independent membrane-bound form. Despite these major conformational changes, the overall secondary structure content did not appear to be strongly altered and ANX12 remained largely helical. Thus, Ca2+-independent membrane interaction leads to massive refolding but not unfolding. Refolding did not occur at low pH in the absence of membranes but occurred within a few seconds after phospholipid vesicles were added. The phospholipid composition of the vesicles was an important modulator of Ca2+-independent membrane interaction. For example, cardiolipin-containing vesicles induced Ca2+-independent membrane interaction even at near neutral pH, thereby raising the possibility that lipid composition could induce relatively rapid Ca2+-independent membrane interaction in vivo.
PURPOSE - To determine the prevalence of lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and in non-SLE disorders, and to evaluate the clinical significance of these autoantibodies as they relate to thromboembolic events, neuropsychiatric disorders, thrombocytopenia, and fetal loss.
DATA IDENTIFICATION - A computer-assisted search of the literature (MEDLINE, 1966 to 1989) and review of the bibliographies of all identified articles.
STUDY SELECTION - Series of ten or more subjects were included if the assays used for detecting lupus anticoagulant or anticardiolipin met the specified minimal criteria for validity.
DATA EXTRACTION - Series were categorized according to antibody type and underlying disease. A systematic appraisal of patient selection methods, study design, and assay methods was done.
RESULTS OF DATA ANALYSIS - An analysis of 29 published series (comprising over 1000 patients with SLE) yielded an average frequency of 34% for the lupus anticoagulant and 44% for anticardiolipin. Antiphospholipid antibodies are also prevalent in patients with various non-SLE disorders. In patients with SLE, a statistically significant association exists between the presence of either antibody and a history of thrombosis, neurologic disorders, or thrombocytopenia. The available data suggest, but do not firmly support, an association between antiphospholipid antibodies and history of fetal loss in women with SLE. Contrary to prevailing opinion, none of these associations have been shown conclusively in patients with non-SLE disorders.
CONCLUSIONS - The results of predominantly retrospective series suggest that for certain persons (patients with SLE or closely related disorders) antiphospholipid antibodies may be important risk factors for thrombosis, neurologic disease, thrombocytopenia, and fetal loss. Standardized tests for lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin, as well as long-term, prospective clinical studies, are needed to determine the prognostic value of antiphospholipid antibodies.