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Purpose - To use our intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) rabbit model to assess the impact of IAC procedure, drug, dose, and choice of technique on ocular structure and function, to study the nature and etiology of IAC toxicity, and to compare to observations in patients.
Methods - Rabbits received IAC melphalan (0.4-0.8 mg/kg), carboplatin (25-50 mg), or saline, either by direct ophthalmic artery cannulation, or with a technique emulating nonocclusion. Ocular structure/function were assessed with examination, electroretinography (ERG), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography, prior to and 5 to 6 weeks after IAC. Blood counts were obtained weekly. We reviewed our last 50 IAC treatments in patients for evidence of ocular or systemic complications.
Results - No toxicity was seen in the saline control group. With standard (0.4 mg/kg) melphalan, no vascular/microvascular abnormalities were seen with either technique. However, severe microvascular pruning and arteriolar occlusions were seen occasionally at 0.8 mg/kg doses. ERG reductions were dose-dependent. Histology showed melphalan dose-dependent degeneration in all retinal layers, restricted geographically to areas of greatest vascular density. Carboplatin caused massive edema of ocular/periocular structures. IAC patients experienced occasional periocular swelling/rash, and only rarely experienced retinopathy or vascular events/hemorrhage in eyes treated multiple times with triple (melphalan/carboplatin/topotecan) therapy. Transient neutropenia occurred after 46% of IAC procedures, generally after triple therapy.
Conclusions - IAC toxicity appears to be related to the specific drug being used and is dose-dependent, rather than related to the IAC procedure itself or the specific technique selected. These rabbit findings are corroborated by our clinical findings in patients.
Background - The optimal chemotherapy regimen administered currently with radiation in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. A multicenter phase III trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of concurrent thoracic radiation therapy with either etoposide/cisplatin (EP) or carboplatin/paclitaxel (PC) in patients with stage III NSCLC.
Patients and methods - Patients were randomly received 60-66 Gy of thoracic radiation therapy concurrent with either etoposide 50 mg/m2 on days 1-5 and cisplatin 50 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 4 weeks for two cycles (EP arm), or paclitaxel 45 mg/m2 and carboplatin (AUC 2) on day 1 weekly (PC arm). The primary end point was overall survival (OS). The study was designed with 80% power to detect a 17% superiority in 3-year OS with a type I error rate of 0.05.
Results - A total of 200 patients were randomized and 191 patients were treated (95 in the EP arm and 96 in the PC arm). With a median follow-up time of 73 months, the 3-year OS was significantly higher in the EP arm than that of the PC arm. The estimated difference was 15.0% (95% CI 2.0%-28.0%) and P value of 0.024. Median survival times were 23.3 months in the EP arm and 20.7 months in the PC arm (log-rank test P = 0.095, HR 0.76, 95%CI 0.55-1.05). The incidence of Grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis was higher in the PC arm (33.3% versus 18.9%, P = 0.036), while the incidence of Grade ≥3 esophagitis was higher in the EP arm (20.0% versus 6.3%, P = 0.009).
Conclusion - EP might be superior to weekly PC in terms of OS in the setting of concurrent chemoradiation for unresectable stage III NSCLC.
Trial registration ID - NCT01494558.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Chemotherapy-induced thrombotic microangiopathy is a severe illness that has occurred in a small number of patients treated with carboplatin and combination of docetaxel and trastuzumab chemotherapy. We describe herein the case of a patient with stage IIB breast cancer who developed thrombotic microangiopathy after five cycles of carboplatin, docetaxel, and trastuzumab.
Platinum agents are the backbone of cancer chemotherapy. Recently, we identified and replicated the role of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs1649942) in predicting platinum sensitivity both in vitro and in vivo. Using the CEU samples from the International HapMap Project, we found the same SNP to be a master regulator of multiple gene expression phenotypes, prompting us to investigate whether rs1649942-mediated regulation of miRNAs may in part contribute to variation in platinum sensitivity. To these ends, 60 unrelated HapMap CEU I/II samples were used for our discovery-phase study using high-throughput genome-wide miRNA and gene expression profiling. Examining the relationships among rs1649942, its gene expression targets, genome-wide miRNA expression, and cellular sensitivity to carboplatin and cisplatin, we identified 2 platinum-associated miRNAs (miR-193b* and miR-320) that inhibit the expression of 5 platinum-associated genes (CRIM1, IFIT2, OAS1, KCNMA1, and GRAMD1B). We further replicated the relationship between the expression of miR-193b*, CRIM1, IFIT2, KCNMA1, and GRAMD1B, and platinum sensitivity in a separate HapMap CEU III dataset. We then showed that overexpression of miR-193b* in a randomly selected HapMap cell line results in resistance to both carboplatin and cisplatin. This relationship was also found in 7 ovarian cancer cell lines from NCI60 dataset and confirmed in an OVCAR-3 that overexpression of miR-193b* leads to increased resistance to carboplatin. Our findings highlight a potential mechanism of action for a previously observed genotype-survival outcome association. Further examination of miR-193b* in platinum sensitivity in ovarian cancer is warranted.
BACKGROUND - Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and alternative chemotherapy regimens strive to maintain efficacy while minimizing toxicity in locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) treatment. Our experience with concurrent IMRT and taxane-based chemotherapy is presented.
METHODS - A retrospective review of 150 consecutive patients with LAHNC treated with IMRT and concurrent taxane-based chemotherapy with curative intent was performed. The IMRT fractionation regimen consisted of 69.3 Gy to gross disease (2.1 Gy/fraction) and 56.1 Gy to prophylactic nodal sites (1.7 Gy/fraction). Weekly paclitaxel (30 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve [AUC], 1) were given concurrently to all patients, and 69% received weekly induction with paclitaxel (60 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (AUC, 2).
RESULTS - Over 90% of patients received the prescribed radiation dose. Ninety-six percent completed five or more cycles of concurrent chemotherapy, with similar tolerability for induction chemotherapy. A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube was required in 80 patients, with 10 maintaining PEG use >18 months. Acute grade 4 mucositis and dermatitis developed in 2.0% and 4.0% of patients, respectively. No patient experienced nadir sepsis, grade ≥3 late xerostomia, or significant nephropathy or gastrointestinal toxicity. Median follow-up was 30 months. The 3-year locoregional control rate was 83.2% with disease-free survival and overall survival rates of 78.8% and 76.5%, respectively.
CONCLUSION - Rates of acute and late toxicities were low, with excellent radiation dose delivery and impressive tumor control at 3 years, suggesting that concurrent carboplatin and paclitaxel with IMRT is a reasonable therapeutic option for the curative treatment of LAHNC.
We present a 16-year-old boy with weakness, hypercortisolemia, and markedly elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone. Computed tomographic imaging revealed hepatic lesions and a calcified pancreatic mass. Biopsy of the hepatic lesions revealed moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. The primary tumor could not be determined. The patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide followed by therapeutic bilateral adrenalectomy and tumor debulking. Despite significant clinical improvement, restaging revealed progressive hepatic disease. The patient died 9 months after diagnosis. Autopsy revealed disseminated neuroendocrine carcinoma. The rarity of this tumor compels a cooperative investigational model involving pediatric and adult oncologists.
PURPOSE - Metastatic melanoma, a highly vascularized tumor with strong expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, has an overall poor prognosis. We conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II study of carboplatin plus paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab in patients with previously untreated metastatic melanoma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - Patients were randomly assigned in a two-to-one ratio to carboplatin (area under the curve, 5) plus paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2)) and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg; CPB) or placebo (CP) administered intravenously once every 3 weeks. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary end point. Secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and safety.
RESULTS - Two hundred fourteen patients (73% with M1c disease) were randomly assigned. With a median follow-up of 13 months, median PFS was 4.2 months for the CP arm (n = 71) and 5.6 months for the CPB arm (n = 143; hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; P = .1414). Overall response rates were 16.4% and 25.5%, respectively (P = .1577). With 13-month follow-up, median OS was 8.6 months in the CP arm versus 12.3 months in the CPB arm (HR, 0.67; P = .0366), whereas in an evaluation 4 months later, it was 9.2 versus 12.3 months, respectively (HR, 0.79; P = .1916). In patients with elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (n = 84), median PFS and OS were longer in the CPB arm (PFS: 4.4 v 2.7 months; HR, 0.62; OS: 8.5 v 7.5 months; HR, 0.52). No new safety signals were observed.
CONCLUSION - The study did not meet the primary objective of statistically significant improvement in PFS with the addition of bevacizumab to carboplatin plus paclitaxel. A larger phase III study will be necessary to determine whether there is benefit to the addition of bevacizumab to carboplatin plus paclitaxel in this disease setting.
Platinating agents are used in the treatment of many cancers, yet they can induce toxicities and resistance that limit their utility. Using previously published and additional world population panels of diverse ancestry totaling 608 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), we performed meta-analyses of over 3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for both carboplatin- and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. The most significant SNP in the carboplatin meta-analysis is located in an intron of NBAS (neuroblastoma amplified sequence; P=5.1 × 10(-7)). The most significant SNP in the cisplatin meta-analysis is upstream of KRT16P2 (P=5.8 × 10(-7)). We also show that cisplatin-susceptibility SNPs are enriched for carboplatin-susceptibility SNPs. Most of the variants that associate with platinum-induced cytotoxicity are polymorphic across multiple world populations; therefore, they could be tested in follow-up studies in diverse clinical populations. Seven genes previously implicated in platinating agent response, including BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2), GSTM1 (glutathione S-transferase mu 1), GSTT1, ERCC2 and ERCC6, were also implicated in our meta-analyses.
Chemotherapeutic agents are used in the treatment of many cancers, yet variable resistance and toxicities among individuals limit successful outcomes. Several studies have indicated outcome differences associated with ancestry among patients with various cancer types. Using both traditional SNP-based and newly developed gene-based genome-wide approaches, we investigated the genetics of chemotherapeutic susceptibility in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 83 African Americans, a population for which there is a disparity in the number of genome-wide studies performed. To account for population structure in this admixed population, we incorporated local ancestry information into our association model. We tested over 2 million SNPs and identified 325, 176, 240, and 190 SNPs that were suggestively associated with cytarabine-, 5'-deoxyfluorouridine (5'-DFUR)-, carboplatin-, and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, respectively (p≤10(-4)). Importantly, some of these variants are found only in populations of African descent. We also show that cisplatin-susceptibility SNPs are enriched for carboplatin-susceptibility SNPs. Using a gene-based genome-wide association approach, we identified 26, 11, 20, and 41 suggestive candidate genes for association with cytarabine-, 5'-DFUR-, carboplatin-, and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, respectively (p≤10(-3)). Fourteen of these genes showed evidence of association with their respective chemotherapeutic phenotypes in the Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria (p<0.05), including TP53I11, COPS5 and GAS8, which are known to be involved in tumorigenesis. Although our results require further study, we have identified variants and genes associated with chemotherapeutic susceptibility in African Americans by using an approach that incorporates local ancestry information.
PURPOSE - Cell-based approaches were used to identify genetic markers predictive of patients' risk for poor response prior to chemotherapy.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with cellular sensitivity to carboplatin through their effects on mRNA expression using International HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and replicated them in additional LCLs. SNPs passing both stages of the cell-based study were tested for association with progression-free survival (PFS) in patients. Phase 1 validation was based on 377 ovarian cancer patients receiving at least four cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel from the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study (AOCS). Positive associations were then assessed in phase 2 validation analysis of 1,326 patients from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium and The Cancer Genome Atlas.
RESULTS - In the initial GWAS, 342 SNPs were associated with carboplatin-induced cytotoxicity, of which 18 unique SNPs were retained after assessing their association with gene expression. One SNP (rs1649942) was replicated in an independent LCL set (Bonferroni adjusted P < 0.05). It was found to be significantly associated with decreased PFS in phase 1 AOCS patients (P(per-allele) = 2 × 10(-2)), with a stronger effect in the subset of women with optimally debulked tumors (P(per-allele) = 4 × 10(-3)). rs1649942 was also associated with poorer overall survival in women with optimally debulked tumors (P(per-allele) = 9 × 10(-3)). However, this SNP was not significant in phase 2 validation analysis with patients from numerous cohorts.
CONCLUSION - This study shows the potential of cell-based, genome-wide approaches to identify germline predictors of treatment outcome and highlights the need for extensive validation in patients to assess their clinical effect.