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Thiazide diuretics are used to treat hypertension; however, compensatory processes in the kidney can limit antihypertensive responses to this class of drugs. Here, we evaluated compensatory pathways in SPAK kinase-deficient mice, which are unable to activate the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC (encoded by Slc12a3). Global transcriptional profiling, combined with biochemical, cell biological, and physiological phenotyping, identified the gene expression signature of the response and revealed how it establishes an adaptive physiology. Salt reabsorption pathways were created by the coordinate induction of a multigene transport system, involving solute carriers (encoded by Slc26a4, Slc4a8, and Slc4a9), carbonic anhydrase isoforms, and V-type H⁺-ATPase subunits in pendrin-positive intercalated cells (PP-ICs) and ENaC subunits in principal cells (PCs). A distal nephron remodeling process and induction of jagged 1/NOTCH signaling, which expands the cortical connecting tubule with PCs and replaces acid-secreting α-ICs with PP-ICs, were partly responsible for the compensation. Salt reabsorption was also activated by induction of an α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) paracrine signaling system. Coordinate regulation of a multigene α-KG synthesis and transport pathway resulted in α-KG secretion into pro-urine, as the α-KG-activated GPCR (Oxgr1) increased on the PP-IC apical surface, allowing paracrine delivery of α-KG to stimulate salt transport. Identification of the integrated compensatory NaCl reabsorption mechanisms provides insight into thiazide diuretic efficacy.
Fungi that have the enzymes cyanase and carbonic anhydrase show a limited capacity to detoxify cyanate, a fungicide employed by both plants and humans. Here, we describe a novel two-gene cluster that comprises duplicated cyanase and carbonic anhydrase copies, which we name the CCA gene cluster, trace its evolution across Ascomycetes, and examine the evolutionary dynamics of its spread among lineages of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (hereafter referred to as the FOSC), a cosmopolitan clade of purportedly clonal vascular wilt plant pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal cyanase and carbonic anhydrase genes reveals that the CCA gene cluster arose independently at least twice and is now present in three lineages, namely Cochliobolus lunatus, Oidiodendron maius, and the FOSC. Genome-wide surveys within the FOSC indicate that the CCA gene cluster varies in copy number across isolates, is always located on accessory chromosomes, and is absent in FOSC's closest relatives. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the CCA gene cluster in 163 FOSC strains from a wide variety of hosts suggests a recent history of rampant transfers between isolates. We hypothesize that the independent formation of the CCA gene cluster in different fungal lineages and its spread across FOSC strains may be associated with resistance to plant-produced cyanates or to use of cyanate fungicides in agriculture.
© The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
OBJECTIVE - A novel PET radiotracer, (124)I-cG250, is currently under clinical investigation to distinguish clear cell renal cell carcinoma from other benign and malignant renal masses. In this article, we will make suggestions on the data needed to maximize the use of this radiotracer.
CONCLUSION - Although the published data are promising, further data are needed to assess the potential usefulness of this agent when dealing with indeterminate renal masses.
OBJECTIVES - To compare the immunohistochemical expression of diagnostic markers in primary clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) and their matched metastases.
METHODS - Tissue microarrays were constructed from 15 pairs of primary and metastatic clear cell RCCs and then evaluated for the immunohistochemical expression of renal cell carcinoma antigen (RCCA), kidney-specific cadherin, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and paired box genes 2 (PAX2) and 8 (PAX8).
RESULTS - There was significantly higher overall marker expression in metastatic tumors compared to their matched primaries (P < .001). Individually, there was greater CAIX, PAX2, and PAX8 expression and lower RCCA expression in metastatic tumors. Most importantly, a significant proportion of originally RCCA-positive tumors lost such expression in metastases.
CONCLUSIONS - Metastatic RCCs have significantly higher expression of PAX2 and PAX8 compared to primary RCCs. RCCA is not very reliable in this diagnostic setting, both because of its lower overall sensitivity and loss of expression in metastatic RCCs.
Back-scattering interferometry (BSI) is a label-free, free-solution, small-volume technique used for characterizing binding interactions, which is also relevant to a growing number of biosensing applications including drug discovery. Here, we use BSI to characterize the interaction of carbonic anhydrase enzyme II with five well-known carbonic anhydrase enzyme II inhibitors (± sulpiride, sulfanilamide, benzene sulfonamide, dansylamide, and acetazolamide) in the presence of DMSO. Dissociation constants calculated for each interaction were consistent with literature values previously obtained using surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence-based competition assays. Results demonstrate the potential of BSI as a drug-screening tool which is fully compatible with DMSO and does not require immobilization or labeling, therefore allowing binding interactions to be characterized in the native state. BSI has the potential for reducing labor costs, sample consumption, and assay time while providing enhanced reliability over existing techniques.
A theoretical model for filtration of large solutes through a pore in the presence of transmembrane pressures, applied/induced electric fields, and dissimilar interactions at the pore entrance and exit is developed to characterize and predict the experimental performance of a hemofiltration membrane with nanometer scale pores designed for a proposed implantable Renal Assist Device (RAD). The model reveals that the sieving characteristics of the membrane can be improved by applying an external electric field, and ensuring a smaller ratio of the pore-feed and pore-permeate equilibrium partitioning coefficients when diffusion is present. The model is then customized to study the sieving characteristics for both charged and uncharged solutes in the slit-shaped nanopores of the hemofiltration device for the RAD. The effect of streaming potential or induced fields are found to be negligible under representative operating conditions. Experimental data on the sieving coefficient of bovine serum albumin, carbonic anhydrase and thyroglobulin are reported and compared with the theoretical predictions. Both steric and electrostatic partitioning are considered and the comparison suggests that in general electrostatic effects are present in the filtration of proteins though some data, particularly those recorded in a strongly hypertonic solution (10x PBS), show better agreement with the steric partitioning theory.
In airway remodeling that occurs in association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the relationship between the subepithelium and structural changes of the bronchial epithelium is not well defined. To investigate whether the subepithelium and epithelium undergo remodeling as an integrated unit, we performed morphological examination of 55 bronchial biopsy specimens obtained from explanted or resected lungs from tobacco smokers with COPD. Our results indicate that reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness is increased and the subepithelial microvascular bed is reduced in association with progression from the normal epithelium to squamous metaplasia. Subsequent bronchial epithelial transformation to dysplasia is characterized by differential subepithelial remodeling with normalization of RBM thickness and subepithelial blood vessel density. Because fibrous remodeling of the subepithelium could limit delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the epithelium, we assessed expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) as markers of cellular hypoxia. The number of HIF-1alpha-positive epithelial cells increased with progression of epithelial structural changes, RBM thickness, and reduction in blood vessels in the subepithelium. These findings suggest that the HIF-1alpha pathway is activated in response to subepithelial remodeling and contributes to progressive premalignant epithelial lesions in the airways of tobacco smokers with chronic airway inflammation.
Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.
Rat liver cytosolic glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) catalyzes the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of glycine to sarcosine. It is comprised of four identical 292-amino acid residue subunits. Recently, evidence has been provided to show that GNMT is identical to the cytosolic receptor for benzo[a]pyrene, which induces cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression. In the present study we show that chemical modification of purified rat liver GNMT with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) resulted in dissociation of the tetrameric enzyme and was accompanied by loss of enzyme activity. Amino acid sequence analysis of the FITC-labeled peptides obtained by hydrolysis of the modified protein with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease revealed that lysines 45, 89, 92, 96, 122, and 147 were modified. Lys-122 and Lys-147 were derivatized in tetrameric, dimeric, and monomeric forms of the enzyme. Lysines 45, 89, 92, and 96 were derivatized only in monomeric GNMT, suggesting that modification of these residues resulted in GNMT dissociation. The modified monomeric GNMT was quickly transported into isolated rat liver nuclei. This transport was specific for the GNMT monomer, since neither tetramer nor dimer was able to enter the nuclei. Bovine carbonic anhydrase, similar in size to the GNMT monomer, was labeled with FITC to a similar extent but was not transported into the nuclei. Disruption of the nuclei containing fluorescein-labeled GNMT and subsequent extraction of the nuclear lysate with both high and low salt buffers recovered FITC-GNMT only in the chromatin pellet. Our study supports the suggestion of an additional function for GNMT, probably connected with regulation of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression.