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After cell fate specification, differentiating cells must amplify the specific subcellular features required for their specialized function. How cells regulate such subcellular scaling is a fundamental unanswered question. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 (MIB1) is required for the apical secretory apparatus established by gastric zymogenic cells as they differentiate from their progenitors. When Mib1 was deleted, death-associated protein kinase-1 (DAPK1) was rerouted to the cell base, microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) was dephosphorylated, and the apical vesicles that normally support mature secretory granules were dispersed. Consequently, secretory granules did not mature. The transcription factor MIST1 bound the first intron of Mib1 and regulated its expression. We further showed that loss of MIB1 and dismantling of the apical secretory apparatus was the earliest quantifiable aberration in zymogenic cells undergoing transition to a precancerous metaplastic state in mouse and human stomach. Our results reveal a mechanistic pathway by which cells can scale up a specific, specialized subcellular compartment to alter function during differentiation and scale it down during disease.
Pericardial fat is a localized fat depot associated with coronary artery calcium and myocardial infarction. We hypothesized that genetic loci would be associated with pericardial fat independent of other body fat depots. Pericardial fat was quantified in 5,487 individuals of European ancestry from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of pericardial fat adjusted for age, sex, weight, and height. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted, and validation was obtained in an additional 3,602 multi-ethnic individuals from the MESA study. We identified a genome-wide significant signal in our primary meta-analysis at rs10198628 near TRIB2 (MAF 0.49, p = 2.7 × 10(-08)). This SNP was not associated with visceral fat (p = 0.17) or body mass index (p = 0.38), although we observed direction-consistent, nominal significance with visceral fat adjusted for BMI (p = 0.01) in the Framingham Heart Study. Our findings were robust among African ancestry (n = 1,442, p = 0.001), Hispanic (n = 1,399, p = 0.004), and Chinese (n = 761, p = 0.007) participants from the MESA study, with a combined p-value of 5.4E-14. We observed TRIB2 gene expression in the pericardial fat of mice. rs10198628 near TRIB2 is associated with pericardial fat but not measures of generalized or visceral adiposity, reinforcing the concept that there are unique genetic underpinnings to ectopic fat distribution.
Prostate cancer cells commonly spread through the circulation, but few successfully generate metastatic foci in bone. Osteoclastic cellular activity has been proposed as an initiating event for skeletal metastasis. Megakaryocytes (MKs) inhibit osteoclastogenesis, which could have an impact on tumor establishment in bone. Given the location of mature MKs at vascular sinusoids, they may be the first cells to physically encounter cancer cells as they enter the bone marrow. Identification of the interaction between MKs and prostate cancer cells was the focus of this study. K562 (human MK precursors) and primary MKs derived from mouse bone marrow hematopoietic precursor cells potently suppressed prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells in coculture. The inhibitory effects were specific to prostate carcinoma cells and were enhanced by direct cell-cell contact. Flow cytometry for propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V supported a proapoptotic role for K562 cells in limiting PC-3 cells. Gene expression analysis revealed reduced mRNA levels for cyclin D1, whereas mRNA levels of apoptosis-associated specklike protein containing a CARD (ASC) and death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) were increased in PC-3 cells after coculture with K562 cells. Recombinant thrombopoietin (TPO) was used to expand MKs in the marrow and resulted in decreased skeletal lesion development after intracardiac tumor inoculation. These novel findings suggest a potent inhibitory role of MKs in prostate carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. This new finding, of an interaction of metastatic tumors and hematopoietic cells during tumor colonization in bone, ultimately will lead to improved therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer patients.
© 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
The tumor suppressor, death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-regulated Ser/Thr kinase with an important role in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics. Autophosphorylation within the calmodulin-binding domain at Ser-308 inhibits DAPK catalytic activity. Dephosphorylation of Ser-308 by a previously unknown phosphatase enhances kinase activity and proteasome-mediated degradation of DAPK. In these studies, we identified two holoenzyme forms of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), ABalphaC and ABdeltaC, as DAPK-interacting proteins. These phosphatase holoenzymes dephosphorylate DAPK at Ser-308 in vitro and in vivo resulting in enhanced kinase activity of DAPK. The enzymatic activity of PP2A also negatively regulates DAPK levels by enhancing proteasome-mediated degradation of the kinase. Overexpression of wild type DAPK induces cell rounding and detachment in HEK293 cells; however, this effect is not observed following expression of an inactive DAPK S308E mutant. Finally, activation of DAPK by PP2A was found to be required for ceramide-induced anoikis. Together, our results provide a mechanism by which PP2A and DAPK activities control cell adhesion and anoikis.
Mouse models of intestinal tumors have advanced our understanding of the role of gene mutations in colorectal malignancy. However, the utility of these systems for studying the role of epigenetic alterations in intestinal neoplasms remains to be defined. Consequently, we assessed the role of aberrant DNA methylation in the azoxymethane (AOM) rodent model of colon cancer. AOM induced tumors display global DNA hypomethylation, which is similar to human colorectal cancer. We next assessed the methylation status of a panel of candidate genes previously shown to be aberrantly methylated in human cancer or in mouse models of malignant neoplasms. This analysis revealed different patterns of DNA methylation that were gene specific. Zik1 and Gja9 demonstrated cancer-specific aberrant DNA methylation, whereas, Cdkn2a/p16, Igfbp3, Mgmt, Id4, and Cxcr4 were methylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. No aberrant methylation of Dapk1 or Mlt1 was detected in the neoplasms, but normal colon mucosa samples displayed methylation of these genes. Finally, p19(Arf), Tslc1, Hltf, and Mlh1 were unmethylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. Thus, aberrant DNA methylation does occur in AOM tumors, although the frequency of aberrantly methylated genes appears to be less common than in human colorectal cancer. Additional studies are necessary to further characterize the patterns of aberrantly methylated genes in AOM tumors.
2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Esophageal Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BA) develops through a multistage process, which is associated with the transcriptional silencing of tumor-suppressor genes by promoter CpG island hypermethylation. In this study, we explored the promoter hypermethylation and protein expression of proapoptotic death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) during the multistep Barrett's carcinogenesis cascade. Early BA and paired samples of premalignant lesions of 61 patients were analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. For the association of clinicopathological markers and protein expression, an immunohistochemical tissue microarray analysis of 66 additional BAs of advanced tumor stages was performed. Hypermethylation of DAPK promoter was detected in 20% of normal mucosa, 50% of Barrett's metaplasia, 53% of dysplasia, and 60% of adenocarcinomas, and resulted in a marked decrease in DAPK protein expression (P < .01). The loss of DAPK protein was significantly associated with advanced depth of tumor invasion and advanced tumor stages (P < .001). Moreover, the severity of reflux esophagitis correlated significantly with the hypermethylation rate of the DAPK promoter (P < .003). Thus, we consider DAPK inactivation by promoter hypermethylation as an early event in Barrett's carcinogenesis and suggest that a decreased protein expression of DAPK likely plays a role in the development and progression of BA.
Increases in reactive oxygen species and mis-regulation of calcium homeostasis are associated with various physiological conditions and disease states including aging, ischemia, exposure to drugs of abuse, and neurodegenerative diseases. In aged animals, this is accompanied by a reduction in oxidative repair mechanisms resulting in increased methionine oxidation of the calcium signaling protein calmodulin in the brain. Here, we show that oxidation of calmodulin results in an inability to: (1) activate CaMKII; (2) support Thr(286) autophosphorylation of CaMKII; (3) prevent Thr(305/6) autophosphorylation of CaMKII; (4) support binding of CaMKII to the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor; and (5) compete with alpha-actinin for binding to CaMKII. Moreover, oxidized calmodulin does not efficiently bind calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in rat brain lysates or in vitro. These observations contrast from past experiments performed with oxidized calmodulin and the plasma membrane calcium ATPase, where oxidized calmodulin binds to, and partially activates the PMCA. When taken together, these data suggest that oxidative stress may perturb neuronal and cardiac function via a decreased ability of oxidized calmodulin to bind, activate, and regulate the interactions of CaMKII.
Frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation (FDAR) is an important intrinsic mechanism that allows for diastolic filling of the ventricle at higher heart rates, yet its molecular mechanism is still not understood. Previous studies showed that FDAR is dependent on functional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and can be abolished by phosphatase or by Ca/CaM kinase (CaMKII) inhibition. Additionally, CaMKII activity/autophosphorylation has been shown to be frequency-dependent. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that CaMKII phosphorylation of SR Ca(2+)-handling proteins (Phospholamban (PLB), Ca(2+) release channel (RyR)) mediates FDAR. Here we show that FDAR occurs abruptly in fluo-4 loaded isolated rat ventricular myocytes when frequency is raised from 0.1 to 2 Hz. The effect is essentially complete within four beats (2 s) with the tau of [Ca(2+)](i) decline decreasing by 42+/-3%. While there is a detectable increase in PLB Thr-17 and RyR Ser-2814 phosphorylation, the increase is quantitatively small (PLB<5%, RyR approximately 8%) and the time-course is clearly delayed with regard to FDAR. The low substrate phosphorylation indicates that pacing of myocytes only mildly activates CaMKII and consistent with this CaMKIIdelta autophosphorylation did not increase with pacing alone. However, in the presence of phosphatase 1 inhibition pacing triggered a net-increase in autophosphorylated CaMKII and also greatly enhanced PLB and RyR phosphorylation. We conclude that FDAR does not rely on phosphorylation of PLB or RyR. Even though CaMKII does become activated when myocytes are paced, phosphatases immediately antagonize CaMKII action, limit substrate phosphorylation and also prevent sustained CaMKII autophosphorylation (thereby suppressing global CaMKII effects).
The primary mechanism for clearance of extracellular dopamine (DA) is uptake mediated by the dopamine transporter (DAT), which is governed, in part, by the number of functional DATs on the cell surface. Previous studies have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) decreases DAT cell surface expression, whereas insulin reverses this effect through the action of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Therefore, it is possible that AMPH causes DAT cell surface redistribution by inhibiting basal insulin signaling. Here, we show in a heterologous expression system and in murine striatal synaptosomes that AMPH causes a time-dependent decrease in the activity of Akt, a protein kinase immediately downstream of PI3K. This effect was blocked by the DAT inhibitor cocaine, suggesting that AMPH must interact with DAT to inhibit Akt. We also showed that AMPH is able to stimulate Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) activity, both in the heterologous expression system as well as in murine striatal synaptosomes. The ability of AMPH to decrease Akt activity was blocked by the CaMKII inhibitor 2-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)]-N-(4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl)]amino-N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylbenzylamine (KN93), but not by its inactive analog 2-[N-(4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl)]amino-N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylbenzylamine (KN92). Furthermore, preincubation with KN93 prevented the AMPH-induced decrease in DAT cell surface expression. Thus, AMPH, but not cocaine, decreases Akt activity through a CaMKII-dependent pathway, thereby providing a novel mechanism by which AMPH regulates insulin signaling and DAT trafficking.
Cardiac Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in heart has been implicated in Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) facilitation, enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release and frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation (FDAR) via enhanced SR Ca(2+) uptake. However, questions remain about how CaMKII may work in these three processes. Here we tested the role of CaMKII in these processes using transgenic mice (SR-AIP) that express four concatenated repeats of the CaMKII inhibitory peptide AIP selectively in the SR membrane. Wild type mice (WT) and mice expressing AIP exclusively in the nucleus (NLS-AIP) served as controls. Increasing stimulation frequency produced typical FDAR in WT and NLS-AIP, but FDAR was markedly inhibited in SR-AIP. Quantitative analysis of cytosolic Ca(2+) removal during [Ca(2+)](i) decline revealed that FDAR is due to an increased apparent V(max) of SERCA. CaMKII-dependent RyR phosphorylation at Ser2815 and SR Ca(2+) leak was both decreased in SR-AIP vs. WT. This decrease in SR Ca(2+) leak may partly balance the reduced SERCA activity leading to relatively unaltered SR-Ca(2+) load in SR-AIP vs. WT myocytes. Surprisingly, CaMKII regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel (I(Ca) facilitation and recovery from inactivation) was abolished by the SR-targeted CaMKII inhibition in SR-AIP mice. Inhibition of CaMKII effects on I(Ca) and RyR function by the SR-localized AIP places physical constraints on the localization of these proteins at the junctional microdomain. Thus SR-targeted CaMKII inhibition can directly inhibit the activation of SR Ca(2+) uptake, SR Ca(2+) release and I(Ca) by CaMKII, effects which have all been implicated in triggered arrhythmias.