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Fibrosis accompanying wound healing can drive the failure of many different organs. Activated fibroblasts are the principal determinants of post-injury pathological fibrosis along with physiological repair, making them a difficult therapeutic target. Although activated fibroblasts are phenotypically heterogeneous, they are not recognized as distinct functional entities. Using mice that express GFP under the FSP1 or αSMA promoter, we characterized two non-overlapping fibroblast subtypes from mouse hearts after myocardial infarction. Here, we report the identification of FSP1-GFP cells as a non-pericyte, non-hematopoietic fibroblast subpopulation with a predominant pro-angiogenic role, characterized by in vitro phenotypic/cellular/ultrastructural studies and in vivo granulation tissue formation assays combined with transcriptomics and proteomics. This work identifies a fibroblast subtype that is functionally distinct from the pro-fibrotic αSMA-expressing myofibroblast subtype. Our study has the potential to shift our focus towards viewing fibroblasts as molecularly and functionally heterogeneous and provides a paradigm to approach treatment for organ fibrosis.
S100 proteins are a sub-family of EF-hand calcium binding proteins that form very similar, unique dimer structures. Although the possibility has been known for many years, no systematic study of the formation of S100 protein heterodimers has been reported. Shaw and coworkers demonstrate the application of a new approach that provides an in-depth evaluation of the distribution of S100 protein homo- and heterodimer and show that the prevalence of heterodimers may be much higher than previously anticipated.
© 2019 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
The classic mode of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated transactivation of the receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation occurs via matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-mediated cleavage of plasma membrane-anchored EGFR ligands. Herein, we show that the Gαs-activating GPCR ligands vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and prostaglandin E (PGE ) transactivate EGFR through increased cell-surface delivery of the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) in polarizing madin-darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 cells. This is achieved by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2), previously shown to bind TGFα and direct delivery of TGFα-containing vesicles to the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells. VIP and PGE rapidly activate protein kinase A (PKA) that then phosphorylates NKD2 at Ser-223, a process that is facilitated by the molecular scaffold A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12). This phosphorylation stabilized NKD2, ensuring efficient cell-surface delivery of TGFα and increased EGFR activation. Thus, GPCR-triggered, PKA/AKAP12/NKD2-regulated targeting of TGFα to the cell surface represents a new mode of EGFR transactivation that occurs proximal to ligand cleavage by MMPs.
© 2019 The Authors. Traffic published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
OBJECTIVE - Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene coding for the homeobox transcription factor (TF) PDX1 leads to pancreatic agenesis, whereas heterozygous mutations can cause Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young 4 (MODY4). Although the function of Pdx1 is well studied in pre-clinical models during insulin-producing β-cell development and homeostasis, it remains elusive how this TF controls human pancreas development by regulating a downstream transcriptional program. Also, comparative studies of PDX1 binding patterns in pancreatic progenitors and adult β-cells have not been conducted so far. Furthermore, many studies reported the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and T2DM, and it has been shown that islet enhancers are enriched in T2DM-associated SNPs. Whether regions, harboring T2DM-associated SNPs are PDX1 bound and active at the pancreatic progenitor stage has not been reported so far.
METHODS - In this study, we have generated a novel induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line that efficiently differentiates into human pancreatic progenitors (PPs). Furthermore, PDX1 and H3K27ac chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) was used to identify PDX1 transcriptional targets and active enhancer and promoter regions. To address potential differences in the function of PDX1 during development and adulthood, we compared PDX1 binding profiles from PPs and adult islets. Moreover, combining ChIP-seq and GWAS meta-analysis data we identified T2DM-associated SNPs in PDX1 binding sites and active chromatin regions.
RESULTS - ChIP-seq for PDX1 revealed a total of 8088 PDX1-bound regions that map to 5664 genes in iPSC-derived PPs. The PDX1 target regions include important pancreatic TFs, such as PDX1 itself, RFX6, HNF1B, and MEIS1, which were activated during the differentiation process as revealed by the active chromatin mark H3K27ac and mRNA expression profiling, suggesting that auto-regulatory feedback regulation maintains PDX1 expression and initiates a pancreatic TF program. Remarkably, we identified several PDX1 target genes that have not been reported in the literature in human so far, including RFX3, required for ciliogenesis and endocrine differentiation in mouse, and the ligand of the Notch receptor DLL1, which is important for endocrine induction and tip-trunk patterning. The comparison of PDX1 profiles from PPs and adult human islets identified sets of stage-specific target genes, associated with early pancreas development and adult β-cell function, respectively. Furthermore, we found an enrichment of T2DM-associated SNPs in active chromatin regions from iPSC-derived PPs. Two of these SNPs fall into PDX1 occupied sites that are located in the intronic regions of TCF7L2 and HNF1B. Both of these genes are key transcriptional regulators of endocrine induction and mutations in cis-regulatory regions predispose to diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS - Our data provide stage-specific target genes of PDX1 during in vitro differentiation of stem cells into pancreatic progenitors that could be useful to identify pathways and molecular targets that predispose for diabetes. In addition, we show that T2DM-associated SNPs are enriched in active chromatin regions at the pancreatic progenitor stage, suggesting that the susceptibility to T2DM might originate from imperfect execution of a β-cell developmental program.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.
Helicobacter pylori infection triggers a cascade of inflammatory stages that may lead to the appearance of non-atrophic gastritis, multifocal atrophic, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) belongs to the group of secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich proteins and is considered to be involved in host defense by binding to pathogens. Initial studies showed its deletion and loss of expression in a variety of tumors but the role of this gene in tumor development is not completely understood. Here, we examined the role of DMBT1 in gastric precancerous lesions in Caucasian, African American and Hispanic individuals as well as in the development of gastric pathology in a mouse model of H. pylori infection. We found that in 3 different populations, mucosal DMBT1 expression was significantly increased (2.5 fold) in individuals with dysplasia compared to multifocal atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia; the increase was also observed in individuals with advanced gastritis and positive H. pylori infection. In our animal model, H. pylori infection of Dmbt1-/- mice resulted in significantly higher levels of gastritis, more extensive mucous metaplasia and reduced Il33 expression levels in the gastric mucosa compared to H. pylori-infected wild type mice. Our data in the animal model suggest that in response to H. pylori infection DMBT1 may mediate mucosal protection reducing the risk of developing gastric precancerous lesions. However, the increased expression in human gastric precancerous lesions points to a more complex role of DMBT1 in gastric carcinogenesis.
BACKGROUND - Despite increased secondary cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), the expression of innate cardiac protective molecules in the hearts of patients with ICM is incompletely characterized. Therefore, we used a nonbiased RNAseq approach to determine whether differences in cardiac protective molecules occur with ICM.
METHODS AND RESULTS - RNAseq analysis of human control and ICM left ventricular samples demonstrated a significant decrease in expression with ICM. encodes the Kir6.2 subunit of the cardioprotective K channel. Using wild-type mice and -deficient (-null) mice, we examined the effect of expression on cardiac function during ischemia-reperfusion injury. Reactive oxygen species generation increased in -null hearts above that found in wild-type mice hearts after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Continuous left ventricular pressure measurement during ischemia and reperfusion demonstrated a more compromised diastolic function in -null compared with wild-type mice during reperfusion. Analysis of key calcium-regulating proteins revealed significant differences in -null mice. Despite impaired relaxation, -null hearts increased phospholamban Ser16 phosphorylation, a modification that results in the dissociation of phospholamban from sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca, thereby increasing sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca-mediated calcium reuptake. However, -null mice also had increased 3-nitrotyrosine modification of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase, a modification that irreversibly impairs sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca function, thereby contributing to diastolic dysfunction.
CONCLUSIONS - expression is decreased in human ICM. Lack of expression increases peroxynitrite-mediated modification of the key calcium-handling protein sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, contributing to impaired diastolic function. These data suggest a mechanism for ischemia-induced diastolic dysfunction in patients with ICM.
© 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Essentials Genetic variants controlling gene regulation have not been explored in pharmacogenomics. We tested liver expression quantitative trait loci for association with warfarin dose response. A novel predictor for increased warfarin dose response in African Americans was identified. Precision medicine must take into account population-specific variation in gene regulation.
SUMMARY - Background Warfarin is commonly used to control and prevent thromboembolic disorders. However, because of warfarin's complex dose-requirement relationship, safe and effective use is challenging. Pharmacogenomics-guided warfarin dosing algorithms that include the well-established VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms explain only a small proportion of inter-individual variability in African Americans (AAs). Objectives We aimed to assess whether transcriptomic analyses could be used to identify regulatory variants associated with warfarin dose response in AAs. Patients/Methods We identified a total of 56 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CALU derived from human livers and evaluated their association with warfarin dose response in two independent AA warfarin patient cohorts. Results We found that rs4889606, a strong cis-eQTL for VKORC1 (log Bayes Factor = 12.02), is significantly associated with increased warfarin daily dose requirement (β = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46 to 1.8) in the discovery cohort (n = 305) and in the replication cohort (β = 1.04; 95% CI 0.33 -1.7; n = 141) after conditioning on relevant covariates and the VKORC1 -1639G>A (rs9923231) variant. Inclusion of rs4889606 genotypes, along with CYP2C9 alleles, rs9923231 genotypes and clinical variables, explained 31% of the inter-patient variability in warfarin dose requirement. We demonstrate different linkage disequilibrium patterns in the region encompassing rs4889606 and rs9923231 between AAs and European Americans, which may explain the increased dose requirement found in AAs. Conclusion Our approach of interrogating eQTLs identified in liver has revealed a novel predictor of warfarin dose response in AAs. Our work highlights the utility of leveraging information from regulatory variants mapped in the liver to uncover novel variants associated with drug response and the importance of population-specific research.
© 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
OBJECTIVES - Genetic factors contribute considerably toward variability in warfarin dose requirements and are important in the dose-titration phase; their effects on the stability of anticoagulation later in therapy are not known.
METHODS - Using deidentified electronic medical records linked to a DNA-biobank, we studied 140 African-Americans and 943 European-Americans after the warfarin dose-titration phase. We genotyped 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes (CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX, EPHX1, CALU) associated with altered warfarin dose requirements and tested their associations with international normalized ratio variability (INRVAR) and percent time in therapeutic range in European-Americans and African-Americans.
RESULTS - One allele copy of rs2108622 in CYP4F2 was associated with a 15% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1-26, P=0.03] decrease in the median INRVAR in European-Americans. In African-Americans, GGCX variants rs11676382 and rs699664 were associated with 4.16-fold (95% CI: 1.45-11.97, P=0.009) and 1.50-fold (95% CI: 1.07-2.08, P=0.02) changes in the median INRVAR per variant allele copy, respectively; rs11676382 was also significantly associated with a 23.19% (95% CI: 5.89-40.48, P=0.01) decrease in time in therapeutic range. The total variation in INRVAR explained by both clinical factors and rs2108622 was 5.2% for European-Americans. In African-Americans, the inclusion of GGCX variants rs11676382 and rs699664, and the CYP2C9*8 variant rs7900194 explained ∼29% of the variation in INRVAR.
CONCLUSION - The stability of anticoagulation after the warfarin dose-titration phase is differentially affected by variants in CYP4F2 in European-Americans and GGCX loci in African-Americans.
BACKGROUND - Glaucoma is a complex neurodegeneration and a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Current therapeutic strategies, which are all directed towards lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP), do not stop progression of the disease. We have demonstrated that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene delivery of a form of erythropoietin with attenuated erythropoietic activity (EpoR76E) can preserve retinal ganglion cells, their axons, and vision without decreasing IOP. The goal of this study was to determine if modulation of neuroinflammation or oxidative stress played a role in the neuroprotective activity of EPO.R76E.
METHODS - Five-month-old DBA/2J mice were treated with either rAAV.EpoR76E or a control vector and collected at 8 months of age. Neuroprotection was assessed by quantification of axon transport and visual evoked potentials. Microglia number and morphology and cytokine and chemokine levels were quantified. Message levels of oxidative stress-related proteins were assessed.
RESULTS - Axon transport and visual evoked potentials were preserved in rAAV.EpoR76E-treated mice. The number of microglia was decreased in retinas from 8-month-old rAAV.EpoR76E-treated mice, but proliferation was unaffected. The blood-retina barrier was also unaffected by treatment. Levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were decreased in retinas from rAAV.EpoR76E-treated mice including IL-1, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, CCL4, and CCL5. TNFα messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased in retinas from 8-month-old mice compared to 3-month-old controls regardless of treatment. Expression of several antioxidant proteins was increased in retinas of rAAV.EpoR76E-treated 8-month-old mice.
CONCLUSIONS - Treatment with rAAV.EpoR76E preserves vision in the DBA/2J model of glaucoma at least in part by decreasing infiltration of peripheral immune cells, modulating microglial reactivity, and decreasing oxidative stress.
BACKGROUND - CacyBP/SIP (Calcyclin-Binding Protein and Siah-1 Interacting Protein) is a small modular protein implicated in a wide range of cellular processes. It is expressed in different tissues of mammals but homologs are also found in some lower organisms. In mammals, a high level of CacyBP/SIP is present in tumor cells and in neurons. CacyBP/SIP binds several target proteins such as members of the S100 family, components of a ubiquitin ligase complex, and cytoskeletal proteins.
SCOPE OF REVIEW - CacyBP/SIP has been shown to be involved in protein de-phosphorylation, ubiquitination, cytoskeletal dynamics, regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. This review focuses on very recent reports on CacyBP/SIP structure and function in these important cellular processes.
MAJOR CONCLUSIONS - CacyBP/SIP is a multi-domain and multi-functional protein. Altered levels of CacyBP/SIP in several cancers implicate its involvement in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Changes in CacyBP/SIP subcellular localization in neurons of AD brains suggest that this protein is strongly linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Elucidation of CacyBP/SIP structure and cellular function is leading to greater understanding of its role in normal physiology and disease pathologies.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE - The available results suggest that CacyBP/SIP is a key player in multiple biological processes. Detailed characterization of the physical, biochemical and biological properties of CacyBP/SIP will provide better insight into the regulation of its diverse functions in vivo, and given the association with specific diseases, will help clarify the potential of therapeutic targeting of this protein.