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The LMO2 oncogene is deregulated in the majority of human T-cell leukemia cases and in most gene therapy-induced T-cell leukemias. We made transgenic mice with enforced expression of Lmo2 in T-cells by the CD2 promoter/enhancer. These transgenic mice developed highly penetrant T-ALL by two distinct patterns of gene expression: one in which there was concordant activation of Lyl1, Hhex, and Mycn or alternatively, with Notch1 target gene activation. Most strikingly, this gene expression clustering was conserved in human Early T-cell Precursor ALL (ETP-ALL), where LMO2, HHEX, LYL1, and MYCN were most highly expressed. We discovered that HHEX is a direct transcriptional target of LMO2 consistent with its concordant gene expression. Furthermore, conditional inactivation of Hhex in CD2-Lmo2 transgenic mice markedly attenuated T-ALL development, demonstrating that Hhex is a crucial mediator of Lmo2's oncogenic function. The CD2-Lmo2 transgenic mice offer mechanistic insight into concordant oncogene expression and provide a model for the highly treatment-resistant ETP-ALL subtype.
We describe 9 well-characterized cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that showed aberrant expression of T-cell-associated antigens by 2-color flow cytometry. Cases were as follows: chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, 4; follicle center cell lymphoma, 2; mantle cell lymphoma, 1; and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 2. CD2 was the most commonly expressed antigen (5 cases). CD8 and CD7 were identified in 2 cases each, including 1 case that expressed both CD7 and CD4. The disease course and response to treatment were compatible with the type and stage of lymphoma. No unusually aggressive behavior was noted in any case. A control group of 59 cases of benign lymph nodes analyzed during the same period showed no aberrant expression of T-cell-associated antigens; thus, such expression is not a feature of benign lymphoid proliferations. Study of these B-cell lymphomas may prove invaluable to study aberrant activation of silent or repressed T-cell differentiation genes. CD2-expressing B-cell NHLs may represent clonal expansion of CD2+ B lymphocytes that normally constitute a small fraction of peripheral B lymphocytes and should not be confused with composite B- and T-cell lymphomas. Unless aggressive behavior is noted consistently, no aggressive treatment is justified.
Expression of the src homology 3 (SH3)-encoding, expressed in tumorigenic astrocytes (SETA) gene is associated with astrocyte transformation in culture and tumors in the adult brain. SETA binds to the apoptosis regulator apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) interacting protein 1 (AIP1), and modulates apoptosis in astrocytes. The predicted protein structure of SETA revealed two SH3 domains, while related proteins were reported to have three. Here we report the identification of an additional SH3 domain N-terminal to the previously identified SETA sequence. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a p53(-/-) astrocyte cDNA library with this SH3 domain identified a novel gene, SETA binding protein 1 (SB1), with 55% amino acid identity to the renal tumor antigen, NY-REN-45. In vitro confrontation and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the binding of SB1 to SETA. Evidence that SETA binds to the CD2 protein, the proto-oncogene c-Cbl, and the signal transduction molecule Grb2, and can dimerize via its C-terminal coiled coil (CC) domain is also presented.
Proteins of the CD2 family belong to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily of receptors that are expressed predominantly on hematopoeitic cells and function to modulate immune responses. The present study characterized a new member of the CD2 family, designated Ly108. The Ly108 gene encodes a protein of 331 amino acids, including a putative leader peptide, an extracellular region consisting of two Ig-like domains, a hydrophobic transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of 69 amino acids. An alternatively spliced transcript, whose encoded protein differs only in the cytoplasmic domain, was also identified. Like other CD2 family members, the extracellular region of Ly108 also contains an N-terminal Ig variable regionlike domain lacking any disulfide bonds and a membrane-proximal truncated C2-like domain with two conserved disulfide bonds. Overall, Ly108 is most similar to CD84 and Ly9, and the gene maps to the distal arm of mouse Chromosome 1, in the vicinity of CD48 and Ly9. Ly108 transcripts appeared to be expressed only in lymphoid tissues, and were readily detected in all but the most highly differentiated mouse B- and T-cell lines analyzed.
The phenotype and function of lymphocytes from cancer patients treated with repetitive weekly cycles of continuous i.v. infusions of recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) were examined. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) obtained after IL-2 therapy showed an increased percentage of cells bearing the CD16 and leu19 markers which are associated with natural killer cells. These PBL mediated significantly increased levels of IL-2-dependent lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activity against the Daudi cell line. Depletion of CD16+ cells from PBL obtained after in vivo IL-2 caused only slight inhibition of their LAK activity or their proliferative response to IL-2 in vitro. This indicates that CD16+ cells are involved but play only a minor role in these responses. In contrast, depletion of leu19+ cells, from PBL activated in vivo with IL-2, virtually abrogated their LAK activity and their proliferative response to IL-2. Two-color flow cytometry studies showed that a leu19+/CD16- population was expanded by in vivo IL-2 therapy and was responsible for the majority of LAK activity by in vivo-activated PBL. Moreover, this CD16- population showed an increased density of leu19 and CD2 (E rosette receptor) antigens when compared to the resting PBL obtained prior to IL-2 treatment. These data show that the predominant population mediating in vitro LAK activity, induced by in vivo IL-2 therapy, consists of activated natural killer cells with a high density of leu19 and CD2 antigens but negative for the CD16 antigen.
We describe a human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), called ZS, that originated spontaneously from the cultures of gamma-irradiated (50 Gy) peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of a normal donor. When injected subcutaneously in sublethally irradiated, splenectomized and anti-asialo-GM1-treated nude mice, ZS cells invaded the lymph nodes, that appeared 10 to 50-fold enlarged in all of the mice tested. Furthermore, ZS cells expressed a typical T-cell surface structure, the CD2 molecule, detectable by a variety of different anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). However, other T-cell markers were not found, with the possible exception of a truncated messenger of the beta chain of the T-cell receptor and ZS cells could be identified as B cells since they (i) expressed a battery of markers of the resting and activated B cells, (ii) displayed a monoclonal rearrangement of the IgH chain locus and (iii) synthesized IgM K molecules. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome was detected in ZS cells in approximately ten copies per cell by DNA hybridization techniques. Furthermore, the cells were positive for EBV nuclear antigens (EBNA). Western blotting analysis of EBV encoded antigens demonstrated clear differences with those present in the B 95.8 virus-producer cell line, indicating that ZS cells were not infected by EBV in vitro and that they already harbored the virus in vivo. ZS cells formed colonies in vitro with a high cloning efficiency and displayed chromosomal abnormalities in all of the mitoses (karyotype 47, xy, +13, -14, 8p+, 21p+, +m). In spite of these malignant features, ZS cells expressed the full range of EBV latent proteins as usually do "normal" LCSs and did not have any of the chromosomal abnormalities that juxtapose the c-myc oncogene to one of the genes coding for immunoglobulin molecules.