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Voltage-gated potassium channels are often assembled with accessory proteins that increase their functional diversity. KCNE proteins are small accessory proteins that modulate voltage-gated potassium (K(V)) channels. Although the functional effects of various KCNE proteins have been described, many questions remain regarding their assembly with the pore-forming subunits. For example, while previous experiments with some K(V) channels suggest that the association of the pore-subunit with the accessory subunits occurs co-translationally in the endoplasmic reticulum, it is not known whether KCNQ1 assembly with KCNE1 occurs in a similar manner to generate the medically important cardiac slow delayed rectifier current (I(Ks)). In this study we used a novel approach to demonstrate that purified recombinant human KCNE1 protein (prKCNE1) modulates KCNQ1 channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes resulting in generation of I(Ks). Incubation of KCNQ1-expressing oocytes with cycloheximide did not prevent I(Ks) expression following prKCNE1 injection. By contrast, incubation with brefeldin A prevented KCNQ1 modulation by prKCNE1. Moreover, injection of the trafficking-deficient KCNE1-L51H reduced KCNQ1 currents. Together, these observations indicate that while assembly of KCNE1 with KCNQ1 does not require co-translation, functional KCNQ1-prKCNE1 channels assemble early in the secretory pathway and reach the plasma membrane via vesicular trafficking.
We have investigated apolipoprotein E (apoE) recycling in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, a peripheral cell that does not produce lipoproteins or express apoE. Using a pulse-chase protocol in which cells were pulsed with 125I-apoE-VLDL and chased for different periods, approximately 30% of the apoE internalized during the pulse was resecreted within a 4 h chase in a relatively lipid-free state. The addition of lysosomotropic agents or brefeldin A had no effect on apoE recycling. Unlike previous results with hepatocytes and macrophages, neither apoA-I nor upregulation of ABCA1 stimulated apoE recycling. However, cyclodextrin, which extracts cholesterol from plasma membrane lipid rafts, increased recycling. Confocal studies revealed that apoE, internalized during a 1 h pulse, colocalizes with early endosomal antigen-1, Rab5, Rab11a, and lysobisphosphatidic acid but not with lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1. Colocalization of apoE and Rab11a persisted even after cells had been chased for 1 h, suggesting a pool of apoE within the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC). Our data suggest that apoE recycling in CHO cells is linked to cellular cholesterol removal via the ERC and phospholipid-containing acceptors in a pathway alternative to the ABCA1-apoA-I axis.
Experimental approaches that enable direct investigation of human protein function are necessary for comprehensive annotation of the human proteome. We introduce a cell-based platform for rapid and unbiased functional annotation of undercharacterized human proteins. Utilizing a library of antibody biomarkers, the full-length proteins are investigated by tracking phenotypic changes caused by overexpression in human cell lines. We combine reverse transfection and immunodetection by fluorescence microscopy to facilitate this procedure at high resolution. Demonstrating the advantage of this approach, new annotations are provided for two novel proteins: 1) a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase protein (C3F) that, when overexpressed, disrupts Golgi and endosome integrity due likely to an endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transport block and 2) a tumor marker (BC-2) that prompts a redistribution of a transcriptional silencing protein (BMI1) and a mitogen-activated protein kinase mediator (Rac1) to distinct nuclear regions that undergo chromatin compaction. Our strategy is an immediate application for directly addressing those proteins whose molecular function remains unknown.
A portion of apolipoprotein E (apoE) internalized by hepatocytes is spared degradation and is recycled. To investigate the intracellular routing of recycling apoE, primary hepatocyte cultures from LDL receptor-deficient mice and mice deficient in receptor-associated protein [a model of depressed expression of LDL receptor-related protein (LRP)] were incubated with human VLDL containing 125I-labeled human recombinant apoE3. Approximately 30% of the internalized intact apoE was recycled after 4 h. The N-terminal 22 kDa fragment of apoE was also resecreted, demonstrating that this apoE domain contains sufficient sequence to recycle. The 22 kDa fragment has reduced affinity for lipoproteins, suggesting that apoE recycling is linked to the ability of apoE to bind directly to a recycling receptor. Finally, apoE was found to recycle equally well in the presence of brefeldin A, a drug that blocks transport from the endoplasmic reticulum and leads to collapse of the Golgi stacks. Our studies demonstrate that apoE recycling occurs 1) in the absence of the LDL receptor or under conditions of markedly reduced LRP expression; 2) when apoE lacks the carboxyl-terminal domain, which allows binding to the lipoprotein; and 3) in the absence of an intact Golgi apparatus. We conclude that apoE recycling occurs through multiple redundant pathways.
Copyright 2004 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is essential to the function of pulmonary surfactant and to alveolar type 2 cell phenotype. Human SP-B is the 79-amino acid product of extensive post-translational processing of a 381-amino acid preproprotein. Processing involves modification of the primary translation product from 39 to 42 kDa and at least 3 subsequent proteolytic cleavages to produce the mature 8-kDa SP-B. To examine the intracellular sites of SP-B processing, we carried out immunofluorescence cytochemistry and inhibitor studies on human fetal lung in explant culture and isolated type 2 cells in monolayer culture using polyclonal antibodies to human SP-B(8) (Phe(201)-Met(279)) and specific epitopes within the N- (NFProx, Ser(145)-Leu(160); NFlank Gln(186)-Gln(200)) and C-terminal (CFlank, Gly(284)-Ser(304)) propeptides of pro-SP-B. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry using epitope-specific antisera showed colocalization of pro-SP-B with the endoplasmic reticulum resident protein BiP. The 25-kDa intermediate was partially endo H-sensitive, colocalized with the medial Golgi resident protein MG160, and shifted into the endoplasmic reticulum in the presence of brefeldin A, which interferes with anterograde transport from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. The 9-kDa intermediate colocalized in part with MG160 but not with Lamp-1, a transmembrane protein resident in late endosomes and lamellar bodies. Brefeldin A induced a loss of colocalization between MG160 and NFlank, shifting NFlank immunostaining to a juxtanuclear tubular array. In pulse-chase studies, brefeldin A blocked all processing of 42-kDa pro-SP-B whereas similar studies using monensin blocked the final N-terminal processing event of 9 to 8 kDa SP-B. We conclude that: 1) the first enzymatic cleavage of pro-SP-B to the 25-kDa intermediate is in the brefeldin A-sensitive, medial Golgi; 2) cleavage of the 25-kDa intermediate to a 9-kDa form is a trans-Golgi event that is slowed but not blocked by monensin; 3) the final cleavage of 9 to 8 kDa SP-B is a monensin-sensitive, post-Golgi event occurring prior to transfer of SP-B to lamellar bodies.
Postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95/SAP-90) is a palmitoylated peripheral membrane protein that scaffolds ion channels at excitatory synapses. To elucidate mechanisms for postsynaptic ion channel clustering, we analyzed the cellular trafficking of PSD-95. We find that PSD-95 transiently associates with a perinuclear membranous compartment and traffics with vesiculotubular structures, which migrate in a microtubule-dependent manner. Trafficking of PSD-95 with these vesiculotubular structures requires dual palmitoylation, which is specified by five consecutive hydrophobic residues at the NH(2) terminus. Mutations that disrupt dual palmitoylation of PSD-95 block both ion channel clustering by PSD-95 and its synaptic targeting. Replacing the palmitoylated NH(2) terminus of PSD-95 with alternative palmitoylation motifs at either the NH(2) or COOH termini restores ion channel clustering also induces postsynaptic targeting, respectively. In brain, we find that PSD-95 occurs not only at PSDs but also in association with intracellular smooth tubular structures in dendrites and spines. These data imply that PSD-95 is an itinerant vesicular protein; initial targeting of PSD-95 to an intracellular membrane compartment may participate in postsynaptic ion channel clustering by PSD-95.
The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) complex is composed of three homologous subunits: alpha, beta and gamma. Mutations in ENaC subunits can increase the number of channels on the cell surface, causing a hereditary form of hypertension called Liddle's syndrome, or can decrease channel activity, causing pseudohypoaldosteronism type I, a salt-wasting disease of infancy. To investigate surface expression, we studied ENaC subunits expressed in COS-7 and HEK293 cells. Using surface biotinylation and protease sensitivity, we found that when individual ENaC subunits are expressed alone, they traffic to the cell surface. The subunits are glycosylated with high-mannose oligosaccharides, but seem to have the carbohydrate removed before they reach the cell surface. Moreover, subunits form a complex that cannot be disrupted by several non-ionic detergents. The pattern of glycosylation and detergent solubility/insolubility persists when the N-teminal and C-terminal cytoplasmic regions of ENaC are removed. With co-expression of all three ENaC subunits, the insoluble complex is the predominant species. These results show that ENaC and its family members are unique in their trafficking, biochemical characteristics and post-translational modifications.
ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) is a small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein that regulates the binding of coat proteins to membranes and is required for several stages of vesicular transport. ARF also stimulates phospholipase D (PLD) activity, which can alter the lipid content of membranes by conversion of phospholipids into phosphatidic acid. Abundant PLD activity was found in Golgi-enriched membranes from several cell lines. Golgi PLD activity was greatly stimulated by ARF and GTP analogs and this stimulation could be inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA), a drug that blocks binding of ARF to Golgi membranes. Furthermore, in Golgi membranes from BFA-resistant PtK1 cells, basal PLD activity was high and not stimulated by exogenous ARF or GTP analogs. Thus, ARF activates PLD on the Golgi complex, suggesting a possible link between transport events and the underlying architecture of the lipid bilayer.