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BACKGROUND & AIMS - Lactation lowers blood glucose and triglycerides, and increases insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a longer duration of lactation would be associated with lower prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the United States.
METHODS - Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults cohort study who delivered ≥ 1 child post-baseline (Y0: 1985-1986), and underwent CT quantification of hepatic steatosis 25 years following cohort entry (Y25: 2010-2011) were included (n = 844). The duration of lactation was summed for all post-baseline births, and NAFLD at Y25 was assessed by central review of CT images and defined by liver attenuation ≤ 40 Hounsfield Units after exclusion of other causes of hepatic steatosis. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed using an a priori set of confounding variables; age, race, education, and baseline body mass index.
RESULTS - Of 844 women who delivered after baseline (48% black, 52% white, mean age 49 years at Y25 exam), 32% reported lactation duration of 0 to 1 month, 25% reported >1 to 6 months, 43% reported more than 6 months, while 54 (6%) had NAFLD. Longer lactation duration was inversely associated with NAFLD in unadjusted logistic regression. For women who reported >6 months lactation compared to those reporting 0-1 month, the odds ratio for NAFLD was 0.48 (95% CI 0.25-0.94; p = 0.03) and the association remained after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio 0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.97; p = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS - A longer duration of lactation, particularly greater than 6 months, is associated with lower odds of NAFLD in mid-life and may represent a modifiable risk factor for NAFLD.
LAY SUMMARY - A longer duration of breastfeeding has been associated with multiple potential health benefits for the mother including reduction in heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. In this study we found that breastfeeding for longer than 6 months was associated with a lower risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mid-life.
Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Timing of solid food introduction in infancy has been associated with several chronic diseases. To explore potential mechanisms, we investigated the relationship between timing of solid food introduction and F2-isoprostanes-a marker of oxidative stress.
METHODS - Urinary F2-isoprostanes were assessed in 336 healthy children aged less than 11.5 y with 1,266 clinic visits (mean = 3.8 visits per child) in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young. We analyzed the association between F2-isoprostane concentrations and infant diet exposures using linear mixed models adjusted for age, age(2), HLA-DR3/4,DQB1*0302 genotype, first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes, maternal age, maternal education, sex, and exposure to in utero cigarette smoke.
RESULTS - Later solid food introduction was associated with lower F2-isoprostane concentrations in childhood (on average, 0.10 ng/mg per month of age at introduction; estimate: -0.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.18, -0.02) P value = 0.02). Moreover, childhood F2-isoprostane concentrations were, on average, 0.24 ng/mg lower in individuals breastfed at solid food introduction (estimate: -0.24 (95% CI: -0.47, -0.01) P value = 0.04) compared with those who were not. Associations remained significant after limiting analyses to F2-isoprostanes after 2 y of age.
CONCLUSION - Our results suggest a long-term protective effect of later solid food introduction and breastfeeding at solid food introduction against increased F2-isoprostane concentrations throughout childhood.
In a cross-sectional analysis of 629 mother-infants dyads, breast-feeding (ever vs. never) was associated with decreased relative odds of a lower versus upper respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.42-0.99). There was not a significant association between breast-feeding and bronchiolitis severity score or length of hospital stay.
STUDY OBJECTIVE - To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula.
METHODS - We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior.
RESULTS - Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum.
CONCLUSION - Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation.
CITATION - Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum.
While there is clear evidence for an association between later age at first live birth and increased breast cancer risk, associations with the timing of other reproductive events are less clear. As breast tissues undergo major structural and cellular changes during pregnancy, we examined associations between reproductive time events and intervals with breast cancer risk among parous women from the population-based Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (SBCS). Unconditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations with breast cancer risk for 3,269 cases and 3,341 controls. In addition to later age at first live birth, later ages at first pregnancy and last pregnancy were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk (p-trend = 0.002, 0.015, 0.008, respectively); longer intervals from menarche to first or last live birth were also associated with increased risk (p-trend < 0.001, =0.018, respectively). Analyses stratified by menopausal status and estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status revealed that associations for later age at first pregnancy or live birth and longer intervals from menarche to first or last live birth occurred among premenopausal women and ER+/PR+ breast cancers, whereas the association for later age at last pregnancy occurred among postmenopausal women and women with ER+/PR- or ER-/PR+ breast cancers. Because of the high correlation with other reproductive variables, models did not include adjustment for age at first live birth; when included, the significance of all associations was attenuated. These findings suggest that while reproductive time events and intervals play an important role in breast cancer etiology, contributions may differ by menopausal status and hormone receptor status of breast cancers.
© 2013 UICC.
The sterile womb paradigm is an enduring premise in biology that human infants are born sterile. Recent studies suggest that infants incorporate an initial microbiome before birth and receive copious supplementation of maternal microbes through birth and breastfeeding. Moreover, evidence for microbial maternal transmission is increasingly widespread across animals. This collective knowledge compels a paradigm shift—one in which maternal transmission of microbes advances from a taxonomically specialized phenomenon to a universal one in animals. It also engenders fresh views on the assembly of the microbiome, its role in animal evolution, and applications to human health and disease.
INTRODUCTION - The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care on breastfeeding outcomes, relative to traditional prenatal care delivered in an individual format.
METHODS - A quasi-experimental research design was conducted with 794 women receiving prenatal care delivered in a group or individual format at 4 sites in Tennessee. Propensity scores were used to create groups of women statistically matched on background demographics and medical history. Outcomes included breastfeeding at discharge and breastfeeding at postpartum follow-up.
RESULTS - Compared with the matched comparison group of women receiving prenatal care in an individual format, women in CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care had significantly higher odds of any breastfeeding at discharge (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-3.26; P < .001). Across the 4 sites, there were no consistent differences in the odds of any breastfeeding at follow-up or exclusive breastfeeding at discharge or postpartum follow-up.
DISCUSSION - CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care may have beneficial effects on initial rates of breastfeeding relative to individually delivered care. However, there is not sufficient evidence to conclude that CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care has robust effects on exclusive breastfeeding at discharge or postpartum follow-up.
© 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
OBJECTIVE - Many fibroids regress with pregnancy or postpartum involution. We sought to identify factors that might inhibit or enhance this natural regression.
STUDY DESIGN - We used a prospective cohort of women with fibroids (n = 494) determined by ultrasound screening during the early first trimester identified from the Right from the Start study. Ultrasounds were repeated 3-6 months postpartum (n = 279). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with fibroid regression (>50% reduction in volume).
RESULTS - Postpartum progestin users had significantly less fibroid regression (P = .01), whereas there was no association for combined estrogen-progestin use. Cesarean delivery and fever (hypothesized to inhibit regression) and breast feeding (hypothesized to enhance regression) were not associated with fibroid regression.
CONCLUSION - Progestin use in the postpartum period may limit regression of fibroids, consistent with prior literature on progesterone's role in fibroid development. Research into progestin-only treatments in critical reproductive periods is needed.
Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.