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The structurally related exocyclic guanine adducts α-hydroxypropano-dG (α-OH-PdG), γ-hydroxypropano-dG (γ-OH-PdG), and M1dG are formed when DNA is exposed to the reactive aldehydes acrolein and malondialdehyde (MDA). These lesions are believed to form the basis for the observed cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of acrolein and MDA. In an effort to understand the enzymatic pathways and chemical mechanisms that are involved in the repair of acrolein- and MDA-induced DNA damage, we investigated the ability of the DNA repair enzyme AlkB, an α-ketoglutarate/Fe(II) dependent dioxygenase, to process α-OH-PdG, γ-OH-PdG, and M1dG in both single- and double-stranded DNA contexts. By monitoring the repair reactions using quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry, it was established that AlkB can oxidatively dealkylate γ-OH-PdG most efficiently, followed by M1dG and α-OH-PdG. The AlkB repair mechanism involved multiple intermediates and complex, overlapping repair pathways. For example, the three exocyclic guanine adducts were shown to be in equilibrium with open-ring aldehydic forms, which were trapped using (pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) or NaBH4. AlkB repaired the trapped open-ring form of γ-OH-PdG but not the trapped open-ring of α-OH-PdG. Taken together, this study provides a detailed mechanism by which three-carbon bridge exocyclic guanine adducts can be processed by AlkB and suggests an important role for the AlkB family of dioxygenases in protecting against the deleterious biological consequences of acrolein and MDA.
The primary products from peroxidation of linoleate in biological tissues and fluids are the hydroperoxy octadecadienoates, and the products normally assayed, after reduction of the hydroperoxides, are the corresponding hydroxy octadecadienoates (HODEs). The HODEs are found in tissues and fluids as a mixture of Z,E and E,E stereoisomers. Two regioisomeric sets of Z,E and E,E stereoisomers are normally observed with substitution at the 9- and 13-positions of the 18-carbon chain. The Z,E/E,E product ratio has proved to be a useful means for assessing the reducing capacity of the medium undergoing peroxidation. The HODE Z,E/E,E product ratios previously reported for tissues such as liver and brain vary from 0.5 to 2.0, and plasma ratios are somewhat higher, between 2.0 and 3.0. The reported literature protocols for HODE assay in tissues involve homogenization, reduction with sodium borohydride in the presence of BHT, and ester hydrolysis with KOH to give the free HODEs. This is followed by either reverse-phase HPLC of the free acid HODEs or by conversion to TMS derivatives and GC-MS. When sodium borohydride is replaced in the protocol by triphenylphosphine, a gentler reducing agent, HODE Z,E/E,E product ratios are much higher, and lower total HODE levels of are found. It is proposed that inclusion of sodium borohydride in the isolation procedures leads to ex vivo reactions that are avoided if triphenylphosphine is used as the reducing agent. Modified protocols for HODE analyses (tissue and plasma methods #2) are described that should be used for assays of tissues and fluids.
We have investigated lipid peroxidation in the skin of CD1 mice following single or repeated topical applications of the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). A substantial accumulation of hydroxyphospholipids, to levels 3-5 times control values, followed exposure to two or more TPA treatments (24-72 h intervals), whereas single applications were ineffective. Sodium borohydride reduction increased the yield of product by approximately 50%, suggesting the additional presence of phospholipid hydroperoxides in the oxidized lipids. Straight phase HPLC analysis of the constituent hydroxy fatty acids, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, revealed that oxidized derivatives of linoleic acid, including 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (9- and 13-HODE), were the primary products. Stereochemical analysis showed ratios of S to R stereoisomers of 1.3 for 13-HODE and 1.27 for 9-HODE, which implied that TPA-induced peroxidation was primarily due to free radical oxidation, although a partial contribution of enzyme (lipoxygenase) activity is possible. The TPA-induced peroxidation was greater in the epidermis than in the dermis. Pre-exposure of mouse skin to the anti-inflammatory agent fluocinolone acetonide, antioxidants and enzyme (phospholipase A2 and lipoxygenase) inhibitors lowered the peroxidation response to subsequent exposure to TPA. Phospholipid peroxidation products may be useful markers of oxygen radical production in TPA-exposed mouse skin with possible relevance to tumor promotion.
A method is described for quantitative analysis of the pyrimidopurinone adduct (M1G) arising from reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) with DNA. DNA samples treated with MDA are reduced with sodium borohydride and hydrolyzed with 0.1 N HCl. The bases released are isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. 5,6-Dihydro-M1G (H2M1G) is detected with a glassy carbon electrode at an applied potential of 700 mV vs Ag/AgCl. At this potential, interference from normal deoxynucleoside bases is low. The limit of detection of H2M1G eluted from an HPLC column is 100-200 fmol. The method described should be useful for quantitation of M1G in a variety of DNA samples and biological fluids.
We have shown previously that periodate oxidation of collagen carbohydrate does not affect its ability to aggregate platelets. We now describe an additional characterization of periodate-modified collagen which demonstrates that collagen devoid of intact carbohydrate is fully capable of fibril formation, and we confirm its capacity to initiate platelet aggregation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the platelet aggregating abilities of Types I, II, and III fibrillar collagen are quite similar despite differences in carbohydrate content and amino acid sequence. We also demonstrate that monomeric, pepsin-solubilized Type I human collagen is ineffective inhibiting aggregation by performed fibrils derived from the same molecule, thus establishing that the affinity of platelets for collagen depends upon prior polymerization of collagen. We interpret these and other findings to demonstrate that the hydroxylysyl glycoside regions of collagen are not highly specific sites involved in platelet-collagen interactions leading to "physiological" aggregation, and that the possibility must be considered that multiple interactions involving collagen sites of comparatively low structural specificity may be the initiating events in release of platelet ADP and the ensuing aggregation.