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The chemokine receptor, CXCR4, is involved in cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. Several promising CXCR4 antagonists have been shown to halt tumor metastasis in preclinical studies, and clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of these agents in patients with cancer are ongoing. However, the impact of targeting CXCR4 specifically on immune cells is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that genetic deletion of CXCR4 in myeloid cells (CXCR4) enhances the antitumor immune response, resulting in significantly reduced melanoma tumor growth. Moreover, CXCR4 mice exhibited slowed tumor progression compared with CXCR4 mice in an inducible melanocyte mouse model. The percentage of Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing myeloid cells was reduced in CXCR4 mice as compared with myeloid cells from CXCR4 mice. In contrast, there was an increased percentage of natural killer (NK) cells expressing FasL in tumors growing in CXCR4 mice. NK cells from CXCR4 mice also exhibited increased tumor cell killing capacity , based on clearance of NK-sensitive Yac-1 cells. NK cell-mediated killing of Yac-1 cells occurred in a FasL-dependent manner, which was partially dependent upon the presence of CXCR4 neutrophils. Furthermore, enhanced NK cell activity in CXCR4 mice was also associated with increased production of IL18 by specific leukocyte subpopulations. These data suggest that CXCR4-mediated signals from myeloid cells suppress NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance and thereby enhance tumor growth. Systemic delivery of a peptide antagonist of CXCR4 to tumor-bearing CXCR4 mice resulted in enhanced NK-cell activation and reduced tumor growth, supporting potential clinical implications for CXCR4 antagonism in some cancers. .
©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.
OBJECTIVE - Antiatherosclerotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blockade in patients with systemic inflammatory states are not conclusively demonstrated, which suggests that effects depend on the cause of inflammation. Macrophage LRP1 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1) and apoE contribute to inflammation through different pathways. We studied the antiatherosclerosis effects of TNF-α blockade in hyperlipidemic mice lacking either LRP1 (MΦLRP1(-/-)) or apoE from macrophages.
APPROACH AND RESULTS - Lethally irradiated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)(-/-) mice were reconstituted with bone marrow from either wild-type, MΦLRP1(-/-), apoE(-/-) or apoE(-/-)/MΦLRP1(-/-)(DKO) mice, and then treated with the TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab while fed a Western-type diet. Adalimumab reduced plasma TNF-α concentration, suppressed blood ly6C(hi) monocyte levels and their migration into the lesion, and reduced lesion cellularity and inflammation in both wild-type→LDLR(-/-) and apoE(-/-)→LDLR(-/-) mice. Overall, adalimumab reduced lesion burden by 52% to 57% in these mice. Adalimumab reduced TNF-α and blood ly6C(hi) monocyte levels in MΦLRP1(-/-)→LDLR(-/-) and DKO→LDLR(-/-) mice, but it did not suppress ly6C(hi) monocyte migration into the lesion or atherosclerosis progression.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results show that TNF-α blockade exerts antiatherosclerotic effects that are dependent on the presence of macrophage LRP1.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
OBJECTIVE - The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) are regulated by a wide variety of cellular stresses and have been implicated in apoptotic signaling. Macrophages express 2 JNK isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2, which may have different effects on cell survival and atherosclerosis.
APPROACH AND RESULTS - To dissect the effect of macrophage JNK1 and JNK2 on early atherosclerosis, Ldlr(-/-) mice were reconstituted with wild-type, Jnk1(-/-), and Jnk2(-/-) hematopoietic cells and fed a high cholesterol diet. Jnk1(-/-)→Ldlr(-/-) mice have larger atherosclerotic lesions with more macrophages and fewer apoptotic cells than mice transplanted with wild-type or Jnk2(-/-) cells. Moreover, genetic ablation of JNK to a single allele (Jnk1(+/-)/Jnk2(-/-) or Jnk1(-/-)/Jnk2(+/-)) in marrow of Ldlr(-/-) recipients further increased atherosclerosis compared with Jnk1(-/-)→Ldlr(-/-) and wild-type→Ldlr(-/-) mice. In mouse macrophages, anisomycin-mediated JNK signaling antagonized Akt activity, and loss of Jnk1 gene obliterated this effect. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of JNK1, but not JNK2, markedly reduced the antagonizing effect of JNK on Akt activity. Prolonged JNK signaling in the setting of endoplasmic reticulum stress gradually extinguished Akt and Bad activity in wild-type cells with markedly less effects in Jnk1(-/-) macrophages, which were also more resistant to apoptosis. Consequently, anisomycin increased and JNK1 inhibitors suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in macrophages. We also found that genetic and pharmacological inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog abolished the JNK-mediated effects on Akt activity, indicating that phosphatase and tensin homolog mediates crosstalk between these pathways.
CONCLUSIONS - Loss of Jnk1, but not Jnk2, in macrophages protects them from apoptosis, increasing cell survival, and this accelerates early atherosclerosis.
© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
RATIONALE - Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive lung disease of the pulmonary microvasculature. Studies suggest that bone marrow (BM)-derived circulating cells may play an important role in its pathogenesis.
OBJECTIVES - We used a genetic model of PAH, the Bmpr2 mutant mouse, to study the role of BM-derived circulating cells in its pathogenesis.
METHODS - Recipient mice, either Bmpr2(R899X) mutant or controls, were lethally irradiated and transplanted with either control or Bmpr2(R899X) BM cells. Donor cells were traced in female recipient mice by Y chromosome painting. Molecular and function insights were provided by expression and cytokine arrays combined with flow cytometry, colony-forming assays, and competitive transplant assays.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - We found that mutant BM cells caused PAH with remodeling and inflammation when transplanted into control mice, whereas control BM cells had a protective effect against the development of disease, when transplanted into mutant mice. Donor BM-derived cells were present in the lungs of recipient mice. Functional and molecular analysis identified mutant BM cell dysfunction suggestive of a PAH phenotype soon after activation of the transgene and long before the development of lung pathology.
CONCLUSIONS - Our data show that BM cells played a key role in PAH pathogenesis and that the transplanted BM cells were able to drive the lung phenotype in a myeloablative transplant model. Furthermore, the specific cell types involved were derived from hematopoietic stem cells and exhibit dysfunction long before the development of lung pathology.
Agents that promote tissue regeneration could be beneficial in a variety of clinical settings, such as stimulating recovery of the hematopoietic system after bone marrow transplantation. Prostaglandin PGE2, a lipid signaling molecule that supports expansion of several types of tissue stem cells, is a candidate therapeutic target for promoting tissue regeneration in vivo. Here, we show that inhibition of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a prostaglandin-degrading enzyme, potentiates tissue regeneration in multiple organs in mice. In a chemical screen, we identify a small-molecule inhibitor of 15-PGDH (SW033291) that increases prostaglandin PGE2 levels in bone marrow and other tissues. SW033291 accelerates hematopoietic recovery in mice receiving a bone marrow transplant. The same compound also promotes tissue regeneration in mouse models of colon and liver injury. Tissues from 15-PGDH knockout mice demonstrate similar increased regenerative capacity. Thus, 15-PGDH inhibition may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for tissue regeneration in diverse clinical contexts.
Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Transcriptional mechanisms governing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation are not fully understood. Sequence-specific ssDNA-binding protein 2 (SSBP2) is a candidate acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) suppressor gene located at chromosome 5q14. SSBP2 binds the transcriptional adaptor protein Lim domain-binding protein 1 (LDB1) and enhances LDB1 stability to regulate gene expression. Notably, Ldb1 is essential for HSC specification during early development and maintenance in adults. We previously reported shortened lifespan and greater susceptibility to B cell lymphomas and carcinomas in Ssbp2(-/-) mice. However, whether Ssbp2 plays a regulatory role in normal HSC function and leukemogenesis is unknown. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence to demonstrate a requirement for Ssbp2 in the function and transcriptional program of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in vivo. We found that hematopoietic tissues were hypoplastic in Ssbp2(-/-) mice, and the frequency of lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor cells in bone marrow was reduced. Other significant features of these mice were delayed recovery from 5-fluorouracil treatment and diminished multilineage reconstitution in lethally irradiated bone marrow recipients. Dramatic reduction of Notch1 transcripts and increased expression of transcripts encoding the transcription factor E2a and its downstream target Cdkn1a also distinguished Ssbp2(-/-) HSPCs from wild-type HSPCs. Finally, a tendency toward coordinated expression of SSBP2 and the AML suppressor NOTCH1 in a subset of the Cancer Genome Atlas AML cases suggested a role for SSBP2 in AML pathogenesis. Collectively, our results uncovered a critical regulatory function for SSBP2 in HSPC gene expression and function.
Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Busulfan (BU) has a narrow therapeutic window and the average concentration of BU at steady state (Css) is critical for successful engraftment in children receiving BU as part of the preparative regimen for allogeneic transplants. Sixteen patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) from HLA-identical siblings. The preparative regimen consisted of intravenous BU 0.8-1 mg/kg/dose for 16 doses, cytoxan (CY) of 50 mg/kg daily for four doses and equine anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) 30 mg/kg daily for three doses. BU levels were adjusted to provide a total exposure Css of 600-700 ng/mL. The median age at the time of transplant was 6.2 years (range 1.2-19.3). Fourteen (87%) patients required adjustment of the BU dose to achieve a median Css of 652 ng/mL (range 607-700). All patients achieved neutrophil and platelet engraftment without significant toxicity. Median donor engraftment at the last follow-up was 100% (range 80-100). None of the patients experienced sickle cell-related complications post transplant. With a median follow-up of 3 years (range 1.3-9), the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) are both 100%. We conclude that targeting of BU Css between 600 and 700 ng/mL in this regimen can result in excellent and sustained engraftment in young patients with SCD.
OBJECTIVE - MCPIP1 is a newly identified protein that profoundly impacts immunity and inflammation. We aim to test if MCPIP1 deficiency in hematopoietic cells results in systemic inflammation and accelerates atherogenesis in mice.
APPROACH AND RESULTS - After lethally irradiated, LDLR(-/-) mice were transplanted with bone marrow cells from either wild-type or MCPIP1(-/-) mice. These chimeric mice were fed a western-type diet for 7 weeks. We found that bone marrow MCPIP1(-/-) mice displayed a phenotype similar to that of whole body MCPIP1(-/-) mice, with severe systemic and multi-organ inflammation. However, MCPIP1(-/-) bone marrow recipients developed >10-fold less atherosclerotic lesions in the proximal aorta than WT bone marrow recipients, and essentially no lesions in en face aorta. The diminishment in atherosclerosis in bone marrow MCPIP1(-/-) mice may be partially attributed to the slight decrease in their plasma lipids. Flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes showed that bone marrow MCPIP1(-/-) mice contained reduced numbers of T cells and B cells, but increased numbers of regulatory T cells, Th17 cells, CD11b+/Gr1+ cells and CD11b+/Ly6C(low) cells. This overall anti-atherogenic leukocyte profile may also contribute to the reduced atherogenesis. We also examined the cholesterol efflux capability of MCPIP1 deficient macrophages, and found that MCPIP1 deficiency increased cholesterol efflux to apoAI and HDL, due to increased protein levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1.
CONCLUSIONS - Hematopoietic deficiency of MCPIP1 resulted in severe systemic and multi-organ inflammation but paradoxically diminished atherogenesis in mice. The reduced atheroegensis may be explained by the decreased plasma cholesterol levels, the anti-atherogenic leukocyte profile, as well as enhanced cholesterol efflux capability. This study suggests that, while atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, the mechanisms underlying atherogenesis-associated inflammation in arterial wall versus the inflammation in solid organs may be substantially different.
Microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is an inducible enzyme that specifically catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 to PGE2. We showed that mPGES-1 null mice had a significantly reduced incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis compared with wild-type (WT) mice associated with a marked reduction in Abs to type II collagen. In this study, we further elucidated the role of mPGES-1 in the humoral immune response. Basal levels of serum IgM and IgG were significantly reduced in mPGES-1 null mice. Compared with WT mice, mPGES-1 null mice exhibited a significant reduction of hapten-specific serum Abs in response to immunization with the T cell-dependent (TD) Ag DNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Immunization with the T cell-independent type 1 Ag trinitrophenyl-LPS or the T cell-independent type 2 Ag DNP-Ficoll revealed minimal differences between strains. Germinal center formation in the spleen of mPGES-1 null and WT mice were similar after immunization with DNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. To determine whether the effect of mPGES-1 and PGE2 was localized to hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic cells, we generated bone marrow chimeras. We demonstrated that mPGES-1 deficiency in nonhematopoietic cells was the critical factor for reduced TD Ab production. We conclude that mPGES-1 and PGE2-dependent phenotypic changes of nonhematopoietic/mesenchymal stromal cells play a key role in TD humoral immune responses in vivo. These findings may have relevance to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune inflammatory diseases associated with autoantibody formation.
OBJECTIVE - Adipose tissue (AT)-specific inflammation is considered to mediate the pathological consequences of obesity and macrophages are known to activate inflammatory pathways in obese AT. Because cyclooxygenases play a central role in regulating the inflammatory processes, we sought to determine the role of hematopoietic cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in modulating AT inflammation in obesity.
MATERIALS/METHODS - Bone marrow transplantation was performed to delete COX-1 in hematopoietic cells. Briefly, female wild type (wt) mice were lethally irradiated and injected with bone marrow (BM) cells collected from wild type (COX-1+/+) or COX-1 knock-out (COX-1-/-) donor mice. The mice were fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks.
RESULTS - The mice that received COX-1-/- bone marrow (BM-COX-1-/-) exhibited a significant increase in fasting glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides in the circulation compared to control (BM-COX-1+/+) mice. Markers of AT-inflammation were increased and were associated with increased leptin and decreased adiponectin in plasma. Hepatic inflammation was reduced with a concomitant reduction in TXB2 levels. The hepatic mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and lipid transport was increased while expression of genes involved in regulating hepatic glucose output was reduced in BM-COX-1-/- mice. Finally, renal inflammation and markers of renal glucose release were increased in BM-COX-1-/- mice.
CONCLUSION - Hematopoietic COX-1 deletion results in impairments in metabolic homeostasis which may be partly due to increased AT inflammation and dysregulated adipokine profile. An increase in renal glucose release and hepatic lipogenesis/lipid transport may also play a role, at least in part, in mediating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, respectively.
Published by Elsevier Inc.