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Numerous studies indicate that androgen receptor splice variants (ARVs) play a critical role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), including the resistance to the new generation of inhibitors of androgen receptor (AR) action. Previously, we demonstrated that activation of NF-κB signaling increases ARVs expression in prostate cancer (PC) cells, thereby promoting progression to CRPC. However, it is unclear how NF-κB signaling is activated in CRPC. In this study, we report that long-term treatment with anti-androgens increases a neuroendocrine (NE) hormone - gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) expression in PC cells. In addition, activation of GRP/GRP-R signaling increases ARVs expression through activating NF-κB signaling. This results in an androgen-dependent tumor progressing to a castrate resistant tumor. The knock-down of AR-V7 restores sensitivity to antiandrogens of PC cells over-expressing the GRP/GRP-R signaling pathway. These findings strongly indicate that the axis of Androgen-Deprivation Therapy (ADT) induces GRP/GRP-R activity, activation NF-κB and increased levels of AR-V7 expression resulting in progression to CRPC. Both prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell NE prostate cancer express GRP-R. Since the GRP-R is clinically targetable by analogue-based approach, this provides a novel therapeutic approach to treat advanced CRPC.
Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect on islet function, as reflected in low expression of BBS receptors in islet samples. Intestinal BBS receptor expression was enhanced in PN with BBS, and circulating active GLP-1 levels were significantly enhanced in BBS-treated PN mice. We hypothesized that BBS preserved islet function indirectly, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. We confirmed the ability of BBS to directly stimulate intestinal enteroid cells to express the GLP-1 precursor preproglucagon. In conclusion, BBS preserves the exocrine and endocrine pancreas functions during PN; however, the endocrine stimulation is likely indirect, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis.
INTRODUCTION - Parenteral nutrition (PN) increases the risk of infection in critically ill patients and is associated with defects in gastrointestinal innate immunity. Goblet cells produce mucosal defense compounds, including mucin (principally MUC2), trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and resistin-like molecule β (RELMβ). Bombesin (BBS), a gastrin-releasing peptide analogue, experimentally reverses PN-induced defects in Paneth cell innate immunity. We hypothesized that PN reduces goblet cell product expression and PN+BBS would reverse these PN-induced defects.
METHODS - Two days after intravenous cannulation, male Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomized to chow (n = 15), PN (n = 13), or PN+BBS (15 µg tid) (n = 12) diets for 5 days. Defined segments of ileum and luminal fluid were analyzed for MUC2, TFF3, and RELMβ by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS - Compared with chow, PN significantly reduced MUC2 in ileum (P < .01) and luminal fluid (P = .01). BBS supplementation did not improve ileal or luminal MUC2 compared with PN (P > .3). Compared with chow, PN significantly reduced TFF3 in ileum (P < .02) and luminal fluid (P < .01). BBS addition did not improve ileal or luminal TFF3 compared with PN (P > .3). Compared with chow, PN significantly reduced ileal RELMβ (P < .01). BBS supplementation significantly increased ileal RELMβ to levels similar to chow (P < .03 vs PN; P > .6 vs chow). Th2 cytokines were decreased with PN and returned to chow levels with BBS.
CONCLUSION - PN significantly impairs the goblet cell component of innate mucosal immunity. BBS only preserves goblet cell RELMβ during PN but not other goblet cell products measured.
© 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
BACKGROUND - Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor, GRP-R, are critically involved in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for GRP/GRP-R-induced cell migration and invasion remain unclear. In this study, we sought to determine the cell signals involved in GRP/GRP-R-mediated neuroblastoma cell migration and invasion.
METHODS - Human neuroblastoma cell lines SK-N-SH, LAN-1, and IMR-32 were used for our study. Transwell migration and invasion assays were performed after GRP (10(-7) M) stimulation. The cDNA GEArray Microarray kit was used to determine GRP-R-induced gene expression changes. Protein and membrane expression of integrin subunits were confirmed by Western blotting and flow cytometry analysis. siRNA transfection was performed using Lipofectamine 2000. For scratch assay, a confluent monolayer of cells in 6-well plates were wounded with micropipette tip and observed microscopically at 24 to 72 h.
RESULTS - GRP increased neuroblastoma cell migration and expressions of MMP-2 whereas the TIMP-1 level decreased. GRP-R overexpression stimulated SK-N-SH cell migration and upregulated integrin α2, α3, and β1 protein as well as mRNA expression. Targeted silencing of integrin β1 inhibited cell migration.
CONCLUSION - GRP/GRP-R signaling contributes to neuroblastoma cell migration and invasion. Moreover, the integrin ß1 subunit critically regulates GRP-R-mediated neuroblastoma cell migration and invasion.
Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - microRNA (miRNA) functions broadly as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, and disproportionate miRNAs can result in dysregulation of oncogenes in cancer cells. We have previously shown that gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) signaling regulates tumorigenicity of neuroblastoma cells. Herein, we sought to characterize miRNA profile in GRP-R silenced neuroblastoma cells, and to determine the role of miRNAs on tumorigenicity and metastatic potential.
METHODS - Human neuroblastoma cell lines, BE(2)-C and SK-N-SH, were used for our study. Stably transfected GRP-R silenced cells were assessed for miRNA profiles. Cells were transfected with miR-335, miR-363, or miR-CON, a nontargeting control, and in vitro assays were performed. In vivo functions of miR-335 and miR-363 were also assessed in a spleen-liver metastasis murine model.
RESULTS - GRP-R silencing significantly increased expression of miR-335 and miR-363 in BE(2)-C cells. Overexpression of miR-335 and miR-363 decreased tumorigenicity as measured by clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth, and metastasis determined by cell invasion assay and liver metastasis in vivo.
CONCLUSION - We report, for the first time, that GRP-R-mediated tumorigenicity and increased metastatic potential in neuroblastoma are regulated, in part, by miR-335 and miR-363. A better understanding of the anti-tumor functions of miRNAs could provide valuable insights to discerning molecular mechanisms responsible for neuroblastoma metastasis.
Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) are highly expressed in undifferentiated neuroblastoma, and they play critical roles in oncogenesis. We previously reported that GRP activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells. Conversely, GRP-R silencing induces cell cycle arrest. Here, we speculated that GRP/GRP-R signaling induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that GRP/GRP-R differentially induced expressions of p21 and p27. Silencing GRP/GRP-R decreased p21, but it increased p27 expressions in neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we found that the intracellular localization of p21 and p27 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively. In addition, we found that GRP/GRP-R silencing increased the expression and accumulation of PTEN in the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells where it co-localized with p27, thus suggesting that p27 promotes the function of PTEN as a tumor suppressor by stabilizing PTEN in the cytoplasm. GRP/GRP-R regulation of CDK inhibitors and tumor suppressor PTEN may be critical for tumoriogenesis of neuroblastoma.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Intracellular signaling responsible for gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor-mediated neovascularization is not clearly understood. We sought to determine the cellular mechanisms involved in the GRP receptor regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release in neuroblastoma cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - BE(2)-C cells were treated with bombesin (BBS), the amphibian equivalent of GRP, Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) a PKC agonist, or GF109293X (GFX), and analyses were performed for VEGF secretion, phosphorylated protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and protein kinase D (PKD) expression.
RESULTS - BBS rapidly increased VEGF secretion at 30 min. Pre-treatment with PMA alone produced similar results; this effect was synergistic with the addition of GRP. Conversely, GFX blocked PMA-stimulated increase in VEGF secretion. Immunofluorescent staining for VEGF correlated to BBS, PMA and GFX.
CONCLUSION - PKC is critically responsible for rapid VEGF secretion by GRP receptor signaling in neuroblastoma cells. Inhibition of VEGF significantly reduced GRP-mediated cell proliferation, suggesting its crucial role in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis.
The growth of the human gastrinoma model (PT) in athymic nude mice is stimulated by bombesin (BBS), an amphibian peptide homologous to both human gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B (NMB). The mechanism is not known, and a potent and specific GRP-R antagonist BIM26226, which has low affinity for NMB-R, was used in vivo in athymic nude mice bearing gastrinoma subcutaneously. Both the BBS and BIM26226 stimulated the growth of PT, and the growth stimulation was even greater when given together. RT-PCR study of gastrinoma revealed the presence of both GRP-R and NMB-R mRNA, but much more abundant NMB-R mRNA. We conclude that BBS-stimulated growth of gastrinoma involves both GRP-R and NMB-R, and our findings suggest that GRP-R mediates negative and NMB-R produces positive growth effects on gastrinoma.
The study of functioning human endocrine tumors has been hampered by a lack of suitable in vitro models. We have established the first permanent cell line of a human pancreatic carcinoid tumor (BON) in culture. BON cells grow in monolayer culture and form colonies in soft agar. Injection of BON cells into nude mice produces transplantable tumors in a dose-dependent fashion. The histology of tumors in athymic mice from injection of dispersed, cultured BON cells is similar to the original histology of the resected tumor. Significant amounts of neurotensin, pancreastatin, and serotonin (5-HT) are demonstrated in the cells by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and the presence of chromogranin A, bombesin, and 5-HT is confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Numerous round and pleomorphic dense-core neurosecretory granules are present on electron microscopy. Functional receptors for acetylcholine, 5-HT, isoproterenol, and somatostatin are present on cultured cells. BON cells possess a specific transport system for uptake of 5-HT from the medium; this uptake system may be a route for regulation of autocrine effects of 5-HT on carcinoid cells. This unique human carcinoid tumor cell line should provide the opportunity for new insight into the biology of carcinoid tumors and of specific intracellular mechanisms for secretagogue action in the release of amines and peptides.
The role of cholecystokinin in bombesin-stimulated pancreatic secretion in dogs was examined by the use of a specific cholecystokinin antagonist, proglumide. The primary component of bombesin-stimulated pancreatic secretion at the lowest tested dose was due to cholecystokinin, with only 25 percent of bombesin-stimulated protein output preserved during proglumide infusion. Maximal stimulation of cholecystokinin release was achieved by even the lowest dose of bombesin, whereas dose-related increases in bombesin-stimulated protein secretion were observed. This increase in exocrine secretion is probably explained by increased direct bombesin stimulation. Our findings suggest that the maximal dose of bombesin is lower for cholecystokinin release than its effective dose for enzyme secretion. We conclude that, in all probability, postprandial release of bombesin (or its analogue, gastrin-releasing peptide) affects pancreatic function primarily through release of cholecystokinin.