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Functionally oriented analysis of cardiometabolic traits in a trans-ethnic sample.
Petty LE, Highland HM, Gamazon ER, Hu H, Karhade M, Chen HH, de Vries PS, Grove ML, Aguilar D, Bell GI, Huff CD, Hanis CL, Doddapaneni H, Munzy DM, Gibbs RA, Ma J, Parra EJ, Cruz M, Valladares-Salgado A, Arking DE, Barbeira A, Im HK, Morrison AC, Boerwinkle E, Below JE
(2019) Hum Mol Genet 28: 1212-1224
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, Chromosome Mapping, Ethnic Groups, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Forecasting, Genetic Association Studies, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Male, Metabolome, Middle Aged, Multifactorial Inheritance, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Transcriptome
Show Abstract · Added February 15, 2019
Interpretation of genetic association results is difficult because signals often lack biological context. To generate hypotheses of the functional genetic etiology of complex cardiometabolic traits, we estimated the genetically determined component of gene expression from common variants using PrediXcan (1) and determined genes with differential predicted expression by trait. PrediXcan imputes tissue-specific expression levels from genetic variation using variant-level effect on gene expression in transcriptome data. To explore the value of imputed genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) models across different ancestral populations, we evaluated imputed expression levels for predictive accuracy genome-wide in RNA sequence data in samples drawn from European-ancestry and African-ancestry populations and identified substantial predictive power using European-derived models in a non-European target population. We then tested the association of GReX on 15 cardiometabolic traits including blood lipid levels, body mass index, height, blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, RR interval, fibrinogen level, factor VII level and white blood cell and platelet counts in 15 755 individuals across three ancestry groups, resulting in 20 novel gene-phenotype associations reaching experiment-wide significance across ancestries. In addition, we identified 18 significant novel gene-phenotype associations in our ancestry-specific analyses. Top associations were assessed for additional support via query of S-PrediXcan (2) results derived from publicly available genome-wide association studies summary data. Collectively, these findings illustrate the utility of transcriptome-based imputation models for discovery of cardiometabolic effect genes in a diverse dataset.
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.
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19 MeSH Terms
Overall and Central Obesity and Risk of Lung Cancer: A Pooled Analysis.
Yu D, Zheng W, Johansson M, Lan Q, Park Y, White E, Matthews CE, Sawada N, Gao YT, Robien K, Sinha R, Langhammer A, Kaaks R, Giovannucci EL, Liao LM, Xiang YB, Lazovich D, Peters U, Zhang X, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Willett WC, Tsugane S, Takata Y, Smith-Warner SA, Blot W, Shu XO
(2018) J Natl Cancer Inst 110: 831-842
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Body Mass Index, Cohort Studies, Female, Humans, Lung Neoplasms, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity, Obesity, Abdominal, Risk Factors, Waist Circumference, Waist-Hip Ratio
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2018
Background - The obesity-lung cancer association remains controversial. Concerns over confounding by smoking and reverse causation persist. The influence of obesity type and effect modifications by race/ethnicity and tumor histology are largely unexplored.
Methods - We examined associations of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with lung cancer risk among 1.6 million Americans, Europeans, and Asians. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Analyses for WC/WHR were further adjusted for BMI. The joint effect of BMI and WC/WHR was also evaluated.
Results - During an average 12-year follow-up, 23 732 incident lung cancer cases were identified. While BMI was generally associated with a decreased risk, WC and WHR were associated with increased risk after controlling for BMI. These associations were seen 10 years before diagnosis in smokers and never smokers, were strongest among blacks, and varied by histological type. After excluding the first five years of follow-up, hazard ratios per 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI were 0.95 (95% CI = 0.90 to 1.00), 0.92 (95% CI = 0.89 to 0.95), and 0.89 (95% CI = 0.86 to 0.91) in never, former, and current smokers, and 0.86 (95% CI = 0.84 to 0.89), 0.94 (95% CI = 0.90 to 0.99), and 1.09 (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.15) for adenocarcinoma, squamous cell, and small cell carcinoma, respectively. Hazard ratios per 10 cm increase in WC were 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.18), 1.12 (95% CI = 1.07 to 1.17), and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.07 to 1.16) in never, former, and current smokers, and 1.06 (95% CI = 1.01 to 1.12), 1.20 (95% CI = 1.12 to 1.29), and 1.13 (95% CI = 1.04 to 1.23) for adenocarcinoma, squamous cell, and small cell carcinoma, respectively. Participants with BMIs of less than 25 kg/m2 but high WC had a 40% higher risk (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.26 to 1.56) than those with BMIs of 25 kg/m2 or greater but normal/moderate WC.
Conclusions - The inverse BMI-lung cancer association is not entirely due to smoking and reverse causation. Central obesity, particularly concurrent with low BMI, may help identify high-risk populations for lung cancer.
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14 MeSH Terms
Transethnic Evaluation Identifies Low-Frequency Loci Associated With 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations.
Hong J, Hatchell KE, Bradfield JP, Bjonnes A, Chesi A, Lai CQ, Langefeld CD, Lu L, Lu Y, Lutsey PL, Musani SK, Nalls MA, Robinson-Cohen C, Roizen JD, Saxena R, Tucker KL, Ziegler JT, Arking DE, Bis JC, Boerwinkle E, Bottinger EP, Bowden DW, Gilsanz V, Houston DK, Kalkwarf HJ, Kelly A, Lappe JM, Liu Y, Michos ED, Oberfield SE, Palmer ND, Rotter JI, Sapkota B, Shepherd JA, Wilson JG, Basu S, de Boer IH, Divers J, Freedman BI, Grant SFA, Hakanarson H, Harris TB, Kestenbaum BR, Kritchevsky SB, Loos RJF, Norris JM, Norwood AF, Ordovas JM, Pankow JS, Psaty BM, Sanghera DK, Wagenknecht LE, Zemel BS, Meigs J, Dupuis J, Florez JC, Wang T, Liu CT, Engelman CD, Billings LK
(2018) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 103: 1380-1392
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, African Americans, Aged, Body Mass Index, Child, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Loci, Genome-Wide Association Study, Hispanic Americans, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, United States, Vitamin D, Vitamin D Deficiency, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added January 3, 2019
Context - Vitamin D inadequacy is common in the adult population of the United States. Although the genetic determinants underlying vitamin D inadequacy have been studied in people of European ancestry, less is known about populations with Hispanic or African ancestry.
Objective - The Trans-Ethnic Evaluation of Vitamin D (TRANSCEN-D) genomewide association study (GWAS) consortium was assembled to replicate genetic associations with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations from the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) meta-analyses of European ancestry and to identify genetic variants related to vitamin D concentrations in African and Hispanic ancestries.
Design - Ancestry-specific (Hispanic and African) and transethnic (Hispanic, African, and European) meta-analyses were performed with Meta-Analysis Helper software (METAL).
Patients or Other Participants - In total, 8541 African American and 3485 Hispanic American (from North America) participants from 12 cohorts and 16,124 European participants from SUNLIGHT were included in the study.
Main Outcome Measures - Blood concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured for all participants.
Results - Ancestry-specific analyses in African and Hispanic Americans replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC (2 and 4 SNPs, respectively). An SNP (rs79666294) near the KIF4B gene was identified in the African American cohort. Transethnic evaluation replicated GC and DHCR7 region SNPs. Additionally, the transethnic analyses revealed SNPs rs719700 and rs1410656 near the ANO6/ARID2 and HTR2A genes, respectively.
Conclusions - Ancestry-specific and transethnic GWASs of 25(OH)D confirmed findings in GC and DHCR7 for African and Hispanic American samples and revealed findings near KIF4B, ANO6/ARID2, and HTR2A. The biological mechanisms that link these regions with 25(OH)D metabolism warrant further investigation.
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MeSH Terms
Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity.
Turcot V, Lu Y, Highland HM, Schurmann C, Justice AE, Fine RS, Bradfield JP, Esko T, Giri A, Graff M, Guo X, Hendricks AE, Karaderi T, Lempradl A, Locke AE, Mahajan A, Marouli E, Sivapalaratnam S, Young KL, Alfred T, Feitosa MF, Masca NGD, Manning AK, Medina-Gomez C, Mudgal P, Ng MCY, Reiner AP, Vedantam S, Willems SM, Winkler TW, Abecasis G, Aben KK, Alam DS, Alharthi SE, Allison M, Amouyel P, Asselbergs FW, Auer PL, Balkau B, Bang LE, Barroso I, Bastarache L, Benn M, Bergmann S, Bielak LF, Blüher M, Boehnke M, Boeing H, Boerwinkle E, Böger CA, Bork-Jensen J, Bots ML, Bottinger EP, Bowden DW, Brandslund I, Breen G, Brilliant MH, Broer L, Brumat M, Burt AA, Butterworth AS, Campbell PT, Cappellani S, Carey DJ, Catamo E, Caulfield MJ, Chambers JC, Chasman DI, Chen YI, Chowdhury R, Christensen C, Chu AY, Cocca M, Collins FS, Cook JP, Corley J, Corominas Galbany J, Cox AJ, Crosslin DS, Cuellar-Partida G, D'Eustacchio A, Danesh J, Davies G, Bakker PIW, Groot MCH, Mutsert R, Deary IJ, Dedoussis G, Demerath EW, Heijer M, Hollander AI, Ruijter HM, Dennis JG, Denny JC, Di Angelantonio E, Drenos F, Du M, Dubé MP, Dunning AM, Easton DF, Edwards TL, Ellinghaus D, Ellinor PT, Elliott P, Evangelou E, Farmaki AE, Farooqi IS, Faul JD, Fauser S, Feng S, Ferrannini E, Ferrieres J, Florez JC, Ford I, Fornage M, Franco OH, Franke A, Franks PW, Friedrich N, Frikke-Schmidt R, Galesloot TE, Gan W, Gandin I, Gasparini P, Gibson J, Giedraitis V, Gjesing AP, Gordon-Larsen P, Gorski M, Grabe HJ, Grant SFA, Grarup N, Griffiths HL, Grove ML, Gudnason V, Gustafsson S, Haessler J, Hakonarson H, Hammerschlag AR, Hansen T, Harris KM, Harris TB, Hattersley AT, Have CT, Hayward C, He L, Heard-Costa NL, Heath AC, Heid IM, Helgeland Ø, Hernesniemi J, Hewitt AW, Holmen OL, Hovingh GK, Howson JMM, Hu Y, Huang PL, Huffman JE, Ikram MA, Ingelsson E, Jackson AU, Jansson JH, Jarvik GP, Jensen GB, Jia Y, Johansson S, Jørgensen ME, Jørgensen T, Jukema JW, Kahali B, Kahn RS, Kähönen M, Kamstrup PR, Kanoni S, Kaprio J, Karaleftheri M, Kardia SLR, Karpe F, Kathiresan S, Kee F, Kiemeney LA, Kim E, Kitajima H, Komulainen P, Kooner JS, Kooperberg C, Korhonen T, Kovacs P, Kuivaniemi H, Kutalik Z, Kuulasmaa K, Kuusisto J, Laakso M, Lakka TA, Lamparter D, Lange EM, Lange LA, Langenberg C, Larson EB, Lee NR, Lehtimäki T, Lewis CE, Li H, Li J, Li-Gao R, Lin H, Lin KH, Lin LA, Lin X, Lind L, Lindström J, Linneberg A, Liu CT, Liu DJ, Liu Y, Lo KS, Lophatananon A, Lotery AJ, Loukola A, Luan J, Lubitz SA, Lyytikäinen LP, Männistö S, Marenne G, Mazul AL, McCarthy MI, McKean-Cowdin R, Medland SE, Meidtner K, Milani L, Mistry V, Mitchell P, Mohlke KL, Moilanen L, Moitry M, Montgomery GW, Mook-Kanamori DO, Moore C, Mori TA, Morris AD, Morris AP, Müller-Nurasyid M, Munroe PB, Nalls MA, Narisu N, Nelson CP, Neville M, Nielsen SF, Nikus K, Njølstad PR, Nordestgaard BG, Nyholt DR, O'Connel JR, O'Donoghue ML, Olde Loohuis LM, Ophoff RA, Owen KR, Packard CJ, Padmanabhan S, Palmer CNA, Palmer ND, Pasterkamp G, Patel AP, Pattie A, Pedersen O, Peissig PL, Peloso GM, Pennell CE, Perola M, Perry JA, Perry JRB, Pers TH, Person TN, Peters A, Petersen ERB, Peyser PA, Pirie A, Polasek O, Polderman TJ, Puolijoki H, Raitakari OT, Rasheed A, Rauramaa R, Reilly DF, Renström F, Rheinberger M, Ridker PM, Rioux JD, Rivas MA, Roberts DJ, Robertson NR, Robino A, Rolandsson O, Rudan I, Ruth KS, Saleheen D, Salomaa V, Samani NJ, Sapkota Y, Sattar N, Schoen RE, Schreiner PJ, Schulze MB, Scott RA, Segura-Lepe MP, Shah SH, Sheu WH, Sim X, Slater AJ, Small KS, Smith AV, Southam L, Spector TD, Speliotes EK, Starr JM, Stefansson K, Steinthorsdottir V, Stirrups KE, Strauch K, Stringham HM, Stumvoll M, Sun L, Surendran P, Swift AJ, Tada H, Tansey KE, Tardif JC, Taylor KD, Teumer A, Thompson DJ, Thorleifsson G, Thorsteinsdottir U, Thuesen BH, Tönjes A, Tromp G, Trompet S, Tsafantakis E, Tuomilehto J, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Tyrer JP, Uher R, Uitterlinden AG, Uusitupa M, Laan SW, Duijn CM, Leeuwen N, van Setten J, Vanhala M, Varbo A, Varga TV, Varma R, Velez Edwards DR, Vermeulen SH, Veronesi G, Vestergaard H, Vitart V, Vogt TF, Völker U, Vuckovic D, Wagenknecht LE, Walker M, Wallentin L, Wang F, Wang CA, Wang S, Wang Y, Ware EB, Wareham NJ, Warren HR, Waterworth DM, Wessel J, White HD, Willer CJ, Wilson JG, Witte DR, Wood AR, Wu Y, Yaghootkar H, Yao J, Yao P, Yerges-Armstrong LM, Young R, Zeggini E, Zhan X, Zhang W, Zhao JH, Zhao W, Zhao W, Zhou W, Zondervan KT, CHD Exome+ Consortium, EPIC-CVD Consortium, ExomeBP Consortium, Global Lipids Genetic Consortium, GoT2D Genes Consortium, EPIC InterAct Consortium, INTERVAL Study, ReproGen Consortium, T2D-Genes Consortium, MAGIC Investigators, Understanding Society Scientific Group, Rotter JI, Pospisilik JA, Rivadeneira F, Borecki IB, Deloukas P, Frayling TM, Lettre G, North KE, Lindgren CM, Hirschhorn JN, Loos RJF
(2018) Nat Genet 50: 26-41
MeSH Terms: Adult, Animals, Body Mass Index, Drosophila, Energy Intake, Energy Metabolism, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Variation, Humans, Male, Obesity, Proteins, Syndrome
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >250 loci for body mass index (BMI), implicating pathways related to neuronal biology. Most GWAS loci represent clusters of common, noncoding variants from which pinpointing causal genes remains challenging. Here we combined data from 718,734 individuals to discover rare and low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%) coding variants associated with BMI. We identified 14 coding variants in 13 genes, of which 8 variants were in genes (ZBTB7B, ACHE, RAPGEF3, RAB21, ZFHX3, ENTPD6, ZFR2 and ZNF169) newly implicated in human obesity, 2 variants were in genes (MC4R and KSR2) previously observed to be mutated in extreme obesity and 2 variants were in GIPR. The effect sizes of rare variants are ~10 times larger than those of common variants, with the largest effect observed in carriers of an MC4R mutation introducing a stop codon (p.Tyr35Ter, MAF = 0.01%), who weighed ~7 kg more than non-carriers. Pathway analyses based on the variants associated with BMI confirm enrichment of neuronal genes and provide new evidence for adipocyte and energy expenditure biology, widening the potential of genetically supported therapeutic targets in obesity.
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14 MeSH Terms
FTO affects food cravings and interacts with age to influence age-related decline in food cravings.
Dang LC, Samanez-Larkin GR, Smith CT, Castrellon JJ, Perkins SF, Cowan RL, Claassen DO, Zald DH
(2018) Physiol Behav 192: 188-193
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging, Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO, Benzamides, Body Mass Index, Brain, Craving, Feeding Behavior, Female, Food, Genetic Association Studies, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Positron-Emission Tomography, Pyrrolidines, Radiopharmaceuticals, Receptors, Dopamine D2, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added March 21, 2018
The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) was the first gene identified by genome-wide association studies to correlate with higher body mass index (BMI) and increased odds of obesity. FTO remains the locus with the largest and most replicated effect on body weight, but the mechanism whereby FTO affects body weight and the development of obesity is not fully understood. Here we tested whether FTO is associated with differences in food cravings and a key aspect of dopamine function that has been hypothesized to influence food reward mechanisms. Moreover, as food cravings and dopamine function are known to decline with age, we explored effects of age on relations between FTO and food cravings and dopamine function. Seven-eight healthy subjects between 22 and 83years old completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire and underwent genotyping for FTO rs9939609, the first FTO single nucleotide polymorphism associated with obesity. Compared to TT homozygotes, individuals carrying the obesity-susceptible A allele had higher total food cravings, which correlated with higher BMI. Additionally, food cravings declined with age, but this age effect differed across variants of FTO rs9939609: while TT homozygotes showed the typical age-related decline in food cravings, there was no such decline among A carriers. All subjects were scanned with [18F]fallypride PET to assess a recent proposal that at the neurochemical level FTO alters dopamine D2-like receptor (DRD2) function to influence food reward related mechanisms. However, we observed no evidence of FTO effects on DRD2 availability.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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22 MeSH Terms
Late-Life Body Mass Index, Rapid Weight Loss, Apolipoprotein E ε4 and the Risk of Cognitive Decline and Incident Dementia.
Bell SP, Liu D, Samuels LR, Shah AS, Gifford KA, Hohman TJ, Jefferson AL
(2017) J Nutr Health Aging 21: 1259-1267
MeSH Terms: Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Alzheimer Disease, Apolipoprotein E4, Body Mass Index, Cognitive Dysfunction, Cohort Studies, Dementia, Female, Humans, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Weight Loss
Show Abstract · Added March 16, 2018
OBJECTIVES - To examine the effect of late-life body mass index (BMI) and rapid weight loss on incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD).
DESIGN - Prospective longitudinal cohort study.
SETTING - National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) Uniform Data Set, including 34 past and current National Institute on Aging-funded AD Centers across the United States.
PARTICIPANTS - 6940 older adults (n=5061 normal cognition [NC]; n=1879 MCI).
MEASUREMENTS - BMI (kg/m2) and modified Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) score (sex, age, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertension medication, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, prevalent cardiovascular disease, atrial fibrillation) were assessed at baseline. Cognition and weight were assessed annually.
RESULTS - Multivariable binary logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race, education, length of follow-up, and modified FSRP related late-life BMI to risk of diagnostic conversion from NC to MCI or AD and from MCI to AD. Secondary analyses related late-life BMI to diagnostic conversion in the presence of rapid weight loss (>5% decrease in 12 months) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4. During a mean 3.8-year follow-up period, 12% of NC participants converted to MCI or AD and 49% of MCI participants converted to AD. Higher baseline BMI was associated with a reduced probability of diagnostic conversion, such that for each one-unit increase in baseline BMI there was a reduction in diagnostic conversion for both NC (OR=0.977, 95%CI 0.958-0.996, p=0.015) and MCI participants (OR=0.962, 95%CI 0.942-0.983, p<0.001). The protective effect of higher baseline BMI did not persist in the setting of rapid weight loss but did persist when adjusting for APOE ε4.
CONCLUSIONS - Higher late-life BMI is associated with a lower risk of incident MCI and AD but is not protective in the presence of rapid weight loss.
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15 MeSH Terms
Nephrolithiasis Among Middle Aged and Elderly Urban Chinese: A Report from Prospective Cohort Studies in Shanghai.
Shu X, Cai H, Xiang YB, Li H, Lipworth L, Miller NL, Zheng W, Shu XO, Hsi RS
(2017) J Endourol 31: 1327-1334
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Body Mass Index, Cardiovascular Diseases, China, Cohort Studies, Coronary Disease, Female, Humans, Hypertension, Incidence, Male, Middle Aged, Nephrolithiasis, Obesity, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Sex Distribution, Sex Factors, Stroke, Urban Population, Waist-Hip Ratio
Show Abstract · Added January 16, 2018
INTRODUCTION - Kidney stone risk factors are understudied among Asians. Our study objective was to investigate associations of obesity and other chronic diseases with incident kidney stones among the urban Chinese.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - Included in this study are two prospective cohorts: the Shanghai Women's Health Study (N = 69,166) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (N = 58,054). Incident kidney stones were determined by self-report in 2004 and 2008. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the associations of study variables with stone risk with adjustment of demographics, medical history, and dietary intakes.
RESULTS - There were 2653 incident stones over 1,007,958 person-years of follow-up. Overall incidence rates (per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI]) were 2.10 (1.99, 2.21) among women and 3.80 (3.59, 4.02) among men. Higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with risk (BMI ≥25 vs 18.5-24.9 kg/m, women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14 [95% CI 1.01, 1.28]; men: HR = 1.17 [1.03, 1.32]). High waist-hip ratio (≥0.80 and ≥0.90 for women and men, respectively) was associated with risk (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27 for women; HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05, 1.35 for men). Coronary heart disease or stroke history was associated with risk in women only (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10, 1.56). Hypertension history was associated with risk in men only (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.11, 1.45). No significant association with diabetes mellitus was observed.
CONCLUSIONS - Among the Chinese, kidney stone incidence in men is almost twice that of women. Obesity is a shared risk factor. Hypertension history is associated with risk in men, whereas history of coronary heart disease or stroke is associated with risk in women.
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23 MeSH Terms
Relationships of Clinical and Computed Tomography-Imaged Adiposity with Cognition in Middle-Aged and Older African Americans.
Parker KG, Lirette ST, Deardorff DS, Bielak LF, Peyser PA, Carr JJ, Terry JG, Fornage M, Benjamin EJ, Turner ST, Mosley TH, Griswold ME, Windham BG
(2018) J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 73: 492-498
MeSH Terms: Abdominal Fat, African Americans, Aged, Body Mass Index, Cognition, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Waist Circumference
Show Abstract · Added December 13, 2017
Background - Adiposity depots may differentially affect cognition. African Americans (AA) have higher rates of obesity and dementia but lower visceral adipose tissue (VAT) than whites, yet are underrepresented in studies of adiposity and cognition. Our study compared relations of cognitive function to clinical adiposity measures and computed tomography (CT)-imaged abdominal adiposity in AA.
Methods - CT-imaged subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and VAT measurements were obtained in the AA cohort of the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy Study (N = 652, mean age 68 ± 8.4 years, 74% females, 59% obese, 82% hypertensive). Clinical adiposity measures included waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). Global cognition was operationalized as a global cognitive z-score generated from the average of four cognitive domain z-scores. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine cross-sectional associations between individual standardized adiposity measures and cognition, accounting for age, sex, education, smoking status, and familial clustering. A collective model was constructed including multiple supported adiposity measures and age-by-adiposity interactions.
Results - In the collective model, higher WC was associated with worse global cognition, β = -0.12 (95%CI: -0.21, -0.03); higher SAT was associated with better cognition, β = 0.09 (0.01, 0.18); higher BMI was associated with worse cognition at younger ages with attenuation at older ages (BMI-by-age-interaction p = .004). VAT was not significantly associated with global cognition, β = -0.03 (-0.07, 0.02).
Conclusions - WC may be the simplest and most efficient measure of adiposity to assess with respect to cognition in clinical settings, although studies to determine mechanistic effects of subcutaneous and other adiposity depots on cognition are warranted.
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11 MeSH Terms
Genetic Interactions with Age, Sex, Body Mass Index, and Hypertension in Relation to Atrial Fibrillation: The AFGen Consortium.
Weng LC, Lunetta KL, Müller-Nurasyid M, Smith AV, Thériault S, Weeke PE, Barnard J, Bis JC, Lyytikäinen LP, Kleber ME, Martinsson A, Lin HJ, Rienstra M, Trompet S, Krijthe BP, Dörr M, Klarin D, Chasman DI, Sinner MF, Waldenberger M, Launer LJ, Harris TB, Soliman EZ, Alonso A, Paré G, Teixeira PL, Denny JC, Shoemaker MB, Van Wagoner DR, Smith JD, Psaty BM, Sotoodehnia N, Taylor KD, Kähönen M, Nikus K, Delgado GE, Melander O, Engström G, Yao J, Guo X, Christophersen IE, Ellinor PT, Geelhoed B, Verweij N, Macfarlane P, Ford I, Heeringa J, Franco OH, Uitterlinden AG, Völker U, Teumer A, Rose LM, Kääb S, Gudnason V, Arking DE, Conen D, Roden DM, Chung MK, Heckbert SR, Benjamin EJ, Lehtimäki T, März W, Smith JG, Rotter JI, van der Harst P, Jukema JW, Stricker BH, Felix SB, Albert CM, Lubitz SA
(2017) Sci Rep 7: 11303
MeSH Terms: Age Factors, Aged, Atrial Fibrillation, Body Mass Index, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4, Epistasis, Genetic, Female, Genetic Loci, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Hypertension, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Reproducibility of Results, Risk Factors, Sex Characteristics
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
It is unclear whether genetic markers interact with risk factors to influence atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. We performed genome-wide interaction analyses between genetic variants and age, sex, hypertension, and body mass index in the AFGen Consortium. Study-specific results were combined using meta-analysis (88,383 individuals of European descent, including 7,292 with AF). Variants with nominal interaction associations in the discovery analysis were tested for association in four independent studies (131,441 individuals, including 5,722 with AF). In the discovery analysis, the AF risk associated with the minor rs6817105 allele (at the PITX2 locus) was greater among subjects ≤ 65 years of age than among those > 65 years (interaction p-value = 4.0 × 10). The interaction p-value exceeded genome-wide significance in combined discovery and replication analyses (interaction p-value = 1.7 × 10). We observed one genome-wide significant interaction with body mass index and several suggestive interactions with age, sex, and body mass index in the discovery analysis. However, none was replicated in the independent sample. Our findings suggest that the pathogenesis of AF may differ according to age in individuals of European descent, but we did not observe evidence of statistically significant genetic interactions with sex, body mass index, or hypertension on AF risk.
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19 MeSH Terms
Prospective study of urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite and pancreatic cancer risk.
Cui Y, Shu XO, Li HL, Yang G, Wen W, Gao YT, Cai Q, Rothman N, Yin HY, Lan Q, Xiang YB, Zheng W
(2017) Int J Cancer 141: 2423-2429
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Body Mass Index, Case-Control Studies, China, Chromatography, Liquid, Cyclooxygenase 2, Female, Humans, Logistic Models, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Pancreatic Neoplasms, Prospective Studies, Prostaglandins, Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
The cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) pathway is upregulated in many pancreatic cancer cells, and it is believed that carcinogenetic effects of COX-2 upregulation are largely through prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) overproduction. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the association between urinary PGE2 metabolites (PGE-M), a biomarker of in vivo PGE2 overproduction, and pancreatic cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study with 722 subjects (239 cases and 483 controls) nested within two prospective cohort studies, the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS). Pre-diagnosis urine samples were measured for PGE-M using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric method. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), with adjustment for potential confounders. Compared to those with the lowest urine level of PGE-M (the first quartile), individuals with higher urine levels of PGE-M had an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer, with adjusted ORs (95%CI) of 1.63 (0.98-2.73), 1.55 (0.90-2.69) and 1.94 (1.07-3.51), for the second to the fourth quartile groups, respectively (p for trend = 0.054). This dose-response positive association was more evident among those who had BMI <25 kg/m than overweight individuals (p for interaction = 0.058). After excluding cases diagnosed in the first year of follow-up and their matched controls, this positive association persisted (p for trend = 0.037) and the interaction became statistically significant (p for interaction = 0.017). Our study adds additional evidence that the COX-2 pathway is involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis and suggests that urinary PGE-M may serve as a biomarker for predicting pancreatic cancer risk.
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