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BACKGROUND - Pulmonary transit time (PTT) obtained from contrast echocardiography is a marker of global cardiopulmonary function. Pulmonary blood volume (PBV), derived from PTT, may be a noninvasive surrogate for left-sided filling pressures, such as pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP). We sought to assess the relationship between PBV obtained from contrast echocardiography and PAWP.
METHODS - Participants were adult survivors of childhood cancer that had contrast echocardiography performed nearly simultaneously with right-heart catheterization. PTT was derived from time-intensity curves of contrast passage through the right ventricle (RV) and left atrium (LA). PBV relative to overall stroke volume (rPBV) was estimated from the product of PTT and heart rate during RV-LA transit. PAWP was obtained during standard right-heart catheterization. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between rPBV and PAWP.
RESULTS - The study population consisted of 7 individuals who had contrast echocardiography and right-heart catheterization within 3 hours of each other. There was a wide range of right atrial (1-17 mm Hg), mean pulmonary artery (18-42 mm Hg), and PAW pressures (4-26 mm Hg) as well as pulmonary vascular resistance (<1-6 Wood Units). We observed a statistically significant correlation between rPBV and PAWP (r = .85; P = .02).
CONCLUSION - Relative PBV derived from contrast echocardiography correlates with PAWP. If validated in larger studies, rPBV could potentially be used as an alternative to invasively determine left-sided filling pressure.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Muscle blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) contrast is greater in magnitude and potentially more influenced by extravascular BOLD mechanisms at 7 T than it is at lower field strengths. Muscle BOLD imaging of muscle contractions at 7 T could, therefore, provide greater or different contrast than at 3 T. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using BOLD imaging at 7 T to assess the physiological responses to in vivo muscle contractions. Thirteen subjects (four females) performed a series of isometric contractions of the calf muscles while being scanned in a Philips Achieva 7 T human imager. Following 2 s maximal isometric plantarflexion contractions, BOLD signal transients ranging from 0.3 to 7.0% of the pre-contraction signal intensity were observed in the soleus muscle. We observed considerable inter-subject variability in both the magnitude and time course of the muscle BOLD signal. A subset of subjects (n = 7) repeated the contraction protocol at two different repetition times (T : 1000 and 2500 ms) to determine the potential of T -related inflow effects on the magnitude of the post-contractile BOLD response. Consistent with previous reports, there was no difference in the magnitude of the responses for the two T values (3.8 ± 0.9 versus 4.0 ± 0.6% for T = 1000 and 2500 ms, respectively; mean ± standard error). These results demonstrate that studies of the muscle BOLD responses to contractions are feasible at 7 T. Compared with studies at lower field strengths, post-contractile 7 T muscle BOLD contrast may afford greater insight into microvascular function and dysfunction.
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Recent studies of patients in the early stage of psychosis have revealed increased cerebral blood volume (CBV) in specific subfields of the anterior hippocampus. These studies required injection of a contrast agent to measure steady state CBV. Here we used a novel, non-invasive method, inflow-based-vascular-space-occupancy with dynamic subtraction (iVASO-DS), to measure the arterial component of CBV (aCBV) in a single slice of the hippocampus. Based on evidence from contrast-enhanced CBV studies, we hypothesized increased aCBV in the anterior hippocampus in early psychosis. We used 3T MRI to generate iVASO-derived aCBV maps in 17 medicated patients (average duration of illness = 7.6 months) and 25 matched controls. We did not find hemispheric or regional group differences in hippocampal aCBV. The limited spatial resolution of the iVASO-DS method did not allow us to test for aCBV differences in specific subfields of the hippocampus. Future studies should investigate venous and arterial CBV changes in the hippocampus of early psychosis patients.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Most biomedical facilities that use rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) limit the amount of blood that may be collected for experimental purposes. These limits typically are expressed as a percentage of blood volume (BV), estimated by using a fixed ratio of blood (mL) per body weight (kg). BV estimation ratios vary widely among facilities and typically do not factor in variables known to influence BV in humans: sex, age, and body condition. We used indicator dilution methodology to determine the BV of 20 adult rhesus macaques (10 male, 10 female) that varied widely in body condition. We measured body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, weight, crown-to-rump length, and body condition score. Two indicators, FITC-labeled hydroxyethyl starch (FITC-HES) and radioiodinated rhesus serum albumin ((125)I-RhSA), were injected simultaneously, followed by serial blood collection. Plasma volume at time 0 was determined by linear regression. BV was calculated from the plasma volume and Hct. We found that BV calculated by using FITC-HES was consistently lower than BV calculated by using (125)I-RhSA. Sex and age did not significantly affect BV. Percentage body fat was significantly associated with BV. Subjects categorized as having 'optimal' body condition score had 18% body fat and 62.1 mL/kg BV (by FITC-HES; 74.5 mL/kg by (125)I-RhSA). Each 1% increase in body fat corresponded to approximately 1 mL/kg decrease in BV. Body condition score correlated with the body fat percentage (R(2) = 0.7469). We provide an equation for calculating BV from weight and body condition score.
PURPOSE - Inflow-vascular space occupancy (iVASO) measures arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) using accurate blood water nulling (inversion time [TI]) when arterial blood reaches the capillary, i.e., at the arterial arrival time. This work assessed the reproducibility of iVASO measurements in the hippocampus and cortex at multiple TIs.
METHODS - The iVASO approach was implemented at multiple TIs in 10 healthy volunteers at 3 Tesla. aCBV values were measured at each TI in the left and right hippocampus, and the cortex. Reproducibility of aCBV measurements within scans (same day) and across sessions (different days) was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
RESULTS - Overall hippocampal aCBV was significantly higher than cortical aCBV, likely due to higher gray matter volume. Hippocampal ICC values were high at short TIs (≤914 ms; intrascan values = 0.80-0.96, interscan values = 0.61-0.91). Cortically, high ICC values were observed at intermediate TIs of 914 (intra: 0.93, inter: 0.87) and 1034 ms (intra: 0.96, inter: 0.86). The ICC values were comparable to established contrast-based CBV measures.
CONCLUSION - iVASO measurements are reproducible within and across sessions. TIs for iVASO measurements should be chosen carefully, taking into account heterogeneous arterial arrival times in different brain regions. Magn Reson Med 75:2379-2387, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Neuroimaging studies have provided compelling evidence for abnormal hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. Most studies made inferences about baseline hippocampal activity using a single hemodynamic parameter (e.g., blood volume or blood flow). Here we studied several hemodynamic measures in the same cohort to test the hypothesis of increased hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. We used dynamic susceptibility contrast- (DSC-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess blood volume, blood flow, and mean transit time in the hippocampus of 15 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls. Left and right hippocampal measurements were combined for absolute measures of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and mean transit time (MTT). We found significantly increased hippocampal CBV, but normal CBF and MTT, in schizophrenia. The uncoupling of CBV and CBF could be due to several factors, including antipsychotic medication, loss of cerebral perfusion pressure, or angiogenesis. Further studies need to incorporate several complementary imaging modalities to better characterize hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hippocampal hyperactivity has been proposed as a biomarker in schizophrenia. However, there is a debate whether the CA1 or the CA2/3 subfield is selectively affected. We studied 15 schizophrenia patients and 15 matched healthy control subjects with 3T steady state, gadolinium-enhanced, absolute cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps, perpendicular to the long axis of the hippocampus. The subfields of the hippocampal formation (subiculum, CA1, CA2/3, and hilus/dentate gyrus) were manually segmented to establish CBV values. Comparing anterior CA1 and CA2/3 CBV between patients and controls revealed a significant subfield-by-diagnosis interaction. This interaction was due to the combined effect of a trend of increased CA1 CBV (p = .06) and non-significantly decreased CA2/3 CBV (p = 0.14) in patients relative to healthy controls. These results support the emerging hypothesis of increased hippocampal activity as a biomarker of schizophrenia and highlight the importance of subfield-level investigations.
The human hippocampal formation is characterized by anterior-posterior gradients of cell density, neurochemistry, and hemodynamics. In addition, some functions are associated with specific subfields (subiculum, CA1-4, dentate gyrus) and regions (anterior and posterior). We performed contrast-enhanced, high-resolution T1-weighted 3T steady state (SS) imaging to investigate cerebral blood volume (CBV) gradients of the hippocampal formation. We studied 14 healthy subjects and found significant CBV gradients (anterior > posterior) in the subiculum but not in other hippocampal subfields. Since CBV is a marker of basal metabolism, these results indicate a greater baseline activity in the anterior compared with the posterior subiculum. This gradient might be related to the role of the subiculum as the main outflow station of the hippocampal formation and might have implications for the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Commonly used neuroimaging approaches in humans exploit hemodynamic or metabolic indicators of brain function. However, fundamental gaps remain in our ability to relate such hemo-metabolic reactivity to neurotransmission, with recent reports providing paradoxical information regarding the relationship among basal perfusion, functional imaging contrast, and neurotransmission in awake humans. Here, sequential magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA+macromolecules normalized by the complex N-acetyl aspartate-N-acetyl aspartyl glutamic acid: [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG]), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of perfusion, fractional gray-matter volume, and arterial arrival time (AAT) are recorded in human visual cortex from a controlled cohort of young adult male volunteers with neurocognitive battery-confirmed comparable cognitive capacity (3 T; n=16; age=23±3 years). Regression analyses reveal an inverse correlation between [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] and perfusion (R=-0.46; P=0.037), yet no relationship between AAT and [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] (R=-0.12; P=0.33). Perfusion measurements that do not control for AAT variations reveal reduced correlations between [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] and perfusion (R=-0.13; P=0.32). These findings largely reconcile contradictory reports between perfusion and inhibitory tone, and underscore the physiologic origins of the growing literature relating functional imaging signals, hemodynamics, and neurotransmission.
PURPOSE - To evaluate the repeatability of MRI-derived relative blood volume (RBV) measurements in mouse kidneys across subjects and days and to evaluate sensitivity of this approach to renal pathology.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - A 7 Tesla MRI system and an intravascular iron-oxide contrast agent were used to acquire spin-echo-based renal RBV maps in 10 healthy mice on 2 consecutive days. Renal RBV maps were also acquired in the Alport and unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse models of renal disease.
RESULTS - The average renal RBV measured on consecutive days was 19.97 ± 1.50 and 19.86 ± 1.62, yielding a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.94, indicating that this approach is highly repeatable. In the disease models, the RBV values were regionally dissimilar and substantially lower than those found in control mice.
CONCLUSION - In vivo renal iron-oxide-based RBV mapping in mice complements the physiological information obtained from conventional assays of kidney function and could shed new insights into the pathological mechanisms of kidney disease.
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.