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Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of fracture. Raloxifene is a mild antiresorptive agent that reduces fracture risk in the general population. Here we assessed the impact of raloxifene on the skeletal properties of animals with progressive CKD. Male Cy/+ rats that develop autosomal dominant cystic kidney disease were treated with either vehicle or raloxifene for five weeks. They were assessed for changes in mineral metabolism and skeletal parameters (microCT, histology, whole-bone mechanics, and material properties). Their normal littermates served as controls. Animals with CKD had significantly higher parathyroid hormone levels compared with normal controls, as well as inferior structural and mechanical skeletal properties. Raloxifene treatment resulted in lower bone remodeling rates and higher cancellous bone volume in the rats with CKD. Although it had little effect on cortical bone geometry, it resulted in higher energy to fracture and modulus of toughness values than vehicle-treated rats with CKD, achieving levels equivalent to normal controls. Animals treated with raloxifene had superior tissue-level mechanical properties as assessed by nanoindentation, and higher collagen D-periodic spacing as assessed by atomic force microscopy. Thus, raloxifene can positively impact whole-bone mechanical properties in CKD through its impact on skeletal material properties.
Copyright © 2015 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ErbB4 is highly expressed in the cystic kidneys with polycystic kidney diseases. To investigate its potential role in cystogenesis, cpk mice carrying a heart-rescued ErbB4 deletion were generated. Accelerated cyst progression and renal function deterioration were noted as early as 10 days postnatally in cpk mice with ErbB4 deletion compared to cpk mice, as indicated by increased cystic index, higher kidney weight to body weight ratios, and elevated BUN levels. No apparent defects in renal development were noted with ErbB4 deletion itself. Increased cell proliferation was predominately seen in the cortex of cystic kidneys with or without ErbB4 deletion. However, there was significantly more cell proliferation in the cyst-lining epithelial cells in cpk mice with ErbB4 deletion. TUNEL staining localized apoptotic cells mainly to the renal medulla. There were significantly more apoptotic cells in the cyst-lining epithelial cells in ErbB4-deleted cpk kidneys, with decreased levels of cyclin D1, increased levels of p21, p27, and cleaved caspase 3. Thus, lack of ErbB4 may contribute to elevated cell proliferation and unbalanced cell apoptosis, resulting in accelerated cyst formation and early renal function deterioration. These studies suggest that the high level of ErbB4 expression seen in cpk mice may exert relative cytoprotective effects in renal epithelia.
PURPOSE - There is no consensus on the optimal method to measure delivered dialysis dose in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). The use of direct dialysate-side quantification of dose in preference to the use of formal blood-based urea kinetic modeling and simplified blood urea nitrogen (BUN) methods has been recommended for dose assessment in critically-ill patients with AKI. We evaluate six different blood-side and dialysate-side methods for dose quantification.
METHODS - We examined data from 52 critically-ill patients with AKI requiring dialysis. All patients were treated with pre-dilution CVVHDF and regional citrate anticoagulation. Delivered dose was calculated using blood-side and dialysis-side kinetics. Filter function was assessed during the entire course of therapy by calculating BUN to dialysis fluid urea nitrogen (FUN) ratios q/12 hours.
RESULTS - Median daily treatment time was 1,413 min (1,260-1,440). The median observed effluent volume per treatment was 2,355 mL/h (2,060-2,863) (p<0.001). Urea mass removal rate was 13.0 ± 7.6 mg/min. Both EKR (r²=0.250; p<0.001) and KD (r²=0.409; p<0.001) showed a good correlation with actual solute removal. EKR and KD presented a decline in their values that was related to the decrease in filter function assessed by the FUN/BUN ratio.
CONCLUSIONS - Effluent rate (mL/kg/h) can only empirically provide an estimated of dose in CRRT. For clinical practice, we recommend that the delivered dose should be measured and expressed as KD. EKR also constitutes a good method for dose comparisons over time and across modalities.
To determine the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation in renal functional and structural recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI), we generated mice with a specific EGFR deletion in the renal proximal tubule (EGFR(ptKO)). Ischemia-reperfusion injury markedly activated EGFR in control littermate mice; however, this was inhibited in either the knockout or wild-type mice given erlotinib, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine increased to a comparable level in EGFR(ptKO) and control mice 24 h after reperfusion, but the subsequent rate of renal function recovery was markedly slowed in the knockout mice. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, both the knockout and the inhibitor-treated mice had a similar degree of histologic renal injury as control mice, but at day 6 there was minimal evidence of injury in the control mice while both EGFR(ptKO) and erlotinib-treated mice still had persistent proximal tubule dilation, epithelial simplification, and cast formation. Additionally, renal cell proliferation was delayed due to decreased ERK and Akt signaling. Thus, our studies provide both genetic and pharmacologic evidence that proximal tubule EGFR activation plays an important role in the recovery phase after acute kidney injury.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Studies examining dose of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and outcomes have yielded conflicting results. Most studies considered the prescribed dose as the effluent rate represented by ml/kg per hour and reported this volume as a surrogate of solute removal. Because filter fouling can reduce the efficacy of solute clearance, the actual delivered dose may be substantially lower than the observed effluent rate.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS - Data were examined from 52 critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis. All patients were treated with predilution continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and regional citrate anticoagulation. Filter performance was monitored during the entire course of therapy by measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and dialysis fluid urea nitrogen (FUN) at initiation and every 12 hours. Filter efficacy was assessed by calculating FUN/BUN ratios every 12 hours of filter use. Prescribed urea clearance (K, ml/min) was determined from the effluent rate. Actual delivered urea clearance was determined using dialysis-side measurements.
RESULTS - Median daily treatment time was 1413 minutes (1260 to 1440) with a total effluent volume of 46.4 ± 17.4 L and urea mass removal of 13.0 ± 7.6 mg/min. Prescribed clearance overestimated the actual delivered clearance by 23.8%. This gap between prescribed and delivered clearance was related to the decrease in filter function assessed by the FUN/BUN ratio.
CONCLUSIONS - Effluent volume significantly overestimates delivered dose of small solutes in CRRT. To assess adequacy of CRRT, solute clearance should be measured rather than estimated by the effluent volume.
Among critically ill patients, acute kidney injury (AKI) is a relatively common complication that is associated with an increased risk for death and other complications. To date, no treatment has been developed to prevent or attenuate established AKI. Dialysis often is required, but the optimal timing of initiation of dialysis is unknown. Data from the Program to Improve Care in Acute Renal Disease (PICARD), a multicenter observational study of AKI, were analyzed. Among 243 patients who did not have chronic kidney disease and who required dialysis for severe AKI, we examined the risk for death within 60 d from the diagnosis of AKI by the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration at the start of dialysis (BUN < or = 76 mg/dl in the low degree of azotemia group [n = 122] versus BUN > 76 mg/dl in the high degree of azotemia group [n = 121]). Standard Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates, proportional hazards (Cox) regression methods, and a propensity score approach were used to account for selection effects. Crude survival rates were slightly lower for patients who started dialysis at higher BUN concentrations, despite a lesser burden of organ system failure. Adjusted for age, hepatic failure, sepsis, thrombocytopenia, and serum creatinine and stratified by site and initial dialysis modality, the relative risk for death that was associated with initiation of dialysis at a higher BUN was 1.85 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 2.96). Further adjustment for the propensity score did not materially alter the association (relative risk 1.97; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 3.20). Among critically ill patients with AKI, initiation of dialysis at higher BUN concentrations was associated with an increased risk for death. Although the results could reflect residual confounding by severity of illness, they provide a rationale for prospective testing of alternative dialysis initiation strategies in critically ill patients with severe AKI.
Continuous renal replacement therapies have practical and theoretical advantages compared with conventional intermittent hemodialysis in hemodynamically unstable or severely catabolic patients with acute renal failure (ARF). Sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) is a hybrid modality introduced July 1998 at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences that involves the application of a conventional hemodialysis machine with reduced dialysate and blood flow rates for 12-hour nocturnal treatments. Nine critically ill patients with ARF were studied during a single SLED treatment to determine delivered dialysis dose and the most appropriate model for the description of urea kinetics during treatment. Five patients were men, mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 28.9 and mean weight was 92.5 kg. Kt/V was determined by the reference method of direct dialysate quantification (DDQ) combined with an equilibrated postdialysis plasma water urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration and four other methods that were either blood or dialysate based, single or double pool, or model independent (whole-body kinetic method). Solute removal indices (SRIs) were determined from net urea removal and urea distribution volume supplied from DDQ (reference method) and by mass balance using variables supplied from blood-based formal variable-volume single-pool (VVSP) urea kinetic modeling. Equivalent renal urea clearances (EKRs) were calculated from urea generation rates and time-averaged concentrations for PUN based on weekly mass balance with kinetic variables supplied by either DDQ (reference method) or formal blood-based VVSP modeling. Mean Kt/V determined by the reference method was 1.40 and not significantly different when determined by formal VVSP modeling, DDQ using an immediate postdialysis PUN, or the whole-body kinetic method. Correction of single-pool Kt/V by a Daugirdas rate equation did not yield plausible results. Mean SRI and EKR by the reference methods were 0.61 and 24.8 mL/min, respectively, and not significantly different when determined by blood-based methods. A single-pool urea kinetic model adequately described intradialytic PUN profiles, indicating that SLED was associated with minimal urea disequilibrium. This was supported by the parity between hemodialyzer and whole-body urea clearances, and the mean postdialytic urea rebound of 4.1% (P = 0.13 versus zero). Additional prospective studies are needed in this setting to define the optimal method for dialysis quantification, targets for azotemic control, and optimal modality of renal replacement therapy. In conclusion, SLED delivers a high dose of dialysis with minimal associated urea disequilibrium and can be quantified by Kt/V, SRI, and EKR from blood-based methods using single-pool urea kinetic models.
Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
OBJECTIVE - The objective of this study is to determine the impact of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on metabolic and nutritional parameters in malnourished patients with acute renal failure.
DESIGN - The design is an open-labeled pilot trial examining the effects of rhGH administration in a small group of highly catabolic, malnourished patients with acute renal failure. Each patient served as his or her own control.
SETTING - An intensive care unit in a tertiary care medical institution.
PATIENTS - Five patients with established acute renal failure in a critical care unit. Entry criteria included clinical evidence of malnutrition: a serum albumin level of <3.2 g/dL, a prealbumin level of < or = 20 mg/dL, and an insulin-like growth factor IGF 1 level <200 ng/mL. The study consisted of 3 periods: phase I, 3 day baseline; phase II, 6 day treatment; and phase III, 3 day washout. During the entire study, blood and urine samples were obtained daily to calculate normalized protein catabolic rate, total nitrogen appearance rate (TNA), and nitrogen balance. Additional data were collected to measure metabolic and inflammatory parameters.
INTERVENTION - The intervention consisted of administering 100 microg/kg/d of rhGH for 6 days.
RESULTS - There were significant changes in TNA, normalized protein catabolic rate, and nitrogen balance during the 3 study phases. TNA decreased from 43.3 +/- 24.4 g/d in phase I, to 25.2 +/- 16.5 g/d during phase II (P <.001). There was a further decrease in TNA to 16.2 +/- 8.3 g/d during phase III (P <.001 v phase I). Nitrogen balance improved from - 31.8 +/- 21.4 g/d during phase I, to - 12.9 +/- 10.3 g/d during phase II (P <.001), and further improved to - 4.1 +/- 4.0 g/d in phase III (P <.001 v phase I). Significant changes were also noted in levels of blood urea nitrogen, phosphorous, serum growth hormone, IGF-1, and serum leptin levels after growth hormone administration. A statistically significant increase in serum albumin was noted in phase III (3.1 g/dL) versus phase I (2.7 +/- 0.7 g/dL).
CONCLUSIONS - Administration of rhGH to critically ill patients with acute renal failure resulted in improvements in negative nitrogen balance and a significant decrease in total nitrogen appearance rate. These changes corresponded to increases in serum growth hormone, IGF-1, IGF-1 binding protein 3, and leptin levels after growth hormone administration.
Copyright 2001 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
Renal function measurements were obtained in 1,703 African Americans with presumed hypertensive nephrosclerosis who were screened for entry into the African-American Study of Hypertension and Kidney Disease (AASK). We examined the effect of race on relationships involving renal variables by comparing African Americans enrolled into the AASK with non-African Americans enrolled into the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study. We examined the effect of gender on renal variables by comparing African American men and women. We compared various methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with iodine 125-labeled ((125)I)-iothalamate GFR. AASK data were also used to derive a new formula for estimating GFR in African Americans. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline GFR, African American patients on the AASK study were heavier and had larger body surface areas and body mass indices than either MDRD African Americans or non-African Americans. African Americans had greater serum creatinine levels and urinary creatinine excretions for any given level of GFR. Mean GFR was greater in African American men than African American women (59.7 versus 51.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), although serum creatinine levels were also greater in men (1.91 versus 1.73 mg/dL). Seventy-eight percent of women with serum creatinine levels between 1.2 and 1.5 mg/dL had GFRs less than 65 mL/min/1.73 m(2). For African Americans in the AASK, GFR was overestimated by the 24-hour creatinine clearance and underestimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula. A prediction formula developed in the MDRD study more accurately predicted GFR in AASK patients than these measurements. AASK data were also used to derive a new five-term formula for estimating GFR that was slightly more accurate in the African Americans in the AASK than the MDRD formula (median percentage of error, 12.4% for the MDRD formula versus 12.1% for the AASK formula). Important differences exist in renal variables between African Americans and non-African Americans and between African American men and African American women. Formulas using demographic data and readily measured serum values estimate (125)I-iothalamate GFR.