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BACKGROUND - Blood transfusions are administered to children and adults with sickle cell anemia (SCA) for secondary stroke prevention, or as treatment for recurrent pain crises or acute anemia, but transfusion effects on cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism are not well-characterized.
PURPOSE - To compare blood transfusion-induced changes in hemometabolic parameters, including oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood flow (CBF), within and between adults and children with SCA.
STUDY TYPE - Prospective, longitudinal study.
SUBJECTS - Adults with SCA (n = 16) receiving simple (n = 7) or exchange (n = 9) transfusions and children with SCA (n = 11) receiving exchange transfusions were scanned once when hematocrit was near nadir and again within 7 days of transfusion. Adult controls without SCA or sickle trait (n = 7) were scanned twice on separate days.
FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE - 3.0T T -weighted, T -weighted, and T -relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) imaging, and phase contrast angiography.
ASSESSMENT - Global OEF was computed as the relative difference between venous oxygenation (from TRUST) and arterial oxygenation (from pulse oximetry). Global CBF was computed as total blood flow to the brain normalized by intracranial tissue volume.
STATISTICAL TESTS - Hemometabolic variables were compared using two-sided Wilcoxon signed-rank tests; associations were analyzed using two-sided Spearman's correlation testing.
RESULTS - In adults with SCA, posttransfusion OEF = 0.38 ± 0.05 was lower (P = 0.001) than pretransfusion OEF = 0.45 ± 0.09. A change in OEF was correlated with increases in hematocrit (P = 0.02; rho = -0.62) and with pretransfusion hematocrit (P = 0.02; rho = 0.65). OEF changes after transfusion were greater (P = 0.002) in adults receiving simple versus exchange transfusions. Posttransfusion CBF = 77.7 ± 26.4 ml/100g/min was not different (P = 0.27) from pretransfusion CBF = 82.3 ± 30.2 ml/100g/min. In children with SCA, both posttransfusion OEF = 0.28 ± 0.04 and CBF = 76.4 ± 26.4 were lower than pretransfusion OEF = 0.36 ± 0.06 (P = 0.004) and CBF = 96.4 ± 16.5 (P = 0.004).
DATA CONCLUSION - Cerebral OEF reduces following transfusions in adults and children with SCA. CBF reduces following transfusions more often in children compared to adults, indicating that vascular reserve capacity may remain near exhaustion posttransfusion in many adults.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE - 2 Technical Efficacy Stage 5 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;49:466-477.
© 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE - Despite effective therapies, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can result in joint destruction requiring total joint arthroplasty to maintain patient function. An estimated 16% to 70% of those undergoing total joint arthroplasty of the hip or knee will receive a blood transfusion. Few studies have described risk factors for blood transfusion following total joint arthroplasty in patients with RA. The aim of this study was to identify demographic and clinical risk factors associated with receiving a blood transfusion following total joint arthroplasty among patients with RA.
METHODS - A retrospective study (n = 3270) was conducted using deidentified patient health claims information from a commercially insured, US data set (2007-2009). Data analysis included descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS - Females were more likely to receive a blood transfusion (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.87; p = 0.001). When compared with those in the South, patients residing the Midwest were less likely to receive a blood transfusion following total joint arthroplasty (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.44-0.71). Relative to those receiving total knee arthroplasty, patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty were more likely to receive a blood transfusion (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.14-1.70), and patients who underwent a total shoulder arthroplasty were less likely to receive a blood transfusion (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.05-0.38; p < 0.001). Patients with a history of anemia were more likely to receive a blood transfusion compared with those who did not have this diagnosis (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 2.62-4.14; p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS - Risk factors for the receipt of blood transfusions among RA patients who have undergone total joint arthroplasty were identified.
INTRODUCTION - Sickle cell disease (SCD) represents one of the most common monogenic blood disorders worldwide, with an incidence of over 300,000 newborns affected per year. Reproductive challenges for men and women with SCD have been previously reviewed; however, evidence-based strategies to prevent and manage infertility and increase fecundity are lacking in women with SCD, which is one of the most important factors for quality of life. Areas covered: This review article summarizes the known risk factors for infertility, low fecundity, and premature menopause related to SCD. Expert commentary: Women with SCD have unique risk factors that may impact their ability to conceive, including chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, transfusion-related hemochromatosis, and ovarian sickling, causing ischemia and reperfusion injury to the ovary. Contraception is strongly recommended while on hydroxyurea therapy during reproductive years and discontinuing hydroxyurea for family planning and during pregnancy based on teratogenicity in animal studies. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the only curative therapy, sometimes involves conditioning regimens containing alkylating agents and total body irradiation that contribute to infertility and premature ovarian failure. Prior to HSCT or gene therapy, we strongly recommend referral to a reproductive endocrinologist to discuss fertility preservation and surrogacy options for all women with SCD.
Over the past 40 years, public health measures such as universal newborn screening, penicillin prophylaxis, vaccinations, and hydroxyurea therapy have led to an impressive decline in sickle cell disease (SCD)-related childhood mortality and SCD-related morbidity in high-income countries. We remain cautiously optimistic that the next 40 years will be focused on meeting current challenges in SCD by addressing chronic complications of SCD to reduce mortality and improve quality of life in a growing population of adults with SCD in high-income countries, while simultaneously decreasing the disparity of medical care between high and low-income countries.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The completion of the Multicenter Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial demonstrated that children with pre-existing silent cerebral infarct and sickle cell anemia (SCA) who received regular blood transfusion therapy had a 58% relative risk reduction of infarct recurrence when compared to observation. However, the total benefit of blood transfusion therapy, as assessed by the parents, was not measured against the burden of monthly blood transfusion therapy. In this planned ancillary study, we tested the hypothesis that a patient centered outcome, health-related quality of life (HRQL), would be greater in participants randomly assigned to the blood transfusion therapy group than the observation group. A total of 89% (175 of 196) of the randomly allocated participants had evaluable entry and exit HRQL evaluations. The increase in Change in Health, measured as the child's health being better, was significantly greater for the transfusion group than the observation group (difference estimate = -0.54, P ≤ 0.001). This study provides the first evidence that children with SCA who received regular blood transfusion therapy felt better and had better overall HRQL than those who did not receive transfusion therapy.
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.