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Results: 1 to 10 of 131

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Targeting Gut Microbiome Interactions in Service-Related Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases of Veterans.
Bajaj JS, Sharma A, Dudeja PK, Collaborators
(2019) Gastroenterology 157: 1180-1183.e1
MeSH Terms: Biomedical Research, Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal Diseases, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Humans, Liver Diseases, United States, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health, Veterans Health Services
Added October 29, 2019
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1 Members
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10 MeSH Terms
Training the physician-scientist: views from program directors and aspiring young investigators.
Williams CS, Iness AN, Baron RM, Ajijola OA, Hu PJ, Vyas JM, Baiocchi R, Adami AJ, Lever JM, Klein PS, Demer L, Madaio M, Geraci M, Brass LF, Blanchard M, Salata R, Zaidi M
(2018) JCI Insight 3:
MeSH Terms: Awards and Prizes, Biomedical Research, Career Choice, Charities, Education, Education, Medical, Education, Medical, Graduate, Foundations, Humans, National Institutes of Health (U.S.), Physicians, Research Personnel, Societies, Medical, Students, Medical, Surveys and Questionnaires, Training Support, United States, Workforce
Show Abstract · Added April 15, 2019
There is growing concern that the physician-scientist is endangered due to a leaky training pipeline and prolonged time to scientific independence (1). The NIH Physician-Scientist Workforce Working Group has concluded that as many as 1,000 individuals will need to enter the pipeline each year to sustain the workforce (2). Moreover, surveys of postgraduate training programs document considerable variability in disposition and infrastructure (3). Programs can be broadly grouped into two classes: physician-scientist training programs (PSTPs) that span residency and fellowship training, and research-in-residency programs (RiRs), which are limited to residency but trainees are able to match into PSTPs upon transitioning to fellowship (Figure 1). Funding sources for RiRs and PSTPs are varied and include NIH KL2 and T32 awards, charitable foundations, philanthropy, and institutional support. Furthermore, standards for research training and tools for evaluating programmatic success are lacking. Here, we share consensus generated from iterative workshops hosted by the Alliance of Academic Internal Medicine (AAIM) and the student-led American Physician Scientists Association (APSA).
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18 MeSH Terms
Balancing dual demands on the physician-scientist workforce.
Martin DM, Rathmell WK, Tavazoie SF
(2018) J Clin Invest 128: 3204-3205
MeSH Terms: Biomedical Research, Education, Medical, Undergraduate, Humans, Physicians, Research Personnel, Workforce
Added October 30, 2019
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MeSH Terms
Interdisciplinary Models for Research and Clinical Endeavors in Genomic Medicine: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.
Musunuru K, Arora P, Cooke JP, Ferguson JF, Hershberger RE, Hickey KT, Lee JM, Lima JAC, Loscalzo J, Pereira NL, Russell MW, Shah SH, Sheikh F, Wang TJ, MacRae CA, American Heart Association Council on Genomic and Precision Medicine; Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease; Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research; and Stroke Council
(2018) Circ Genom Precis Med 11: e000046
MeSH Terms: American Heart Association, Biomedical Research, Cardiovascular Diseases, Electronic Health Records, Genomics, Humans, Interdisciplinary Studies, Precision Medicine, United States
Show Abstract · Added April 2, 2019
The completion of the Human Genome Project has unleashed a wealth of human genomics information, but it remains unclear how best to implement this information for the benefit of patients. The standard approach of biomedical research, with researchers pursuing advances in knowledge in the laboratory and, separately, clinicians translating research findings into the clinic as much as decades later, will need to give way to new interdisciplinary models for research in genomic medicine. These models should include scientists and clinicians actively working as teams to study patients and populations recruited in clinical settings and communities to make genomics discoveries-through the combined efforts of data scientists, clinical researchers, epidemiologists, and basic scientists-and to rapidly apply these discoveries in the clinic for the prediction, prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. The highly publicized US Precision Medicine Initiative, also known as All of Us, is a large-scale program funded by the US National Institutes of Health that will energize these efforts, but several ongoing studies such as the UK Biobank Initiative; the Million Veteran Program; the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network; the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health; and the DiscovEHR collaboration are already providing exemplary models of this kind of interdisciplinary work. In this statement, we outline the opportunities and challenges in broadly implementing new interdisciplinary models in academic medical centers and community settings and bringing the promise of genomics to fruition.
© 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
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9 MeSH Terms
The Scope of Extraprofessional Caregiving Challenges Among Early Career Faculty: Findings From a University Medical Center.
Hartmann KE, Sundermann AC, Helton R, Bird H, Wood A
(2018) Acad Med 93: 1707-1712
MeSH Terms: Academic Medical Centers, Adult, Biomedical Research, Career Mobility, Faculty, Medical, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Occupational Stress, Surveys and Questionnaires, United States
Show Abstract · Added February 21, 2019
PURPOSE - Academic scientists work in competitive environments, and many institutions invest in career development supports. These investments may be imperiled when extraprofessional demands challenge a faculty member's reserve capacity. This research assessed prevalence of caregiving challenges and estimated incidence of stressful life events.
METHOD - In 2015-2016, the authors surveyed recipients of career development awards supporting ≥ 75% effort and individuals within the funding period of their first National Institutes of Health R01 or equivalent at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Domains included family structure, hospitalizations of family members, responsibility for coordination of caregiving, and an inventory of stressful life events.
RESULTS - Seventy-two percent (152 of 210) of early career researchers responded. Over half endorsed experiencing one or more substantial caregiving challenges in the prior year. This included 35 (23%) having a child or adult in the household hospitalized in the prior year and 36 (24%) being responsible for health care needs for a child or adult in the household, or for coordinating elder care, assisted living, or hospice care. The majority experienced one or more caregiving challenges. Stressful life events increased relative risk of "thinking about leaving academics" by 70% (risk ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.4). Prevalence and incidence of caregiving demands did not differ by gender.
CONCLUSIONS - Leaders, administrators, mentors, and faculty should anticipate that most women and men early career researchers will experience substantial caregiving challenges and life events in any given year. Sufficient need exists to warrant investigation of institutional programs to address caregiving challenges.
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12 MeSH Terms
An Innovative Program to Support Gender Equity and Success in Academic Medicine: Early Experiences From the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation's Fund to Retain Clinical Scientists.
Jagsi R, Jones RD, Griffith KA, Brady KT, Brown AJ, Davis RD, Drake AF, Ford D, Fraser VJ, Hartmann KE, Hochman JS, Girdler S, Libby AM, Mangurian C, Regensteiner JG, Yonkers K, Escobar-Alvarez S, Myers ER
(2018) Ann Intern Med 169: 128-130
MeSH Terms: Biomedical Research, Female, Foundations, Humans, Male, Research Personnel, Research Support as Topic, Sexism, United States
Added February 21, 2019
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9 MeSH Terms
Attitudes of Radiology Program Directors Toward MD-PhD Trainees, Resident Research Productivity, and Dedicated Research Time.
Cogswell PM, Deitte LA, Donnelly EF, Morgan VL, Omary RA
(2018) Acad Radiol 25: 733-738
MeSH Terms: Attitude of Health Personnel, Biomedical Research, Clinical Competence, Efficiency, Humans, Internship and Residency, Physician Executives, Radiology, Surveys and Questionnaires, Time Factors
Show Abstract · Added March 16, 2018
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES - The percentage of clinical scientists in radiology has historically been low. Increasing the pipeline of trainees interested in research could occur by recruiting MD-PhD trainees and providing protected research time during residency. The purpose of this work is to assess the attitudes of radiology program directors toward MD-PhD trainees, resident research productivity, and dedicated research time.
METHODS - An online survey was sent to residency program directors of all diagnostic radiology departments that received National Institutes of Health (NIH) awards in 2014 (n = 63). Survey questions included program size; perception of overall performance, clinical performance, and research productivity of MD-PhD residents compared to non-PhD residents; and presence of dedicated research time. Responses comparing MD-PhD residents to non-PhD residents were reported as a five-point Likert scale. Student t test was used to assess for significance (alpha = 0.05).
RESULTS - Response rate was 37%. Clinical performance of MD-PhD residents was judged inferior (P < .05) to non-PhD residents, although that of all residents engaged in research trended toward superiority compared to those not involved in research. Dedicated research time is offered by 61% of programs in years R1-R3 and all programs in year R4. Research productivity during residency was judged to be similar (P = .5) between MD-PhD and non-PhD residents.
CONCLUSIONS - Survey results suggest that clinical performance during residency and research involvement is often individually based and difficult to generalize based on prior PhD training. All programs offered dedicated research time, and the vast majority of residents were reported to engage in research during residency, which may increase the pipeline of trainees interested in an academic career.
Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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10 MeSH Terms
Perspective on the interpretation of research and translation to clinical care with therapy-associated metastatic breast cancer progression as an example.
Fingleton B, Lange K, Caldwell B, Bankaitis KV, Board of the Metastasis Research Society
(2017) Clin Exp Metastasis 34: 443-447
MeSH Terms: Biomedical Research, Breast Neoplasms, Decision Making, Disease Progression, Evidence-Based Medicine, Female, Humans, Translational Medical Research
Show Abstract · Added March 21, 2018
This commentary was written as a collaboration between the Board of the Metastasis Research Society and two patients with metastatic breast cancer. It was conceived in response to how preclinical scientific research is sometimes presented to non-scientists in a way that can cause stress and confusion. Translation of preclinical findings to the clinic requires overcoming multiple barriers. This is irrespective of whether the findings relate to exciting responses to new therapies or problematic effects of currently used therapies. It is important that these barriers are understood and acknowledged when research findings are summarized for mainstream reporting. To minimize confusion, patients should continue to rely on their oncology care team to help them interpret whether research findings presented in mainstream media have relevance for their individual care. Researchers, both bench and clinical, should work together where possible to increase options for patients with metastatic disease, which is still in desperate need of effective therapeutic approaches.
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8 MeSH Terms
Best Practices for Physician-Scientist Training Programs: Recommendations from the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine.
Blanchard M, Burton MC, Geraci MW, Madaio MP, Marsh JD, Proweller A, Rockey DC, Salata RA, Tan W, Williams CS, Zaidi M, Todd RF
(2018) Am J Med 131: 578-584
MeSH Terms: Biomedical Research, Curriculum, Education, Medical, Graduate, Humans, Internship and Residency, Mentoring, Research Support as Topic, United States
Added April 15, 2019
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1 Members
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8 MeSH Terms
Survey of checkpoints along the pathway to diverse biomedical research faculty.
Meyers LC, Brown AM, Moneta-Koehler L, Chalkley R
(2018) PLoS One 13: e0190606
MeSH Terms: Academies and Institutes, Biology, Biomedical Research, Cultural Diversity, Faculty, Humans, Minority Groups
Show Abstract · Added March 9, 2018
There is a persistent shortage of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty who are involved in basic biomedical research at medical schools. We examined the entire training pathway of potential candidates to identify the points of greatest loss. Using a range of recent national data sources, including the National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates and Survey of Doctoral Recipients, we analyzed the demographics of the population of interest, specifically those from URM backgrounds with an interest in biomedical sciences. We examined the URM population from high school graduates through undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral training as well as the URM population in basic science tenure track faculty positions at medical schools. We find that URM and non-URM trainees are equally likely to transition into doctoral programs, to receive their doctoral degree, and to secure a postdoctoral position. However, the analysis reveals that the diversions from developing a faculty career are found primarily at two clearly identifiable places, specifically during undergraduate education and in transition from postdoctoral fellowship to tenure track faculty in the basic sciences at medical schools. We suggest focusing additional interventions on these two stages along the educational pathway.
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7 MeSH Terms