The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
We reported that arginase 2 (ARG2) deletion results in increased gastritis and decreased bacterial burden during Helicobacter pylori infection in mice. Our studies implicated a potential role for inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS2), as Arg2 (-/-) mice exhibited increased NOS2 levels in gastric macrophages, and NO can kill H. pylori. We now bred Arg2 (-/-) to Nos2 (-/-) mice, and infected them with H. pylori. Compared to wild-type mice, both Arg2 (-/-) and Arg2 (-/-) ;Nos2 (-/-) mice exhibited increased gastritis and decreased colonization, the latter indicating that the effect of ARG2 deletion on bacterial burden was not mediated by NO. While Arg2 (-/-) mice demonstrated enhanced M1 macrophage activation, Nos2 (-/-) and Arg2 (-/-) ;Nos2 (-/-) mice did not demonstrate these changes, but exhibited increased CXCL1 and CXCL2 responses. There was an increased expression of the Th1/Th17 cytokines, interferon gamma and interleukin 17, in gastric tissues and splenic T-cells from Arg2 (-/-), but not Nos2 (-/-) or Arg2 (-/-) ;Nos2 (-/-) mice. Gastric tissues from infected Arg2 (-/-) mice demonstrated increased expression of arginase 1, ornithine decarboxylase, adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1, spermidine/spermine N (1)-acetyltransferase 1, and spermine oxidase, along with increased spermine levels. These data indicate that ARG2 deletion results in compensatory upregulation of gastric polyamine synthesis and catabolism during H. pylori infection, which may contribute to increased gastric inflammation and associated decreased bacterial load. Overall, the finding of this study is that ARG2 contributes to the immune evasion of H. pylori by restricting M1 macrophage activation and polyamine metabolism.
L-arginine (L-Arg) is metabolized by nitric oxide synthase and arginase enzymes. The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. We have shown that alterations in L-Arg availability and metabolism into polyamines contribute significantly to the dysregulation of the host immune response to this infection. Nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) can kill H. pylori. There are multiple mechanisms leading to failure of this process, including competition for L-Arg substrate by H. pylori arginase, and induction of host macrophage arginase II (Arg2) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Generation of spermine by ODC inhibits iNOS translation and NO-mediated H. pylori killing. Expression of ODC is dependent on formation of a unique AP-1 complex, leading to upregulation of c-Myc as a transcriptional enhancer. Macrophage apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of spermine via the enzyme spermine oxidase (SMO) that generates hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and thus oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial membrane polarization. Our studies have demonstrated that apoptosis occurs through a pERK → pc-Fos/c-Jun → c-Myc → ODC → SMO pathway. In gastric epithelial cells, activation of oxidative stress by H. pylori is dependent on SMO induction and results in both apoptosis and DNA damage, such that inhibition or knockdown of SMO markedly attenuates these events. In summary, L-Arg metabolism by the arginase-ODC pathway and the activation of SMO leads to H. pylori-induced DNA damage and immune dysregulation through polyamine-mediated oxidative stress and impairment of antimicrobial NO synthesis. Our studies indicate novel targets for therapeutic intervention in H. pylori-associated diseases, including gastritis, ulcer disease, and gastric cancer.
Dysfunction of the dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC) in schizophrenia may be associated with alterations in the regulation of brain metabolism. To determine whether abnormal expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cellular metabolism contributes to this dysfunction, we used cDNA microarrays to perform gene expression profiling of all major metabolic pathways in postmortem samples of PFC area 9 from 10 subjects with schizophrenia and 10 matched control subjects. Genes comprising 71 metabolic pathways were assessed in each pair, and only five pathways showed consistent changes (decreases) in subjects with schizophrenia. Reductions in expression were identified for genes involved in the regulation of ornithine and polyamine metabolism, the mitochondrial malate shuttle system, the transcarboxylic acid cycle, aspartate and alanine metabolism, and ubiquitin metabolism. Interestingly, although most of the metabolic genes that were consistently decreased across subjects with schizophrenia were not similarly decreased in haloperidol-treated monkeys, the transcript encoding the cytosolic form of malate dehydrogenase displayed prominent drug-associated increases in expression compared with untreated animals. These molecular analyses implicate a highly specific pattern of metabolic alterations in the PFC of subjects with schizophrenia and raise the possibility that antipsychotic medications may exert a therapeutic effect, in part, by normalizing some of these changes.