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BACKGROUND - Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is associated with trauma-induced hearing loss. Local treatment of cochleae of trauma-exposed animals with a glucocorticoid is effective in reducing the level of hearing loss that occurs post-trauma (e.g., electrode insertion trauma-induced hearing loss/dexamethasone treatment).
HYPOTHESIS - Dexamethasone (Dex) protects auditory hair cells (AHCs) from trauma-induced loss by activating cellular signal pathways that promote cell survival.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Organ of Corti explants challenged with an ototoxic level of TNFalpha was the trauma model with Dex the otoprotective drug. A series of inhibitors were used in combination with the Dex treatment of TNFalpha-exposed explants to investigate the signal molecules that participate in Dex-mediated otoprotection. The otoprotective capacity of Dex against TNFalpha ototoxicity was determined by hair cell counts obtained from fixed explants stained with FITC-phalloidin labeling with investigators blinded to specimen identity.
RESULTS - The general caspase inhibitor Boc-d-fmk prevented TNFalpha-induced AHC death. There was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the efficacy of Dex otoprotection against TNFalpha ototoxicity when the following cellular events were blocked: (1) glucocorticoid receptors (Mif); (2) PI3K (LY294002); (3) Akt/PKB (SH-6); and (4) NFkappaB (NFkappaB-I).
CONCLUSION - Dex treatment protects hair cells against TNFalpha apoptosis in vitro by activation of PI3K/Akt and NFkappaB signaling.
The natural product indole is a substrate for cytochrome P450 2A6. Mutagenesis of P450 2A6 was done to expand its capability in the oxidization of bulky substituted indole compounds, which are not substrates for the wild-type enzyme or the double mutant L240C/N297Q, as determined in our previous work (Wu, Z.-L., Aryal, P., Lozach, O., Meijer, L., and Guengerich, F. P. (2005) Chem. Biodivers. 2, 51-65). Error-prone PCR and site-directed mutagenesis led to the identification of two critical amino acid residue changes (N297Q and I300V) that achieve the purpose. The new mutant (N297Q/I300V) was able to oxidize both 4- and 5-benzyloxy(OBzl)indoles to form colored products. Both changes were required for oxidation of these bulky substrates. The colored product derived from 5-OBzl-indole was mainly 5,5'-di-OBzl-indirubin, whereas the dominant blue dye isolated upon incubations with 4-OBzl-indole was neither an indigo nor an indirubin. Two-dimensional NMR experiments led to assignment of the structure as 4-OBzl-2-(4'-OBzl-1',7'-dihydro-7'-oxo-6'H-indol-6'-ylidene)indolin-3-one, in which a pyrrole ring and a benzene ring are connected with a double bond instead of the pyrrole-pyrrole connection of other indigoids. Monomeric oxidation products were also isolated and characterized; three phenols (4-OBzl-1H-indol-5-ol, 4-OBzl-1H-indol-6-ol, and 4-OBzl-1H-indol-7-ol) and one quinone (4-OBzl-1H-indole-6,7-dione, the postulated immediate precursor of the final blue dye) were identified. The results are interpreted in the context of a crystal structure of a P450 2A6-coumarin complex. The I300V change opens an additional pocket to accommodate the OBzl bulk. The N2297Q change is postulated to generate a hydrogen bond between Gln and the substrate oxygen. Thus, the substrate specificity of P450 2A6 was expanded, and new products were obtained in this study.
The effects of synthetic chemopreventive organoselenium compounds 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (o-, m-, and p-XSC, respectively), benzyl selenocyanate (BSC), and dibenzyl diselenide (DDS) and inorganic sodium selenite on the oxidation of xenobiotics and procarcinogens by human cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes were determined in vitro. Spectral studies showed that BSC and three XSC compounds (but not sodium selenite or DDS) induced type II difference spectrum when added to the suspension of liver microsomes isolated from beta-naphthoflavone-treated rats, with m-XSC being the most potent in inducing spectral interactions with P450 enzymes; m-XSC also produced a type II spectral change with human liver microsomes. o-, m-, and p-XSC inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation catalyzed by human liver microsomes when added at concentrations below 1 microM levels, but BSC and DDS were less effective. All of these compounds inhibited the oxidation of model substrates for human P450s to varying extents. We studied the effects of these compounds on the activation of procarcinogens by recombinant human CYP1A1, 1A2, and 1B1 enzymes using Salmonella typhimurium NM2009 tester strain for the detection of DNA damage. The three XSCs were found to be very potent inhibitors of metabolic activation of 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, 2-amino-3,5-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and 2-aminoanthracene, catalyzed by CYP1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, respectively. The potency of inhibition of m-XSC on CYP1B1-dependent activation of 2-aminoanthracene was compatible to those of alpha-naphthoflavone. These inhibitory actions may, in part, account for the mechanisms responsible for cancer prevention by organoselenium compounds in laboratory animals.