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Metastatic breast cancer is an incurable disease and identification of novel therapeutic opportunities is vital. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) frequently metastasizes and high levels of activated p90RSK (RSK), a downstream MEK-ERK1/2 effector, are found in TNBC. We demonstrate, using direct pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of RSK1/2, that these kinases contribute to the TNBC metastatic process in vivo Kinase profiling showed that RSK1 and RSK2 are the predominant kinases targeted by the new inhibitor, which is based on the natural product SL0101. Further evidence for selectivity was provided by the observations that silencing RSK1 and RSK2 eliminated the ability of the analogue to further inhibit survival or proliferation of a TNBC cell line. In vivo, the new derivative was as effective as the FDA-approved MEK inhibitor trametinib in reducing the establishment of metastatic foci. Importantly, inhibition of RSK1/2 did not result in activation of AKT, which is known to limit the efficacy of MEK inhibitors in the clinic. Our results demonstrate that RSK is a major contributor to the TNBC metastatic program and provide preclinical proof-of-concept for the efficacy of the novel SL0101 analogue in vivo Mol Cancer Ther; 15(11); 2598-608. ©2016 AACR.
©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) are a group of Family C Seven Transmembrane Spanning Receptors (7TMRs) that play important roles in modulating signaling transduction, particularly within the central nervous system. mGlu(4) belongs to a subfamily of mGlus that is predominantly coupled to G(i/o) G proteins. We now report that the ubiquitous autacoid and neuromodulator, histamine, induces substantial glutamate-activated calcium mobilization in mGlu(4)-expressing cells, an effect which is observed in the absence of co-expressed chimeric G proteins. This strong induction of calcium signaling downstream of glutamate activation of mGlu(4) depends upon the presence of H(1) histamine receptors. Interestingly, the potentiating effect of histamine activation does not extend to other mGlu(4)-mediated signaling events downstream of G(i/o) G proteins, such as cAMP inhibition, suggesting that the presence of G(q) coupled receptors such as H(1) may bias normal mGlu(4)-mediated G(i/o) signaling events. When the activity induced by small molecule positive allosteric modulators of mGlu(4) is assessed, the potentiated signaling of mGlu(4) is further biased by histamine toward calcium-dependent pathways. These results suggest that G(i/o)-coupled mGlus may induce substantial, and potentially unexpected, calcium-mediated signaling events if stimulation occurs concomitantly with activation of G(q) receptors. Additionally, our results suggest that signaling induced by small molecule positive allosteric modulators may be substantially biased when G(q) receptors are co-activated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Early-generation β-blockers lower blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular morality in coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure but worsen glucose homeostasis and fibrinolytic balance. Nebivolol is a third-generation β-blocker that increases the bioavailability of nitric oxide. We compared the effect of nebivolol (5 mg/d) and the β(1)-selective antagonist metoprolol (100 mg/d) on glucose homeostasis and markers of fibrinolysis in 46 subjects with metabolic syndrome. Subjects underwent a frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test after 3-week washout and placebo treatment and after randomized treatment with study drug. After 12-week treatment, nebivolol and metoprolol equivalently decreased systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. Neither drug affected β-cell function, disposition index, or acute insulin response to glucose. Metoprolol significantly decreased the insulin sensitivity index. In contrast, nebivolol did not affect insulin sensitivity, and the decrease in sensitivity was significantly greater after metoprolol than after nebivolol (-1.5±2.5×10(-4)×min(-1) per milliunit per liter versus 0.04±2.19×10(-4)×min(-1) per milliunit per liter after nebivolol; P=0.03). Circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor also increased after treatment with metoprolol (from 9.8±6.8 to 12.3±7.8 ng/mL) but not nebivolol (from 10.8±7.8 to 10.5±6.2 ng/mL; P=0.05 versus metoprolol). Metoprolol, but not nebivolol, increased F(2)-isoprostane concentrations. In summary, treatment with metoprolol decreased insulin sensitivity and increased oxidative stress and the antifibrinolytic plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in patients with metabolic syndrome, whereas nebivolol lacked detrimental metabolic effects. Large clinical trials are needed to compare effects of nebivolol and the β(1) receptor antagonist metoprolol on clinical outcomes in patients with hypertension and the metabolic syndrome.
AMPK has emerged as a critical mechanism for salutary effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolic disorders in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Here we demonstrate that AMPK interacts with and directly phosphorylates sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP-1c and -2). Ser372 phosphorylation of SREBP-1c by AMPK is necessary for inhibition of proteolytic processing and transcriptional activity of SREBP-1c in response to polyphenols and metformin. AMPK stimulates Ser372 phosphorylation, suppresses SREBP-1c cleavage and nuclear translocation, and represses SREBP-1c target gene expression in hepatocytes exposed to high glucose, leading to reduced lipogenesis and lipid accumulation. Hepatic activation of AMPK by the synthetic polyphenol S17834 protects against hepatic steatosis, hyperlipidemia, and accelerated atherosclerosis in diet-induced insulin-resistant LDL receptor-deficient mice in part through phosphorylation of SREBP-1c Ser372 and suppression of SREBP-1c- and -2-dependent lipogenesis. AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of SREBP may offer therapeutic strategies to combat insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Although Parkinson's disease was first diagnosed nearly 200 years ago, its effective treatment still remains elusive for most of those diagnosed. The gold standard of treatment for most patients is 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine. This drug works for most individuals early in the disease; however, resistant symptoms start to emerge after several years of treatment. There has been increased interest in finding novel therapies to help Parkinson's disease patients. Such strategies may have the benefit of not only treating the symptomatic issues of the disorder, but might also offer promise in protecting dopaminergic neurons from further degeneration. One such target that is now receiving much attention from the scientific community is the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR4. In this article, we briefly review Parkinson's disease and then recent work in the mGluR area, with a focus on the efforts being made toward finding and optimizing novel mGluR4 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). Preclinically in rodent models, mGluR4 activation has offered much promise as a novel treatment of Parkinson's disease. Additionally, the specific use of PAMs, rather than direct-acting agonists at the orthosteric glutamate site, continues to be validated as a viable treatment option for this target. It is anticipated that continued progress in this area will further our understanding of the potential of mGluR4 modulation as a novel symptomatic and potentially disease-modifying treatment for Parkinson's disease.
Inappropriate activity of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) has been implicated in various human cancers as well as other pathologies. We previously reported the isolation, characterization, and synthesis of the natural product kaempferol 3-O-(3'',4''-di-O-acetyl-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside), termed SL0101 [Smith, J. A.; Poteet-Smith, C. E.; Xu, Y.; Errington, T. M.; Hecht, S. M.; Lannigan, D. A. Cancer Res., 2005, 65, 1027-1034: Xu, Y.-M; Smith, J. A.; Lannigan, D. A.; Hecht, S. M. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2006, 14, 3974-3977: Maloney, D. J.; Hecht, S. M. Org. Lett., 2005, 7, 1097-1099]. SL0101 is a potent and specific inhibitor of RSK; therefore, we performed an analysis of the structural basis for the inhibitory activity of this lead compound. In in vitro kinase assays we found that acylation of the rhamnose moiety and the 4', 5, and 7-hydroxyl groups are responsible for maintaining a high affinity interaction of RSK with SL0101. It is likely that the hydroxyl groups facilitate RSK binding through their ability to form hydrogen bonds. To determine whether the SL0101 derivatives were specific for inhibition of RSK we analyzed their ability to preferentially inhibit the growth of the human breast cancer line, MCF-7, compared to the normal human breast line, MCF-10A. We have previously validated this differential growth assay as a convenient readout for analyzing the specificity of RSK inhibitors [Smith, J. A.; Maloney, D. J.; Clark, D. E.; Xu, Y.-M.; Hecht, S. M.; Lannigan, D. A. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2006, 14, 6034-6042]. We found that acylation of the rhamnose moiety was essential for maintaining the selectivity for RSK inhibition in intact cells. Further, the efficacy of SL0101 in intact cells is limited by cellular uptake as well as possible hydrolysis of the acetyl groups on the rhamnose moiety by ubiquitous intracellular esterases. These studies should facilitate the development of a RSK inhibitor, based on the SL0101 pharmacophore, as an anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent.
Ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a role in human cancer and Coffin-Lowry syndrome and is comprised of two nonidentical kinase domains, each domain with its own ATP-binding site. RSK2 can be inactivated by different types of small organic molecules. Potent RSK2 inhibitors include the two classic bisindole maleimide PKC inhibitors, Ro31-8220 and GF109203X, and the natural product SL0101 that was shown to bind specifically to the ATP pocket of the N-terminal domain (NTD). In this paper, we present an atomic model of the RSK2 NTD (residues 68-323), which was built to simultaneously bind the distinctive molecular scaffolds of SL0101, Ro31-8220, and GF109203X. The RSK2 NTD model was used to identify two novel RSK2 inhibitors from the National Cancer Institute open chemical repository and to develop a preliminary structure-based pharmacophore model.
We have previously reported the isolation of kaempferol 3-O-(3'',4''-di-O-acetyl-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside) from Forsteronia refracta [Xu, Y.-M.; Smith, J. A.; Lannigan, D. A.; Hecht, S. M. Biorg. Med. Chem.2006, 14, 3974-3977.]. This flavonoid glycoside, termed SL0101, is a specific inhibitor of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) with a dissociation constant of 1 microM. In intact cells, however, the EC50 for inhibition of RSK activity is 50 microM, which suggests that the efficacy of SL0101 could be limited by cellular uptake. Therefore, we investigated the possibility of developing a more potent RSK inhibitor by synthesizing SL0101 analogs with increased hydrophobic character. The total syntheses of kaempferol 3-O-(3'',4''-di-O-butyryl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside) (Bu-SL0101) and kaempferol 3-O-(2'',3'',4''-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside) (3Ac-SL0101) were performed. The IC50 for inhibition of RSK activity in in vitro kinase assays for the analogs was similar to that obtained for SL0101. 3Ac-SL0101 demonstrated the same remarkable specificity for inhibiting RSK activity in intact cells as SL0101; however, Bu-SL0101 was not completely specific. 3Ac-SL0101 was approximately 2-fold more potent at inhibiting MCF-7 cell proliferation compared to SL0101 and preferentially decreased MCF-7 cell growth, as compared to the growth of the normal human breast line, MCF-10A. Thus the discovery of 3Ac-SL0101 as a more potent RSK-specific inhibitor than SL0101 should facilitate the development of RSK inhibitors as anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents.
BACKGROUND - Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) elicits two distinct windows of cardioprotection, an early phase that lasts for 1-2 h and a delayed phase that lasts for 24-72 h. However, there is conflicting data as to how long the heart is resistant to IPC-induced cardioprotection after the initial protection wanes, leading to the demonstration of IPC-resistance. This resistance to IPC appears to be dependent on the timing of the next IPC stimulus, the species of animals used and the model studied. Furthermore, the mechanisms responsible IPC-resistance are unknown. It is also important to demonstrate therapeutic interventions that will produce cardioprotection during this period of IPC-resistance.
METHODS AND RESULTS - To examine potential mechanisms responsible for acute IPC-induced resistance, the NHE-1 inhibitor EMD 85131 (2-methyl-5-methylsulfonyl-1-(1-pyrrollyl)-benzoylguanidine), which exerts its effects via mechanisms distinct from IPC, and the K(ATP) channel opener bimakalim, which bypasses the signaling mechanisms of IPC to directly open K(ATP) channels, were examined in a canine model of IPC-resistance. One 10 min. IPC stimulus followed by 10 min. of reperfusion produced a significant reduction in IS/AAR compared to Control (7.1 +/- 2.6% versus 26.0 +/- 6.2%; P < 0.05). However, IPC did not significantly protect the myocardium if a 2 h reperfusion period occurred between the initial IPC stimulus and the subsequent prolonged (60 min) ischemic challenge (IS/AAR: 22.5 +/- 4.8%: P > 0.05). Furthermore, hearts treated with IPC followed by 2 h of reperfusion were resistant to an additional IPC stimulus administered just prior to the subsequent 60 min. occlusion period (IS/AAR: 22.9 +/- 3.2%: P > 0.05). In contrast, administration of the NHE-1 inhibitor EMD 85131 (IS/AAR: 7.4 +/- 2.5%: P < 0.05) or the K(ATP) channel opener bimakalim (IS/AAR: 11.8 +/- 2.4%: P < 0.05) both afforded significant cardioprotection when administered at 2 h of reperfusion in previously preconditioned canine hearts resistant to IPC.
CONCLUSIONS - IPC resistance occurs in this canine model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, in spite of IPC resistance, hearts can still be pharmacologically protected by direct application of the K(ATP) channel opener bimakalim or the NHE inhibitor EMD 85131.
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been proposed as novel targets for the treatment of a variety of disorders. Recently, highly selective allosteric modulators of the mGluRs have been developed by several groups. These allosteric compounds provide an unprecedented degree of selectivity for individual mGluRs, allowing for more detailed functional studies on the roles of these receptors. Furthermore, the allosteric approach avoids many of the hurdles associated with the development of direct agonists as drugs, and provides a clear path forward for clinical proof-of-concept studies. Currently, both positive allosteric modulators of mGluR2 and negative allosteric modulators of mGluR5 hold promise as novel anxiolytics, and positive allosteric modulators of mGluR4 appear to be an exciting new target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.