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Occupational Exposure to Benzene and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Population-Based Cohort: The Shanghai Women's Health Study.
Bassig BA, Friesen MC, Vermeulen R, Shu XO, Purdue MP, Stewart PA, Xiang YB, Chow WH, Zheng T, Ji BT, Yang G, Linet MS, Hu W, Zhang H, Zheng W, Gao YT, Rothman N, Lan Q
(2015) Environ Health Perspect 123: 971-7
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Benzene, China, Female, Humans, Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin, Middle Aged, Occupational Diseases, Occupational Exposure, Prospective Studies, Risk Assessment, Women's Health
Show Abstract · Added May 4, 2017
BACKGROUND - The association between benzene exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been the subject of debate as a result of inconsistent epidemiologic evidence. An International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) working group evaluated benzene in 2009 and noted evidence for a positive association between benzene exposure and NHL risk.
OBJECTIVE - We evaluated the association between occupational benzene exposure and NHL among 73,087 women enrolled in the prospective population-based Shanghai Women's Health Study.
METHODS - Benzene exposure estimates were derived using a previously developed exposure assessment framework that combined ordinal job-exposure matrix intensity ratings with quantitative benzene exposure measurements from an inspection database of Shanghai factories collected between 1954 and 2000. Associations between benzene exposure metrics and NHL (n = 102 cases) were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models, with study follow-up occurring from December 1996 through December 2009.
RESULTS - Women ever exposed to benzene had a significantly higher risk of NHL [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.96]. Compared with unexposed women, significant trends in NHL risk were observed for increasing years of benzene exposure (p(trend) = 0.006) and increasing cumulative exposure levels (p(trend) = 0.005), with the highest duration and cumulative exposure tertiles having a significantly higher association with NHL (HR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.01 and HR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.98, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS - Our findings, using a population-based prospective cohort of women with diverse occupational histories, provide additional evidence that occupational exposure to benzene is associated with NHL risk.
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13 MeSH Terms
Brilliant blue FCF is a nontoxic dye for saphenous vein graft marking that abrogates response to injury.
Hocking KM, Luo W, Li FD, Komalavilas P, Brophy C, Cheung-Flynn J
(2016) J Vasc Surg 64: 210-8
MeSH Terms: Animals, Aorta, Benzenesulfonates, Calcium Signaling, Cells, Cultured, Coloring Agents, Cytoprotection, Female, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells, Humans, Hyperplasia, In Vitro Techniques, Male, Neointima, Organ Culture Techniques, Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Receptors, Purinergic P2X7, Saphenous Vein, Swine, Vascular Grafting, Vascular System Injuries, Vasoconstriction
Show Abstract · Added March 9, 2015
BACKGROUND - Injury to saphenous vein grafts during surgical preparation may contribute to the subsequent development of intimal hyperplasia, the primary cause of graft failure. Surgical skin markers currently used for vascular marking contain gentian violet and isopropanol, which damage tissue and impair physiologic functions. Brilliant blue FCF (FCF) is a nontoxic dye alternative that may also ameliorate preparation-induced injury.
METHODS - Porcine saphenous vein (PSV) was used to evaluate the effect of FCF on physiologic responses in a muscle bath. Cytotoxicity of FCF was measured using human umbilical venous smooth muscle cells. Effect of FCF on the development of intimal hyperplasia was evaluated in organ culture using PSV. Intracellular calcium fluxes and contractile responses were measured in response to agonists and inhibitors in rat aorta and human saphenous vein.
RESULTS - Marking with FCF did not impair smooth muscle contractile responses and restored stretch injury-induced loss in smooth muscle contractility of PSV. Gentian violet has cytotoxic effects on human umbilical venous smooth muscle cells, whereas FCF is nontoxic. FCF inhibited intimal thickening in PSV in organ culture. Contraction induced by 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate and intracellular calcium flux were inhibited by FCF, oxidized adenosine triphosphate, KN-62, and brilliant blue G, suggesting that FCF may inhibit the purinergic receptor P2X7.
CONCLUSIONS - Our studies indicated that FCF is a nontoxic marking dye for vein grafts that ameliorates vein graft injury and prevents intimal thickening, possibly due to P2X7 receptor inhibition. FCF represents a nontoxic alternative for vein graft marking and a potentially therapeutic approach to enhance outcome in autologous transplantation of human saphenous vein into the coronary and peripheral arterial circulation.
Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.
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23 MeSH Terms
Phospholipid ether analogs for the detection of colorectal tumors.
Deming DA, Maher ME, Leystra AA, Grudzinski JP, Clipson L, Albrecht DM, Washington MK, Matkowskyj KA, Hall LT, Lubner SJ, Weichert JP, Halberg RB
(2014) PLoS One 9: e109668
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Animals, Colorectal Neoplasms, Female, Humans, Indoles, Intestinal Neoplasms, Iodobenzenes, Lymphatic Metastasis, Mice, Neoplasm Invasiveness, Phospholipid Ethers, Phosphorylcholine, Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
Show Abstract · Added April 12, 2016
The treatment of localized colorectal cancer (CRC) depends on resection of the primary tumor with adequate margins and sufficient lymph node sampling. A novel imaging agent that accumulates in CRCs and the associated lymph nodes is needed. Cellectar Biosciences has developed a phospholipid ether analog platform that is both diagnostic and therapeutic. CLR1502 is a near-infrared fluorescent molecule, whereas 124/131I-CLR1404 is under clinical investigation as a PET tracer/therapeutic agent imaged by SPECT. We investigated the use of CLR1502 for the detection of intestinal cancers in a murine model and 131I-CLR1404 in a patient with metastatic CRC. Mice that develop multiple intestinal tumors ranging from adenomas to locally advanced adenocarcinomas were utilized. After 96 hours post CLR1502 injection, the intestinal tumors were analyzed using a Spectrum IVIS (Perkin Elmer) and a Fluobeam (Fluoptics). The intensity of the fluorescent signal was correlated with the histological characteristics for each tumor. Colon adenocarcinomas demonstrated increased accumulation of CLR1502 compared to non-invasive lesions (total radiant efficiency: 1.76×10(10) vs 3.27×10(9) respectively, p = 0.006). Metastatic mesenteric tumors and uninvolved lymph nodes were detected with CLR1502. In addition, SPECT imaging with 131I-CLR1404 was performed as part of a clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors. 131I-CLR1404 was shown to accumulate in metastatic tumors in a patient with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Together, these compounds might enhance our ability to properly resect CRCs through better localization of the primary tumor and improved lymph node identification as well as detect distant disease.
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14 MeSH Terms
Brilliant blue FCF as an alternative dye for saphenous vein graft marking: effect on conduit function.
Voskresensky IV, Wise ES, Hocking KM, Li FD, Osgood MJ, Komalavilas P, Brophy C, Cheung-Flynn J
(2014) JAMA Surg 149: 1176-81
MeSH Terms: Analysis of Variance, Animals, Benzenesulfonates, Coloring Agents, Endothelium, Vascular, Graft Survival, Humans, Muscle Contraction, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Organ Culture Techniques, Primary Graft Dysfunction, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Saphenous Vein, Vena Cava, Inferior
Show Abstract · Added March 9, 2015
IMPORTANCE - Surgical skin markers are used off-label to mark human saphenous veins (HSVs) to maintain orientation before implantation as aortocoronary or peripheral arterial bypass grafts. These surgical skin markers impair functional responses of the HSV tissue.
OBJECTIVES - To investigate the effect of brilliant blue dye 1 (brilliant blue FCF [for food coloring]; hereinafter, FCF) as a nontoxic alternative marking dye and to determine whether FCF has pharmacological properties.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS - Segments of HSVs were collected in university hospitals from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting procedures immediately after harvest (unmanipulated) or after typical intraoperative surgical graft preparation (after manipulation). Rat inferior venae cavae were used to determine the pharmacological properties and cellular targets of FCF. Endothelial and smooth muscle functional responses were determined in a muscle bath, and intimal thickening in HSVs was determined after 14 days in organ culture.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES - Contractile responses were measured in force and converted to stress. Smooth muscle function was expressed as maximal responses to potassium chloride depolarization contractions. Endothelial function was defined as the percentage of relaxation of maximal agonist-induced contraction. Neointimal thickness was measured by histomorphometric analysis.
RESULTS - Human saphenous veins stored in the presence of FCF had no loss of endothelial or smooth muscle function. Unmanipulated HSVs preserved in the presence of FCF demonstrated a significant increase in endothelial-dependent relaxation (mean [SEM], 25.2% [6.4%] vs 30.2% [6.7%]; P = .02). Application of FCF to functionally nonviable tissue significantly enhanced the smooth muscle responses (mean [SEM], 0.018 [0.004] × 10⁵ N/m² vs 0.057 [0.016] × 10⁵ N/m²; P = .05). Treatment with FCF reduced intimal thickness in organ culture (mean [SEM], -17.5% [2.1%] for unmanipulated HSVs vs -27.9% [3.7%] for HSVs after manipulation; P < .001). In rat inferior venae cavae, FCF inhibited the contraction induced by the P2X7 receptor agonist 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-adenosine-5'-triphosphate (mean [SEM], 14.8% [2.2%] vs 6.5% [1.8%]; P = .02) to an extent similar to the P2X7 receptor antagonist oxidized adenosine triphosphate (mean [SEM], 5.0% [0.9%]; P < .02 vs control) or the pannexin hemichannel inhibitor probenecid (mean [SEM], 7.3% [1.6%] and 4.7% [0.9%] for 0.5mM and 2mM, respectively; P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE - Treatment with FCF did not impair endothelial or smooth muscle function in HSVs. Brilliant blue FCF enhanced endothelial-dependent relaxation, restored smooth muscle function, and prevented intimal hyperplasia in HSVs in organ culture. These pharmacological properties of FCF may be due to P2X7 receptor or pannexin channel inhibition. Brilliant blue FCF is an alternative, nontoxic marking dye that may improve HSV conduit function and decrease intimal hyperplasia.
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15 MeSH Terms
Impact of structural and metabolic variations on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted allyl- and propenylbenzenes.
Rietjens IM, Cohen SM, Fukushima S, Gooderham NJ, Hecht S, Marnett LJ, Smith RL, Adams TB, Bastaki M, Harman CG, Taylor SV
(2014) Chem Res Toxicol 27: 1092-103
MeSH Terms: Animals, Benzene Derivatives, Biotransformation, Carcinogens, Humans
Show Abstract · Added June 1, 2014
The metabolic fate of a compound is determined by numerous factors including its chemical structure. Although the metabolic options for a variety of functional groups are well understood and can often provide a rationale for the comparison of toxicity based on structural analogy, at times quite minor structural variations may have major consequences for metabolic outcomes and toxicity. In this perspective, the effects of structural variations on metabolic outcomes is detailed for a group of related hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted allyl- and propenylbenzenes. These classes of compounds are naturally occurring constituents of a variety of botanical-based food items. The classes vary from one another by the presence or absence of alkylation of their para-hydroxyl substituents and/or the position of the double bond in the alkyl side chain. We provide an overview of how these subtle structural variations alter the metabolism of these important food-borne compounds, ultimately influencing their toxicity, particularly their DNA reactivity and carcinogenic potential. The data reveal that detailed knowledge of the consequences of subtle structural variations for metabolism is essential for adequate comparison of structurally related chemicals. Taken together, it is concluded that predictions in toxicological risk assessment should not be performed on the basis of structural analogy only but should include an analogy of metabolic pathways across compounds and species.
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5 MeSH Terms
PhDAHP1 is required for floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Petunia × hybrida cv 'Mitchell Diploid'.
Langer KM, Jones CR, Jaworski EA, Rushing GV, Kim JY, Clark DG, Colquhoun TA
(2014) Phytochemistry 103: 22-31
MeSH Terms: Benzene Derivatives, Diploidy, Flowers, Gene Expression Regulation, Plant, Petunia, Plant Proteins, Volatile Organic Compounds
Show Abstract · Added August 14, 2014
Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis consists of numerous enzymatic and regulatory processes. The initial enzymatic step bridging primary metabolism to secondary metabolism is the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P) carried out via 3-DEOXY-D-ARABINO-HEPTULOSONATE-7-PHOSPHATE (DAHP) synthase. Here, identified, cloned, localized, and functionally characterized were two DAHP synthases from the model plant species Petunia × hybrida cv 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD). Full-length transcript sequences for PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 were identified and cloned using cDNA SMART libraries constructed from pooled MD corolla and leaf total RNA. Predicted amino acid sequence of PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins were 76% and 80% identical to AtDAHP1 and AtDAHP2 from Arabidopsis, respectively. PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to relatively highest levels in petal limb and tube tissues, while PhDAHP2 accumulated to highest levels in leaf and stem tissues. Through floral development, PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to highest levels during open flower stages, and PhDAHP2 transcript remained constitutive throughout. Radiolabeled PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins localized to plastids, however, PhDAHP2 localization appeared less efficient. PhDAHP1 RNAi knockdown petunia lines were reduced in total FVBP emission compared to MD, while PhDAHP2 RNAi lines emitted 'wildtype' FVBP levels. These results demonstrate that PhDAHP1 is the principal DAHP synthase protein responsible for the coupling of metabolites from primary metabolism to secondary metabolism, and the ultimate biosynthesis of FVBPs in the MD flower.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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7 MeSH Terms
A peptide-based positron emission tomography probe for in vivo detection of caspase activity in apoptotic cells.
Hight MR, Cheung YY, Nickels ML, Dawson ES, Zhao P, Saleh S, Buck JR, Tang D, Washington MK, Coffey RJ, Manning HC
(2014) Clin Cancer Res 20: 2126-35
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones, Animals, Apoptosis, Caspase 3, Caspase Inhibitors, Cell Line, Tumor, Colonic Neoplasms, Colorectal Neoplasms, Female, Fluorine Radioisotopes, Fluorobenzenes, Humans, Imidazoles, Immunoblotting, Immunohistochemistry, Indoles, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Nude, Organophosphates, Peptides, Positron-Emission Tomography, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Quinazolines, Quinolines, Radiopharmaceuticals, Sulfonamides, Tissue Distribution, Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Show Abstract · Added March 20, 2014
PURPOSE - Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, can be leveraged as a surrogate measure of response to therapeutic interventions in medicine. Cysteine aspartic acid-specific proteases, or caspases, are essential determinants of apoptosis signaling cascades and represent promising targets for molecular imaging. Here, we report development and in vivo validation of [(18)F]4-fluorobenzylcarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone ([(18)F]FB-VAD-FMK), a novel peptide-based molecular probe suitable for quantification of caspase activity in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - Supported by molecular modeling studies and subsequent in vitro assays suggesting probe feasibility, the labeled pan-caspase inhibitory peptide, [(18)F]FB-VAD-FMK, was produced in high radiochemical yield and purity using a simple two-step, radiofluorination. The biodistribution of [(18)F]FB-VAD-FMK in normal tissue and its efficacy to predict response to molecularly targeted therapy in tumors was evaluated using microPET imaging of mouse models of human colorectal cancer.
RESULTS - Accumulation of [(18)F]FB-VAD-FMK was found to agree with elevated caspase-3 activity in response to Aurora B kinase inhibition as well as a multidrug regimen that combined an inhibitor of mutant BRAF and a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor in (V600E)BRAF colon cancer. In the latter setting, [(18)F]FB-VAD-FMK PET was also elevated in the tumors of cohorts that exhibited reduction in size.
CONCLUSIONS - These studies illuminate [(18)F]FB-VAD-FMK as a promising PET imaging probe to detect apoptosis in tumors and as a novel, potentially translatable biomarker for predicting response to personalized medicine.
©2014 AACR.
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28 MeSH Terms
Are interstitial cells of Cajal involved in mechanical stress-induced gene expression and impairment of smooth muscle contractility in bowel obstruction?
Wu CC, Lin YM, Gao J, Winston JH, Cheng LK, Shi XZ
(2013) PLoS One 8: e76222
MeSH Terms: Animals, Blotting, Western, Cyclooxygenase 2, Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Gene Expression Regulation, Interstitial Cells of Cajal, Intestinal Obstruction, Mice, Muscle Contraction, Muscle, Smooth, Nitrobenzenes, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Sulfonamides
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2016
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - The network of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) is altered in obstructive bowel disorders (OBD). However, whether alteration in ICC network is a cause or consequence of OBD remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that mechanical dilation in obstruction disrupts the ICC network and that ICC do not mediate mechanotranscription of COX-2 and impairment of smooth muscle contractility in obstruction.
METHODS - Medical-grade silicon bands were wrapped around the distal colon to induce partial obstruction in wild-type and ICC deficient (W/W(v)) mice.
RESULTS - In wild-type mice, colon obstruction led to time-dependent alterations of the ICC network in the proximal colon segment. Although unaffected on days 1 and 3, the ICC density decreased markedly and the network was disrupted on day 7 of obstruction. COX-2 expression increased, and circular muscle contractility decreased significantly in the segment proximal to obstruction. In W/W(v) control mice, COX-2 mRNA level was 4.0 (±1.1)-fold higher (n=4) and circular muscle contractility was lower than in wild-type control mice. Obstruction further increased COX-2 mRNA level in W/W(v) mice to 7.2 (±1.0)-fold vs. W/W(v) controls [28.8 (±4.1)-fold vs. wild-type controls] on day 3. Obstruction further suppressed smooth muscle contractility in W/W(v) mice. However, daily administration of COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 significantly improved muscle contractility in both W/W(v) sham and obstruction mice.
CONCLUSIONS - Lumen dilation disrupts the ICC network. ICC deficiency has limited effect on stretch-induced expression of COX-2 and suppression of smooth muscle contractility in obstruction. Rather, stretch-induced COX-2 plays a critical role in motility dysfunction in partial colon obstruction.
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14 MeSH Terms
Locus coeruleus kappa-opioid receptors modulate reinstatement of cocaine place preference through a noradrenergic mechanism.
Al-Hasani R, McCall JG, Foshage AM, Bruchas MR
(2013) Neuropsychopharmacology 38: 2484-97
MeSH Terms: 3,4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-Isomer, Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists, Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists, Adrenergic beta-Antagonists, Animals, Betaxolol, Clonidine, Cocaine, Conditioning, Psychological, Drug-Seeking Behavior, Locus Coeruleus, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Naltrexone, Propanolamines, Propranolol, Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha, Receptors, Adrenergic, beta, Receptors, Opioid, kappa
Show Abstract · Added May 15, 2015
Activation of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) in monoamine circuits results in dysphoria-like behaviors and stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in both conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration models. Noradrenergic (NA) receptor systems have also been implicated in similar behaviors. Dynorphinergic projections terminate within the locus coeruleus (LC), a primary source of norepinephrine in the forebrain, suggesting a possible link between the NA and dynorphin/kappa opioid systems, yet the implications of these putative interactions have not been investigated. We isolated the necessity of KORs in the LC in kappa opioid agonist (U50,488)-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP by blocking KORs in the LC with NorBNI (KOR antagonist). KOR-induced reinstatement was significantly attenuated in mice injected with NorBNI in the LC. To determine the sufficiency of KORs in the LC on U50,488-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP, we virally re-expressed KORs in the LC of KOR knockout mice. We found that KORs expression in the LC alone was sufficient to partially rescue KOR-induced reinstatement. Next we assessed the role of NA signaling in KOR-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP in the presence and absence of a α2-agonist (clonidine), β-adrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol), and β(1)- and β(2)-antagonist (betaxolol and ICI-118,551 HCl). Both the blockade of postsynaptic β(1)-adrenergic receptors and the activation of presynaptic inhibitory adrenergic autoreceptors selectively potentiated the magnitude of KOR-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP but not cocaine-primed CPP reinstatement. Finally, viral restoration of KORs in the LC together with β-adrenergic receptor blockade did not potentiate KOR-induced reinstatement to cocaine CPP, suggesting that adrenergic receptor interactions occur at KOR-expressing regions external to the LC. These results identify a previously unknown interaction between KORs and NA systems and suggest a NA regulation of KOR-dependent reinstatement of cocaine CPP.
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20 MeSH Terms
Blocking the P2X7 receptor improves outcomes after axonal fusion.
Rodriguez-Feo CL, Sexton KW, Boyer RB, Pollins AC, Cardwell NL, Nanney LB, Shack RB, Mikesh MA, McGill CH, Driscoll CW, Bittner GD, Thayer WP
(2013) J Surg Res 184: 705-13
MeSH Terms: Action Potentials, Adenosine Triphosphate, Animals, Axons, Benzenesulfonates, Coloring Agents, Drug Carriers, Male, Motor Activity, Nerve Regeneration, Neurosurgical Procedures, Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors, Polyethylene Glycols, Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Receptors, Purinergic P2X7, Sciatic Neuropathy, Wallerian Degeneration, Wound Healing
Show Abstract · Added July 9, 2013
BACKGROUND - Activation of the P2X7 receptor on peripheral neurons causes the formation of pannexin pores, which allows the influx of calcium across the cell membrane. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and methylene blue have previously been shown to delay Wallerian degeneration if applied during microsuture repair of the severed nerve. Our hypothesis is that by modulating calcium influx via the P2X7 receptor pathway, we could improve PEG-based axonal repair. The P2X7 receptor can be stimulated or inhibited using bz adenosine triphosphate (bzATP) or brilliant blue (FCF), respectively.
METHODS - A single incision rat sciatic nerve injury model was used. The defect was repaired using a previously described PEG methylene blue fusion protocol. Experimental animals were treated with 100 μL of 100 μM FCF solution (n = 8) or 100 μL of a 30 μM bzATP solution (n = 6). Control animals received no FCF, bzATP, or PEG. Compound action potentials were recorded prior to transection (baseline), immediately after repair, and 21 d postoperatively. Animals underwent behavioral testing 3, 7, 14, and 21 d postoperatively. After sacrifice, nerves were fixed, sectioned, and immunostained to allow for counting of total axons.
RESULTS - Rats treated with FCF showed an improvement compared with control at all time points (n = 8) (P = 0.047, 0.044, 0.014, and 0.0059, respectively). A statistical difference was also shown between FCF and bzATP at d 7 (P < 0.05), but not shown with d 3, 14, and 21 (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS - Blocking the P2X7 receptor improves functional outcomes after PEG-mediated axonal fusion.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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20 MeSH Terms