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OBJECTIVE - To assess the efficacy and acceptability of a group medical nutritional therapy (MNT) intervention, using motivational interviewing (MI). RESEARCH DESIGN & METHOD: African American (AA) women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in five, certified diabetes educator/dietitian-facilitated intervention sessions targeting carbohydrate, fat, and fruit/vegetable intake and management. Motivation-based activities centered on exploration of dietary ambivalence and the relationships between diet and personal strengths. Repeated pre- and post-intervention, psychosocial, dietary self-care, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed using generalized least squares regression. An acceptability assessment was administered after intervention.
RESULTS - Participants (n = 24) were mostly of middle age (mean age 50.8 ± 6.3) with an average BMI of 39 ± 6.5. Compared to a gradual pre-intervention loss of HbA1c control and confidence in choosing restaurant foods, a significant post-intervention improvement in HbA1c (P = 0.03) and a near significant (P = 0.06) increase in confidence in choosing restaurant foods were observed with both returning to pre-intervention levels. 100% reported that they would recommend the study to other AA women with type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSION - The results support the potential efficacy of a group MNT/MI intervention in improving glycemic control and dietary self-care-related confidence in overweight/obese AA women with type 2 diabetes.
Social Emotional NeuroScience Endocrinology Theatre is a novel intervention program aimed at improving reciprocal social interaction in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using behavioral strategies and theatrical techniques in a peer-mediated model. Previous research using a 3-month model showed improvement in face perception, social interaction, and reductions in stress. The current study assessed a 2-week summer camp model. Typically developing peers were trained and paired with ASD youth (8-17 years). Social perception and interaction skills were measured before and after treatment using neuropsychological and parental measures. Behavioral coding by reliable, independent raters was conducted within the treatment context (theatre) and outside the setting (playground). Salivary cortisol levels to assess physiological arousal were measured across contexts (home, theatre, and playground). A pretest-posttest design for within-group comparisons was used, and prespecified pairwise comparisons were achieved using a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Significant differences were observed in face processing, social awareness, and social cognition (P < 0.05). Duration of interaction with familiar peers increased significantly over the course of treatment (P < 0.05), while engagement with novel peers outside the treatment setting remained stable. Cortisol levels rose on the first day of camp compared with home values yet declined by the end of treatment and further reduced during posttreatment play with peers. Results corroborate previous findings that the peer-mediated theatre program contributes to improvement in core social deficits in ASD using a short-term, summer camp treatment model. Future studies will explore treatment length and peer familiarity to optimize and generalize gains.
© 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BACKGROUND - The childhood obesity epidemic disproportionately affects Hispanics. This paper reports on the design of the ongoing Healthy Families Study, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a community-based, behavioral family intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in Hispanic children using a community-based participatory research approach.
METHODS - The study will enroll 272 Hispanic families with children ages 5-7 residing in greater Nashville, Tennessee, United States. Families are randomized to the active weight gain prevention intervention or an alternative intervention focused on oral health. Lay community health promoters implement the interventions primarily in Spanish in a community center. The active intervention was adapted from the We Can! parent program to be culturally-targeted for Hispanic families and for younger children. This 12-month intervention promotes healthy eating behaviors, increased physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior, with an emphasis on parental modeling and experiential learning for children. Families attend eight bi-monthly group sessions during four months then receive information and/or support by phone or mail each month for eight months. The primary outcome is change in children's body mass index. Secondary outcomes are changes in children's waist circumference, dietary behaviors, preferences for fruits and vegetables, physical activity, and screen time.
RESULTS - Enrollment and data collection are in progress.
CONCLUSION - This study will contribute valuable evidence on efficacy of a childhood obesity prevention intervention targeting Hispanic families with implications for reducing disparities.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - The mechanism by which depression influences health outcomes in persons with diabetes is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to test whether depression is related to self-care behavior via social motivation and indirectly related to glycemic control via self-care behavior.
METHODS - Patients with diabetes were recruited from an outpatient clinic. Information gathered pertained to demographics, depression, and diabetes knowledge (information); diabetes fatalism (personal motivation); social support (social motivation); and diabetes self-care (behavior). Hemoglobin A1C values were extracted from the patient medical record. Structural equation models tested the predicted pathways.
RESULTS - Higher levels of depressive symptoms were significantly related to having less social support and decreased performance of diabetes self-care behavior. In addition, when depressive symptoms were included in the model, fatalistic attitudes were no longer associated with behavioral performance.
CONCLUSIONS - Among adults with diabetes, depression impedes the adoption of effective self-management behaviors (including physical activity, appropriate dietary behavior, foot care, and appropriate self-monitoring of blood glucose behavior) through a decrease in social motivation.
OBJECTIVE - Little is known about the use of psychosocial interventions in children younger than adolescence with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their parents. We report preliminary short-term outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of coping skills training (CST) compared with group education (GE) in school-aged children with T1D and their parents.
METHODS - One hundred and eleven children (range = 8-12 yr) with T1D for at least 6 months (3.71 +/- 2.91 yr) were randomized to CST (55.6% female (F); 81.5% white (W)) or GE (69.7% F; 90.9% W). Children and parents (n = 87) who completed the intervention, baseline, 1- and 3-month data are included. Children completed measures of self-efficacy, coping, and quality of life; parents completed measures of family functioning (adaptability and cohesion), diabetes-related conflict, parent depression, and parent coping. Metabolic control was assessed with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c. Mixed-model repeated measures anova was used to analyze the data.
RESULTS - CST and GE group composition was generally comparable. Children had good psychosocial adaptation and metabolic status. CST parents reported significantly more improvement in family adaptability compared with GE parents, and a trend was seen indicating that CST children showed greater improvement in life satisfaction than GE children. Effect sizes for this short-term follow-up period were small, but group participants were receptive to the intervention and reported positive gains.
CONCLUSIONS - In these preliminary results, CST and GE were more similar than different across multiple measure of psychosocial adaptation, although CST showed promising statistical trends for more adaptive family functioning and greater life satisfaction. Longer term follow-up is underway.
OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationships among maternal and child depressive symptoms and child and family psychosocial factors.
METHOD - Secondary analysis of baseline data for a coping skills intervention for school-age children (ages 8-12) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their mothers. Children and mothers completed measures of depressive symptoms, coping, quality of life, and family functioning.
RESULTS - There was a strong relationship between maternal and child depressive symptoms (r = .44, p < .001). Maternal depressive symptoms were negatively related to child quality of life, perceptions of coping, and family functioning. Impact of diabetes on quality of life, finding coping with diabetes upsetting, and family warmth mediated the relationship between maternal and child depressive symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS - Maternal depression may negatively affect child adjustment through its influence on quality of life, coping, and family functioning. Implications for interventions to improve psychosocial adjustment in children with T1D are discussed.
A pilot study was conducted to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of behavioral activation (BA) therapy for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Eleven veterans seeking treatment at a Veterans Administration outpatient PTSD clinic were enrolled in the study protocol, consisting of 16-weekly individual sessions of BA. Nine veterans completed the protocol, one participant completed 15 sessions, and one dropped out after one session. Clinician-rated PTSD symptom severity showed significant pre- to posttreatment improvement and was associated with a moderate effect size. A number of participants also were improved on measures of depression and quality of life, but changes did not reach statistical significance. Findings suggest that BA is a well-tolerated, potentially beneficial intervention for veterans with chronic symptoms of PTSD.
Psychological and behavioral factors can exacerbate the pain and dysfunction associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and could help maintain the condition in some patients. Effective management of CRPS requires that these psychosocial and behavioral aspects be addressed as part of an integrated multidisciplinary treatment approach. Well-controlled studies to guide the development of a psychological approach to CRPS management are not currently available. A sequenced protocol for psychological care in CRPS is therefore proposed based on available data and clinical experience. Regardless of the duration of the condition, all CRPS patients and their families should receive education about the negative effects of disuse, the pathophysiology of the syndrome, and possible interactions with psychological/behavioral factors. Patients with acute CRPS (<6-8 weeks) may not need additional psychological care. All patients with chronic CRPS should receive a thorough psychological evaluation, followed by cognitive-behavioral pain management treatment, including relaxation training with biofeedback. Patients making insufficient overall treatment progress or in whom comorbid psychiatric disorders/major ongoing life stressors are identified should additionally receive general cognitive-behavioral therapy to address these issues. The psychological component of treatment can work synergistically with medical and physical/occupational therapies to improve function and increase patients' ability to manage the condition successfully.