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Helicobacter pylori infection induces a chronic gastric inflammation which can lead to gastric ulcers and cancer. The mucosal immune response to H. pylori is first initiated by the activation of gastric epithelial cells that respond to numerous bacterial factors, such as the cytotoxin-associated gene A or the lipopolysaccharide intermediate heptose-1,7-bisphosphate. The response of these cells is orchestrated by different receptors including the intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 or the extracellular epidermal growth factor receptor. This nonspecific response leads to recruitment and activation of various myeloid (macrophages and dendritic cells) and T cells (T helper-17 and mucosal-associated invariant T cells), which magnify and maintain inflammation. In this review, we summarize the major advances made in the past year regarding the induction, the regulation, and the role of the innate and adaptive immune responses to H. pylori infection. We also recapitulate efforts that have been made to develop efficient vaccine strategies.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Metals are required cofactors for numerous fundamental processes that are essential to both pathogen and host. They are coordinated in enzymes responsible for DNA replication and transcription, relief from oxidative stress, and cellular respiration. However, excess transition metals can be toxic due to their ability to cause spontaneous, redox cycling and disrupt normal metabolic processes. Vertebrates have evolved intricate mechanisms to limit the availability of some crucial metals while concurrently flooding sites of infection with antimicrobial concentrations of other metals. To compete for limited metal within the host while simultaneously preventing metal toxicity, pathogens have developed a series of metal regulatory, acquisition, and efflux systems. This review will cover the mechanisms by which pathogenic bacteria recognize and respond to host-induced metal scarcity and toxicity.
© 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - To update progress on the effectiveness of vaccine for prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) and identification of promising candidate antigens against Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.
REVIEW METHODS - Literature searches were performed in OvidSP and PubMed restricted to articles published between June 2007 and September 2011. Search terms included otitis media, vaccines, vaccine antigens, and each of the otitis pathogens and candidate antigens identified in the ninth conference report.
CONCLUSIONS - The current report provides further evidence for the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in the prevention of otitis media. Observational studies demonstrate a greater decline in AOM episodes than reported in clinical efficacy trials. Unmet challenges include extending protection to additional serotypes and additional pathogens, the need to prevent early episodes, the development of correlates of protection for protein antigens, and the need to define where an otitis media vaccine strategy fits with priorities for child health.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE - Acute otitis media continues to be a burden on children and families, especially those who suffer from frequent recurrences. The 7-valent PCV (PCV7) has reduced the burden of disease as well as shifted the pneumococcal serotypes and the distribution of otopathogens currently reported in children with AOM. Antibiotic resistance remains an ongoing challenge. Multiple candidate antigens have demonstrated the necessary requirements of conservation, surface exposure, immunogenicity, and protection in animal models. Further research on the role of each antigen in pathogenesis, in the development of correlates of protection in animal models, and in new adjuvants to elicit responses in the youngest infants is likely to be productive and permit more antigens to move into human clinical trials.
Pneumonia is the most serious acute respiratory infection and is caused by numerous etiologic agents, bacteria and viruses. Severe pneumonia is a major challenge to survival of children globally. In this article we examine the causes of global childhood mortality, and the distribution of childhood pneumonia mortality and morbidity, as well as the risk factors that affect pneumonia incidence. Although major bacterial and viral respiratory infections, such as diphtheria, measles, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and pneumococcal infections, are now preventable through vaccination, bacterial pneumonia, including severe pneumonia (those that require hospitalization), still remain a public health challenge in both resource-poor and wealthy countries. We therefore, review the published literature on the available vaccines and their potential effectiveness in further reducing the burden of childhood bacterial respiratory diseases. There is a need to conduct further epidemiologic studies for identifying the disease burden and for urgent implementation of proven cost-effective interventions. These interventions are a necessary part of public health actions to reduce childhood mortality, a major Millennium Development Goal. The role of vaccines in this regard is critical, as they represent a rapid and feasible intervention with an early and sustained impact.
Helicobacter pylori infects the stomach of half of the human population worldwide and causes chronic active gastritis, which can lead to peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The host immune response to the infection is ineffective, because the bacterium persists and the inflammation continues for decades. Bacterial activation of epithelial cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils leads to a T helper cell 1 type of adaptive response, but this remains inadequate. The host inflammatory response has a key functional role in disrupting acid homeostasis, which impacts directly on the colonization patterns of H pylori and thus the extent of gastritis. Many potential mechanisms for the failure of the host response have been postulated, and these include apoptosis of epithelial cells and macrophages, inadequate effector functions of macrophages and dendritic cells, VacA inhibition of T-cell function, and suppressive effects of regulatory T cells. Because of the extent of the disease burden, many strategies for prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines have been investigated. The goal of enhancing the host's ability to generate protective immunity has met with some success in animal models, but the efficacy of potential vaccines in humans remains to be demonstrated. Aspects of H pylori immunopathogenesis are reviewed and perspectives on the failure of the host immune response are discussed. Understanding the mechanisms of immune evasion could lead to new opportunities for enhancing eradication and prevention of infection and associated disease.
BACKGROUND - A reliable challenge model is needed to evaluate Helicobacter pylori vaccine candidates.
METHODS - A cag pathogenicity island negative, OipA positive, multiple antibiotic susceptible strain of H pylori obtained from an individual with mild gastritis (Baylor strain 100) was used to challenge volunteers. Volunteers received 40 mg of famotidine at bedtime and 10(4)-10(10) cfu of H pylori in beef broth the next morning. Infection was confirmed by (13)C urea breath test ((13)C-UBT), culture, and histology. Eradication therapy was given four or 12 weeks post challenge and eradication was confirmed by at least two separate UBTs, as well as culture and histology.
RESULTS - Twenty subjects (nine women and 11 men; aged 23-33 years) received a H pylori challenge. Eighteen (90%) became infected. Mild to moderate dyspeptic symptoms occurred, peaked between days 9 and 12, and resolved. Vomitus from one subject contained >10(3) viable/ml H pylori. By two weeks post challenge gastric histology showed typical chronic H pylori gastritis with intense acute and chronic inflammation. The density of H pylori (as assessed by cfu/biopsy) was similarly independent of the challenge dose. A minimal infectious dose was not found. Gastric mucosal interleukin 8 levels increased more than 20-fold by two weeks after the challenge.
CONCLUSION - Challenge reliably resulted in H pylori infection. Infection was associated with typical H pylori gastritis with intense polymorphonuclear cell infiltration and interleukin 8 induction in gastric mucosa, despite absence of the cag pathogenicity island. Experimental H pylori infection is one of the viable approaches to evaluate vaccine candidates.
The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a widespread human pathogen that colonizes the gastric mucosa and is associated with gastro-intestinal illnesses such as gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric lymphoma and gastric cancer. Current pharmacological therapies are becoming less reliable for the control of H. pylori due to the elevated costs and to the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. New vaccination strategies utilizing H. pylori antigens combined with adjuvants or delivery of antigens by attenuated Salmonella strains have been successful in protecting mice against H. pylori infections. Oral immunization with single doses of urease-expressing Salmonella vaccine strains elicits mucosal and systemic antibody responses and fully protects different mouse strains against challenge infections with H. pylori. The high efficacy in the mouse model, combined with remarkable immunogenicity, safety and low-cost production, makes attenuated live recombinant Salmonella promising vaccine candidates for the control of H. pylori-related diseases in humans.
This article presents methods for sample size and power calculations for studies involving linear regression. These approaches are applicable to clinical trials designed to detect a regression slope of a given magnitude or to studies that test whether the slopes or intercepts of two independent regression lines differ by a given amount. The investigator may either specify the values of the independent (x) variable(s) of the regression line(s) or determine them observationally when the study is performed. In the latter case, the investigator must estimate the standard deviation(s) of the independent variable(s). This study gives examples using this method for both experimental and observational study designs. Cohen's method of power calculations for multiple linear regression models is also discussed and contrasted with the methods of this study. We have posted a computer program to perform these and other sample size calculations on the Internet (see http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/prevmed/psintro+ ++.htm). This program can determine the sample size needed to detect a specified alternative hypothesis with the required power, the power with which a specific alternative hypothesis can be detected with a given sample size, or the specific alternative hypotheses that can be detected with a given power and sample size. Context-specific help messages available on request make the use of this software largely self-explanatory.
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen associated with gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric carcinoma. The bacteria express a strong urease activity which is known to be essential for colonization of gnotobiotic pigs and nude mice. UreA and UreB, two structural subunits of the active enzyme, were expressed in the attenuated Salmonella typhimurium live vaccine SL3261 strain. Evaluation of protection against H. pylori was performed in Balb/c mice by oral immunization with a single dose of the vaccine strain. Five weeks after immunization, mice were challenged orally three times with a mouse-adapted H. pylori wild type strain and, six weeks later, mice were sacrificed to determine H. pylori infection by detection of urease activity from the antral region of the mouse stomachs. In several independent experiments, we observed 100% infection with H. pylori in the non-immunized mice and no infection (100% protection) in the mice immunized with S. typhimurium expressing recombinant UreA and UreB. Specific humoral and mucosal antibody responses against UreA and UreB were observed in mice immunized as indicated by western blots and ELISA assays. These data shows that oral immunization of mice with urease subunits delivered by an attenuated Salmonella strain induced a specific immune response and protected mice against H. pylori colonization. Single oral dose immunization with UreA and UreB delivered by a live Salmonella vaccine vector appears to be an attractive candidate for human vaccination against H. pylori infection. In addition, this model will aid to elucidate the effective protection mechanisms against H. pylori in the gastric mucosa.
OBJECTIVES - (1) To determine serotype-specific IgG antibody responses to reimmunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at age 5 years in children with sickle cell anemia and (2) to determine whether continued penicillin prophylaxis had any adverse effects on these responses.
STUDY DESIGN - Children with sickle cell anemia, who had been treated with prophylactic penicillin for at least 2 years before their fifth birthday, were randomly selected at age 5 years to continue penicillin prophylaxis or to receive placebo treatment. These children had been immunized once or twice in early childhood with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and were reimmunized at the time of randomization.
RESULTS - Serotype-specific IgG antibody responses to reimmunization varied according to pneumococcal serotype but in general were mediocre or poor; the poorest response was to serotype 6B. The antibody responses were similar in subjects with continued penicillin prophylaxis or placebo treatment, and in subjects who received one or two pneumococcal vaccinations before reimmunization. The occurrence of pneumococcal bacteremia was associated with low IgG antibody concentrations to the infecting serotype.
CONCLUSIONS - Reimmunization of children with sickle cell anemia who received pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at age 5 years induces limited production of serotype-specific IgG antibodies, regardless of previous pneumococcal vaccine history. Continued penicillin prophylaxis does not interfere with serotype-specific IgG antibody responses to reimmunization.