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Discovery of rare coding variants in OGDHL and BRCA2 in relation to breast cancer risk in Chinese women.
Guo X, Long J, Chen Z, Shu XO, Xiang YB, Wen W, Zeng C, Gao YT, Cai Q, Zheng W
(2020) Int J Cancer 146: 2175-2181
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, BRCA2 Protein, Breast Neoplasms, Case-Control Studies, China, Databases, Genetic, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex, Middle Aged, Mutation, Missense, Whole Exome Sequencing
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
The missing heritability of breast cancer could be partially attributed to rare variants (MAF < 0.5%). To identify breast cancer-associated rare coding variants, we conducted whole-exome sequencing (~50×) in genomic DNA samples obtained from 831 breast cancer cases and 839 controls of Chinese females. Using burden tests for each gene that included rare missense or predicted deleterious variants, we identified 29 genes showing promising associations with breast cancer risk. We replicated the association for two genes, OGDHL and BRCA2, at a Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.05, by genotyping an independent set of samples from 1,628 breast cancer cases and 1,943 controls. The association for OGDHL was primarily driven by three predicted deleterious variants (p.Val827Met, p.Pro839Leu, p.Phe836Ser; p < 0.01 for all). For BRCA2, we characterized a total of 27 disruptive variants, including 18 nonsense, six frameshift and three splicing variants, whereas they were only detected in cases, but none of the controls. All of these variants were either very rare (AF < 0.1%) or not detected in >4,500 East Asian women from the genome Aggregation database (gnomAD), providing additional support to our findings. Our study revealed a potential novel gene and multiple disruptive variants of BRCA2 for breast cancer risk, which may identify high-risk women in Chinese populations.
© 2019 UICC.
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15 MeSH Terms
RADX Promotes Genome Stability and Modulates Chemosensitivity by Regulating RAD51 at Replication Forks.
Dungrawala H, Bhat KP, Le Meur R, Chazin WJ, Ding X, Sharan SK, Wessel SR, Sathe AA, Zhao R, Cortez D
(2017) Mol Cell 67: 374-386.e5
MeSH Terms: A549 Cells, Animals, BRCA2 Protein, CRISPR-Cas Systems, DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded, DNA Repair, DNA, Neoplasm, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Genomic Instability, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Mice, Models, Molecular, Mutation, Neoplasms, Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors, Protein Binding, RNA Interference, Rad51 Recombinase, Replication Origin, Transfection
Show Abstract · Added March 24, 2018
RAD51 promotes homology-directed repair (HDR), replication fork reversal, and stalled fork protection. Defects in these functions cause genomic instability and tumorigenesis but also generate hypersensitivity to cancer therapeutics. Here we describe the identification of RADX as an RPA-like, single-strand DNA binding protein. RADX is recruited to replication forks, where it prevents fork collapse by regulating RAD51. When RADX is inactivated, excessive RAD51 activity slows replication elongation and causes double-strand breaks. In cancer cells lacking BRCA2, RADX deletion restores fork protection without restoring HDR. Furthermore, RADX inactivation confers chemotherapy and PARP inhibitor resistance to cancer cells with reduced BRCA2/RAD51 pathway function. By antagonizing RAD51 at forks, RADX allows cells to maintain a high capacity for HDR while ensuring that replication functions of RAD51 are properly regulated. Thus, RADX is essential to achieve the proper balance of RAD51 activity to maintain genome stability.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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23 MeSH Terms
Identification of 12 new susceptibility loci for different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Phelan CM, Kuchenbaecker KB, Tyrer JP, Kar SP, Lawrenson K, Winham SJ, Dennis J, Pirie A, Riggan MJ, Chornokur G, Earp MA, Lyra PC, Lee JM, Coetzee S, Beesley J, McGuffog L, Soucy P, Dicks E, Lee A, Barrowdale D, Lecarpentier J, Leslie G, Aalfs CM, Aben KKH, Adams M, Adlard J, Andrulis IL, Anton-Culver H, Antonenkova N, AOCS study group, Aravantinos G, Arnold N, Arun BK, Arver B, Azzollini J, Balmaña J, Banerjee SN, Barjhoux L, Barkardottir RB, Bean Y, Beckmann MW, Beeghly-Fadiel A, Benitez J, Bermisheva M, Bernardini MQ, Birrer MJ, Bjorge L, Black A, Blankstein K, Blok MJ, Bodelon C, Bogdanova N, Bojesen A, Bonanni B, Borg Å, Bradbury AR, Brenton JD, Brewer C, Brinton L, Broberg P, Brooks-Wilson A, Bruinsma F, Brunet J, Buecher B, Butzow R, Buys SS, Caldes T, Caligo MA, Campbell I, Cannioto R, Carney ME, Cescon T, Chan SB, Chang-Claude J, Chanock S, Chen XQ, Chiew YE, Chiquette J, Chung WK, Claes KBM, Conner T, Cook LS, Cook J, Cramer DW, Cunningham JM, D'Aloisio AA, Daly MB, Damiola F, Damirovna SD, Dansonka-Mieszkowska A, Dao F, Davidson R, DeFazio A, Delnatte C, Doheny KF, Diez O, Ding YC, Doherty JA, Domchek SM, Dorfling CM, Dörk T, Dossus L, Duran M, Dürst M, Dworniczak B, Eccles D, Edwards T, Eeles R, Eilber U, Ejlertsen B, Ekici AB, Ellis S, Elvira M, EMBRACE Study, Eng KH, Engel C, Evans DG, Fasching PA, Ferguson S, Ferrer SF, Flanagan JM, Fogarty ZC, Fortner RT, Fostira F, Foulkes WD, Fountzilas G, Fridley BL, Friebel TM, Friedman E, Frost D, Ganz PA, Garber J, García MJ, Garcia-Barberan V, Gehrig A, GEMO Study Collaborators, Gentry-Maharaj A, Gerdes AM, Giles GG, Glasspool R, Glendon G, Godwin AK, Goldgar DE, Goranova T, Gore M, Greene MH, Gronwald J, Gruber S, Hahnen E, Haiman CA, Håkansson N, Hamann U, Hansen TVO, Harrington PA, Harris HR, Hauke J, HEBON Study, Hein A, Henderson A, Hildebrandt MAT, Hillemanns P, Hodgson S, Høgdall CK, Høgdall E, Hogervorst FBL, Holland H, Hooning MJ, Hosking K, Huang RY, Hulick PJ, Hung J, Hunter DJ, Huntsman DG, Huzarski T, Imyanitov EN, Isaacs C, Iversen ES, Izatt L, Izquierdo A, Jakubowska A, James P, Janavicius R, Jernetz M, Jensen A, Jensen UB, John EM, Johnatty S, Jones ME, Kannisto P, Karlan BY, Karnezis A, Kast K, KConFab Investigators, Kennedy CJ, Khusnutdinova E, Kiemeney LA, Kiiski JI, Kim SW, Kjaer SK, Köbel M, Kopperud RK, Kruse TA, Kupryjanczyk J, Kwong A, Laitman Y, Lambrechts D, Larrañaga N, Larson MC, Lazaro C, Le ND, Le Marchand L, Lee JW, Lele SB, Leminen A, Leroux D, Lester J, Lesueur F, Levine DA, Liang D, Liebrich C, Lilyquist J, Lipworth L, Lissowska J, Lu KH, Lubinński J, Luccarini C, Lundvall L, Mai PL, Mendoza-Fandiño G, Manoukian S, Massuger LFAG, May T, Mazoyer S, McAlpine JN, McGuire V, McLaughlin JR, McNeish I, Meijers-Heijboer H, Meindl A, Menon U, Mensenkamp AR, Merritt MA, Milne RL, Mitchell G, Modugno F, Moes-Sosnowska J, Moffitt M, Montagna M, Moysich KB, Mulligan AM, Musinsky J, Nathanson KL, Nedergaard L, Ness RB, Neuhausen SL, Nevanlinna H, Niederacher D, Nussbaum RL, Odunsi K, Olah E, Olopade OI, Olsson H, Olswold C, O'Malley DM, Ong KR, Onland-Moret NC, OPAL study group, Orr N, Orsulic S, Osorio A, Palli D, Papi L, Park-Simon TW, Paul J, Pearce CL, Pedersen IS, Peeters PHM, Peissel B, Peixoto A, Pejovic T, Pelttari LM, Permuth JB, Peterlongo P, Pezzani L, Pfeiler G, Phillips KA, Piedmonte M, Pike MC, Piskorz AM, Poblete SR, Pocza T, Poole EM, Poppe B, Porteous ME, Prieur F, Prokofyeva D, Pugh E, Pujana MA, Pujol P, Radice P, Rantala J, Rappaport-Fuerhauser C, Rennert G, Rhiem K, Rice P, Richardson A, Robson M, Rodriguez GC, Rodríguez-Antona C, Romm J, Rookus MA, Rossing MA, Rothstein JH, Rudolph A, Runnebaum IB, Salvesen HB, Sandler DP, Schoemaker MJ, Senter L, Setiawan VW, Severi G, Sharma P, Shelford T, Siddiqui N, Side LE, Sieh W, Singer CF, Sobol H, Song H, Southey MC, Spurdle AB, Stadler Z, Steinemann D, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Sucheston-Campbell LE, Sukiennicki G, Sutphen R, Sutter C, Swerdlow AJ, Szabo CI, Szafron L, Tan YY, Taylor JA, Tea MK, Teixeira MR, Teo SH, Terry KL, Thompson PJ, Thomsen LCV, Thull DL, Tihomirova L, Tinker AV, Tischkowitz M, Tognazzo S, Toland AE, Tone A, Trabert B, Travis RC, Trichopoulou A, Tung N, Tworoger SS, van Altena AM, Van Den Berg D, van der Hout AH, van der Luijt RB, Van Heetvelde M, Van Nieuwenhuysen E, van Rensburg EJ, Vanderstichele A, Varon-Mateeva R, Vega A, Edwards DV, Vergote I, Vierkant RA, Vijai J, Vratimos A, Walker L, Walsh C, Wand D, Wang-Gohrke S, Wappenschmidt B, Webb PM, Weinberg CR, Weitzel JN, Wentzensen N, Whittemore AS, Wijnen JT, Wilkens LR, Wolk A, Woo M, Wu X, Wu AH, Yang H, Yannoukakos D, Ziogas A, Zorn KK, Narod SA, Easton DF, Amos CI, Schildkraut JM, Ramus SJ, Ottini L, Goodman MT, Park SK, Kelemen LE, Risch HA, Thomassen M, Offit K, Simard J, Schmutzler RK, Hazelett D, Monteiro AN, Couch FJ, Berchuck A, Chenevix-Trench G, Goode EL, Sellers TA, Gayther SA, Antoniou AC, Pharoah PDP
(2017) Nat Genet 49: 680-691
MeSH Terms: Alleles, BRCA1 Protein, BRCA2 Protein, Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial, Female, Genetic Loci, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome-Wide Association Study, Genotype, Humans, Meta-Analysis as Topic, Mutation, Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial, Ovarian Neoplasms, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Risk Factors, Telomere-Binding Proteins
Show Abstract · Added April 18, 2017
To identify common alleles associated with different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we pooled data from multiple genome-wide genotyping projects totaling 25,509 EOC cases and 40,941 controls. We identified nine new susceptibility loci for different EOC histotypes: six for serous EOC histotypes (3q28, 4q32.3, 8q21.11, 10q24.33, 18q11.2 and 22q12.1), two for mucinous EOC (3q22.3 and 9q31.1) and one for endometrioid EOC (5q12.3). We then performed meta-analysis on the results for high-grade serous ovarian cancer with the results from analysis of 31,448 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 3,887 mutation carriers with EOC. This identified three additional susceptibility loci at 2q13, 8q24.1 and 12q24.31. Integrated analyses of genes and regulatory biofeatures at each locus predicted candidate susceptibility genes, including OBFC1, a new candidate susceptibility gene for low-grade and borderline serous EOC.
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17 MeSH Terms
Triple-negative breast cancer: challenges and opportunities of a heterogeneous disease.
Bianchini G, Balko JM, Mayer IA, Sanders ME, Gianni L
(2016) Nat Rev Clin Oncol 13: 674-690
MeSH Terms: Androgen Antagonists, BRCA2 Protein, Biomarkers, Tumor, Clinical Trials as Topic, Female, Humans, Immune System, Immunotherapy, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Mutation, Neoplastic Stem Cells, Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors, Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors, Prognosis, Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
Chemotherapy is the primary established systemic treatment for patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in both the early and advanced-stages of the disease. The lack of targeted therapies and the poor prognosis of patients with TNBC have fostered a major effort to discover actionable molecular targets to treat patients with these tumours. Massively parallel sequencing and other 'omics' technologies have revealed an unexpected level of heterogeneity of TNBCs and have led to the identification of potentially actionable molecular features in some TNBCs, such as germline BRCA1/2 mutations or 'BRCAness', the presence of the androgen receptor, and several rare genomic alterations. Whether these alterations are molecular 'drivers', however, has not been clearly established. A subgroup of TNBCs shows a high degree of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes that also correlates with a lower risk of disease relapse and a higher likelihood of benefit from chemotherapy. Proof-of-principle studies with immune-checkpoint inhibitors in advanced-stage TNBC have yielded promising results, indicating the potential benefit of immunotherapy for patients with TNBC. In this Review, we discuss the most relevant molecular findings in TNBC from the past decade and the most promising therapeutic opportunities derived from these data.
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17 MeSH Terms
BRCA2 Polymorphic Stop Codon K3326X and the Risk of Breast, Prostate, and Ovarian Cancers.
Meeks HD, Song H, Michailidou K, Bolla MK, Dennis J, Wang Q, Barrowdale D, Frost D, EMBRACE, McGuffog L, Ellis S, Feng B, Buys SS, Hopper JL, Southey MC, Tesoriero A, kConFab Investigators, James PA, Bruinsma F, Campbell IG, Australia Ovarian Cancer Study Group, Broeks A, Schmidt MK, Hogervorst FB, HEBON, Beckman MW, Fasching PA, Fletcher O, Johnson N, Sawyer EJ, Riboli E, Banerjee S, Menon U, Tomlinson I, Burwinkel B, Hamann U, Marme F, Rudolph A, Janavicius R, Tihomirova L, Tung N, Garber J, Cramer D, Terry KL, Poole EM, Tworoger SS, Dorfling CM, van Rensburg EJ, Godwin AK, Guénel P, Truong T, GEMO Study Collaborators, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Damiola F, Mazoyer S, Sinilnikova OM, Isaacs C, Maugard C, Bojesen SE, Flyger H, Gerdes AM, Hansen TV, Jensen A, Kjaer SK, Hogdall C, Hogdall E, Pedersen IS, Thomassen M, Benitez J, González-Neira A, Osorio A, Hoya Mde L, Segura PP, Diez O, Lazaro C, Brunet J, Anton-Culver H, Eunjung L, John EM, Neuhausen SL, Ding YC, Castillo D, Weitzel JN, Ganz PA, Nussbaum RL, Chan SB, Karlan BY, Lester J, Wu A, Gayther S, Ramus SJ, Sieh W, Whittermore AS, Monteiro AN, Phelan CM, Terry MB, Piedmonte M, Offit K, Robson M, Levine D, Moysich KB, Cannioto R, Olson SH, Daly MB, Nathanson KL, Domchek SM, Lu KH, Liang D, Hildebrant MA, Ness R, Modugno F, Pearce L, Goodman MT, Thompson PJ, Brenner H, Butterbach K, Meindl A, Hahnen E, Wappenschmidt B, Brauch H, Brüning T, Blomqvist C, Khan S, Nevanlinna H, Pelttari LM, Aittomäki K, Butzow R, Bogdanova NV, Dörk T, Lindblom A, Margolin S, Rantala J, Kosma VM, Mannermaa A, Lambrechts D, Neven P, Claes KB, Maerken TV, Chang-Claude J, Flesch-Janys D, Heitz F, Varon-Mateeva R, Peterlongo P, Radice P, Viel A, Barile M, Peissel B, Manoukian S, Montagna M, Oliani C, Peixoto A, Teixeira MR, Collavoli A, Hallberg E, Olson JE, Goode EL, Hart SN, Shimelis H, Cunningham JM, Giles GG, Milne RL, Healey S, Tucker K, Haiman CA, Henderson BE, Goldberg MS, Tischkowitz M, Simard J, Soucy P, Eccles DM, Le N, Borresen-Dale AL, Kristensen V, Salvesen HB, Bjorge L, Bandera EV, Risch H, Zheng W, Beeghly-Fadiel A, Cai H, Pylkäs K, Tollenaar RA, Ouweland AM, Andrulis IL, Knight JA, OCGN, Narod S, Devilee P, Winqvist R, Figueroa J, Greene MH, Mai PL, Loud JT, García-Closas M, Schoemaker MJ, Czene K, Darabi H, McNeish I, Siddiquil N, Glasspool R, Kwong A, Park SK, Teo SH, Yoon SY, Matsuo K, Hosono S, Woo YL, Gao YT, Foretova L, Singer CF, Rappaport-Feurhauser C, Friedman E, Laitman Y, Rennert G, Imyanitov EN, Hulick PJ, Olopade OI, Senter L, Olah E, Doherty JA, Schildkraut J, Koppert LB, Kiemeney LA, Massuger LF, Cook LS, Pejovic T, Li J, Borg A, Öfverholm A, Rossing MA, Wentzensen N, Henriksson K, Cox A, Cross SS, Pasini BJ, Shah M, Kabisch M, Torres D, Jakubowska A, Lubinski J, Gronwald J, Agnarsson BA, Kupryjanczyk J, Moes-Sosnowska J, Fostira F, Konstantopoulou I, Slager S, Jones M, PRostate cancer AssoCiation group To Investigate Cancer Associated aLterations in the genome, Antoniou AC, Berchuck A, Swerdlow A, Chenevix-Trench G, Dunning AM, Pharoah PD, Hall P, Easton DF, Couch FJ, Spurdle AB, Goldgar DE
(2016) J Natl Cancer Inst 108:
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, BRCA2 Protein, Breast Neoplasms, Codon, Terminator, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Heterozygote, Humans, Logistic Models, Lysine, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Invasiveness, Odds Ratio, Ovarian Neoplasms, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Prostatic Neoplasms, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors
Show Abstract · Added February 22, 2016
BACKGROUND - The K3326X variant in BRCA2 (BRCA2*c.9976A>T; p.Lys3326*; rs11571833) has been found to be associated with small increased risks of breast cancer. However, it is not clear to what extent linkage disequilibrium with fully pathogenic mutations might account for this association. There is scant information about the effect of K3326X in other hormone-related cancers.
METHODS - Using weighted logistic regression, we analyzed data from the large iCOGS study including 76 637 cancer case patients and 83 796 control patients to estimate odds ratios (ORw) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for K3326X variant carriers in relation to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer risks, with weights defined as probability of not having a pathogenic BRCA2 variant. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, we also examined the associations of K3326X with breast and ovarian cancer risks among 7183 BRCA1 variant carriers. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS - The K3326X variant was associated with breast (ORw = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.40, P = 5.9x10(-) (6)) and invasive ovarian cancer (ORw = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.43, P = 3.8x10(-3)). These associations were stronger for serous ovarian cancer and for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (ORw = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.70, P = 3.4x10(-5) and ORw = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.76, P = 4.1x10(-5), respectively). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was a statistically significant inverse association of the K3326X variant with risk of ovarian cancer (HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.84, P = .013) but no association with breast cancer. No association with prostate cancer was observed.
CONCLUSIONS - Our study provides evidence that the K3326X variant is associated with risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers independent of other pathogenic variants in BRCA2. Further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism of action responsible for these associations.
© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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20 MeSH Terms
Promotion of BRCA2-Dependent Homologous Recombination by DSS1 via RPA Targeting and DNA Mimicry.
Zhao W, Vaithiyalingam S, San Filippo J, Maranon DG, Jimenez-Sainz J, Fontenay GV, Kwon Y, Leung SG, Lu L, Jensen RB, Chazin WJ, Wiese C, Sung P
(2015) Mol Cell 59: 176-87
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Substitution, BRCA2 Protein, Breast Neoplasms, Cell Line, Female, HeLa Cells, Homologous Recombination, Humans, Models, Biological, Molecular Mimicry, Mutagenesis, Site-Directed, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular, Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex, Protein Subunits, Rad51 Recombinase, Recombinant Proteins, Replication Protein A
Show Abstract · Added February 5, 2016
The tumor suppressor BRCA2 is thought to facilitate the handoff of ssDNA from replication protein A (RPA) to the RAD51 recombinase during DNA break and replication fork repair by homologous recombination. However, we find that RPA-RAD51 exchange requires the BRCA2 partner DSS1. Biochemical, structural, and in vivo analyses reveal that DSS1 allows the BRCA2-DSS1 complex to physically and functionally interact with RPA. Mechanistically, DSS1 acts as a DNA mimic to attenuate the affinity of RPA for ssDNA. A mutation in the solvent-exposed acidic domain of DSS1 compromises the efficacy of RPA-RAD51 exchange. Thus, by targeting RPA and mimicking DNA, DSS1 functions with BRCA2 in a two-component homologous recombination mediator complex in genome maintenance and tumor suppression. Our findings may provide a paradigm for understanding the roles of DSS1 in other biological processes.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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17 MeSH Terms
Contralateral breast cancer after radiotherapy among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a WECARE study report.
Bernstein JL, Thomas DC, Shore RE, Robson M, Boice JD, Stovall M, Andersson M, Bernstein L, Malone KE, Reiner AS, Lynch CF, Capanu M, Smith SA, Tellhed L, Teraoka SN, Begg CB, Olsen JH, Mellemkjaer L, Liang X, Diep AT, Borg A, Concannon P, Haile RW, WECARE Study Collaborative Group
(2013) Eur J Cancer 49: 2979-85
MeSH Terms: Adult, BRCA1 Protein, BRCA2 Protein, Breast, Breast Neoplasms, Case-Control Studies, Cohort Studies, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Heterozygote, Humans, Logistic Models, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Radiation Dosage, Risk Factors
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
BACKGROUND - Women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/BRCA2) mutations are at very high risk of developing breast cancer, including asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC). BRCA1/BRCA2 genes help maintain genome stability and assist in DNA repair. We examined whether the risk of CBC associated with radiation treatment was higher among women with germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations than among non-carriers.
METHODS - A population-based, nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 52,536 survivors of unilateral breast cancer (UBC). Cases were 603 women with CBC and controls were 1199 women with UBC individually matched on age at diagnosis, race, year of first diagnosis and cancer registry. All women were tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Radiation absorbed dose from the initial radiotherapy (RT) to the CBC location within the contralateral breast was reconstructed from measurements in a tissue-equivalent phantom and details available in the therapy records.
FINDINGS - Among women treated with radiation, the mean radiation dose was 1.1 Gy (range = 0.02-6.2 Gy). Risk of developing CBC was elevated among women who carried a deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation (rate ratio, RR = 4.5, confidence interval, CI = 3.0-6.8), and also among those treated with RT (RR = 1.2, CI = 1.0-1.6). However, among mutation carriers, an incremental increase in risk associated with radiation dose was not statistically significant.
INTERPRETATION - Multiplicative interaction of RT with mutation status would be reflected by a larger association of RT with CBC among carriers than among non-carriers, but this was not apparent. Accordingly, there was no clear indication that carriers of deleterious BRCA/BRCA2 mutations were more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of radiation than non-carriers. These findings are reassuring and have important clinical implications for treatment decisions and the clinical management of patients harbouring deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations.
FUNDING - All work associated with this study was supported by the U.S. National Cancer Institute [R01CA097397, U01CA083178].
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Cell cycle-dependent regulation of the bi-directional overlapping promoter of human BRCA2/ZAR2 genes in breast cancer cells.
Misra S, Sharma S, Agarwal A, Khedkar SV, Tripathi MK, Mittal MK, Chaudhuri G
(2010) Mol Cancer 9: 50
MeSH Terms: 5' Untranslated Regions, Animals, BRCA2 Protein, Breast Neoplasms, Cell Cycle, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Nucleus, Codon, Conserved Sequence, Cytosol, Exons, Female, G1 Phase, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Gene Rearrangement, Humans, Introns, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Protein Transport, RNA, Messenger, Resting Phase, Cell Cycle, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Transcription Factors, Vertebrates
Show Abstract · Added June 14, 2013
BACKGROUND - BRCA2 gene expression is tightly regulated during the cell cycle in human breast cells. The expression of BRCA2 gene is silenced at the G0/G1 phase of cell growth and is de-silenced at the S/G2 phase. While studying the activity of BRCA2 gene promoter in breast cancer cells, we discovered that this promoter has bi-directional activity and the product of the reverse activity (a ZAR1-like protein, we named ZAR2) silences the forward promoter at the G0/G1 phase of the cell. Standard techniques like cell synchronization by serum starvation, flow cytometry, N-terminal or C-terminal FLAG epitope-tagged protein expression, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, dual luciferase assay for promoter evaluation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were employed during this study.
RESULTS - Human BRCA2 gene promoter is active in both the forward and the reverse orientations. This promoter is 8-20 fold more active in the reverse orientation than in the forward orientation when the cells are in the non-dividing stage (G0/G1). When the cells are in the dividing state (S/G2), the forward activity of the promoter is 5-8 folds higher than the reverse activity. The reverse activity transcribes the ZAR2 mRNA with 966 nt coding sequence which codes for a 321 amino acid protein. ZAR2 has two C4 type zinc fingers at the carboxyl terminus. In the G0/G1 growth phase ZAR2 is predominantly located inside the nucleus of the breast cells, binds to the BRCA2 promoter and inhibits the expression of BRCA2. In the dividing cells, ZAR2 is trapped in the cytoplasm.
CONCLUSIONS - BRCA2 gene promoter has bi-directional activity, expressing BRCA2 and a novel C4-type zinc finger containing transcription factor ZAR2. Subcellular location of ZAR2 and its expression from the reverse promoter of the BRCA2 gene are stringently regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner. ZAR2 binds to BRCA2/ZAR2 bi-directional promoter in vivo and is responsible, at least in part, for the silencing of BRCA2 gene expression in the G0/G1 phase in human breast cells.
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25 MeSH Terms
RAD51 135G-->C modifies breast cancer risk among BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from a combined analysis of 19 studies.
Antoniou AC, Sinilnikova OM, Simard J, Léoné M, Dumont M, Neuhausen SL, Struewing JP, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Barjhoux L, Hughes DJ, Coupier I, Belotti M, Lasset C, Bonadona V, Bignon YJ, Genetic Modifiers of Cancer Risk in BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers Study (GEMO), Rebbeck TR, Wagner T, Lynch HT, Domchek SM, Nathanson KL, Garber JE, Weitzel J, Narod SA, Tomlinson G, Olopade OI, Godwin A, Isaacs C, Jakubowska A, Lubinski J, Gronwald J, Górski B, Byrski T, Huzarski T, Peock S, Cook M, Baynes C, Murray A, Rogers M, Daly PA, Dorkins H, Epidemiological Study of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers (EMBRACE), Schmutzler RK, Versmold B, Engel C, Meindl A, Arnold N, Niederacher D, Deissler H, German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GCHBOC), Spurdle AB, Chen X, Waddell N, Cloonan N, Kathleen Cuningham Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab), Kirchhoff T, Offit K, Friedman E, Kaufmann B, Laitman Y, Galore G, Rennert G, Lejbkowicz F, Raskin L, Andrulis IL, Ilyushik E, Ozcelik H, Devilee P, Vreeswijk MP, Greene MH, Prindiville SA, Osorio A, Benitez J, Zikan M, Szabo CI, Kilpivaara O, Nevanlinna H, Hamann U, Durocher F, Arason A, Couch FJ, Easton DF, Chenevix-Trench G, Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA)
(2007) Am J Hum Genet 81: 1186-200
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Alternative Splicing, BRCA1 Protein, BRCA2 Protein, Breast Neoplasms, DNA Primers, DNA Repair, Family, Female, Genetic Variation, Heterozygote, Homozygote, Humans, Middle Aged, Mutation, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Rad51 Recombinase, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Show Abstract · Added March 10, 2014
RAD51 is an important component of double-stranded DNA-repair mechanisms that interacts with both BRCA1 and BRCA2. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of RAD51, 135G-->C, has been suggested as a possible modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We pooled genotype data for 8,512 female mutation carriers from 19 studies for the RAD51 135G-->C SNP. We found evidence of an increased breast cancer risk in CC homozygotes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.25-2.94) but not in heterozygotes (HR 0.95 [95% CI 0.83-1.07]; P=.002, by heterogeneity test with 2 degrees of freedom [df]). When BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers were analyzed separately, the increased risk was statistically significant only among BRCA2 mutation carriers, in whom we observed HRs of 1.17 (95% CI 0.91-1.51) among heterozygotes and 3.18 (95% CI 1.39-7.27) among rare homozygotes (P=.0007, by heterogeneity test with 2 df). In addition, we determined that the 135G-->C variant affects RAD51 splicing within the 5' UTR. Thus, 135G-->C may modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers by altering the expression of RAD51. RAD51 is the first gene to be reliably identified as a modifier of risk among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.
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Regulation of BRCA2 gene expression by the SLUG repressor protein in human breast cells.
Tripathi MK, Misra S, Khedkar SV, Hamilton N, Irvin-Wilson C, Sharan C, Sealy L, Chaudhuri G
(2005) J Biol Chem 280: 17163-71
MeSH Terms: Acetylation, Alcohol Oxidoreductases, BRCA2 Protein, Base Sequence, Blotting, Northern, Blotting, Western, Breast Neoplasms, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Nucleus, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, DNA, DNA Mutational Analysis, DNA-Binding Proteins, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Gene Silencing, Histone Deacetylases, Histones, Humans, Models, Genetic, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Site-Directed, Phosphoproteins, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, Protein Structure, Tertiary, RNA, Messenger, RNA, Small Interfering, Recombinant Proteins, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Snail Family Transcription Factors, Transcription Factors, Transfection
Show Abstract · Added June 13, 2013
The expression of the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2 is highly regulated in human breast, ovary, and pancreatic cells. BRCA2 is not expressed in the non-dividing cells, and expression is cell cycle stage-dependent and is elevated in the sporadic cancer cells. Mutational analysis of the upstream sequence of the human BRCA2 gene revealed an E2-box-containing silencer at the -701 to -921 position. The E2-box is essential for the cell-cycle stage-dependent activity of the silencer. We affinity-purified a 29-kDa silencer-binding protein (SBP) from the nuclear extracts of human breast cells BT-549 and MDA-MB-231. We explored whether the E2-box-binding repressor protein SLUG, which is of similar molecular size, is involved in the silencing process. Supershift assay with the purified SBP and anti-SLUG antibody revealed the identity of the SBP as SLUG. We found that silencer is inactive in the human breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 that do not express SLUG, further suggesting the involvement of SLUG in the BRCA2 gene silencing. Inducible expression of human SLUG in the dividing MDA-MB-468 cells reduced BRCA2 RNA levels with the activation of the silencer. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SLUG mRNA in the BT-549 cells caused inhibition of the silencer function. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that SLUG mediates its action by recruiting C-terminal-binding protein-1 (CtBP-1) and histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) at the silencer E2-box. The general HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, inhibited the SLUG-mediated regulation of the silencer function. It thus appears that SLUG is a negative regulator for BRCA2 gene expression.
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33 MeSH Terms