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Drug development continues to be costly and slow, with medications failing due to lack of efficacy or presence of toxicity. The promise of pharmacogenomic discovery includes tailoring therapeutics based on an individual's genetic makeup, rational drug development, and repurposing medications. Rapid growth of large research cohorts, linked to electronic health record (EHR) data, fuels discovery of new genetic variants predicting drug action, supports Mendelian randomization experiments to show drug efficacy, and suggests new indications for existing medications. New biomedical informatics and machine-learning approaches advance the ability to interpret clinical information, enabling identification of complex phenotypes and subpopulations of patients. We review the recent history of use of "big data" from EHR-based cohorts and biobanks supporting these activities. Future studies using EHR data, other information sources, and new methods will promote a foundation for discovery to more rapidly advance precision medicine.
© 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Tenascin-X (TN-X) is an extracellular matrix protein whose absence results in an alteration of the mechanical properties of connective tissue. To understand the mechanisms of integration of TN-X in the extracellular matrix, overlay blot assays were performed on skin extracts. A 100 kDa molecule interacting with TN-X was identified by this method and this interaction was abolished when the extract was digested by chondroitinase. By solid-phase assays, we showed that dermatan sulfate chains of decorin bind to the heparin-binding site included within the fibronectin-type III domains 10 and 11 of TN-X. We thus postulate that the association of TN-X with collagen fibrils is mediated by decorin and contributes to the integrity of the extracellular network.
BACKGROUND - The extracellular matrix proteoglycans decorin and biglycan may have a pathogenic role in renal fibrosing disease via regulation of the activity of growth factors, such as transforming growth factor-beta, and effects on collagen type I fibrillogenesis. The expression of decorin and biglycan in human glomerular diseases characterized by mesangial sclerosis is unknown.
METHODS - Decorin, biglycan, and collagen type I were localized immunohistochemically in human renal biopsy cases of amyloidosis (N = 18), diabetic nephropathy (N = 11), fibrillary glomerulonephritis (N = 5), immunotactoid glomerulopathy (N = 5), light-chain deposition disease (N = 4), idiopathic mesangial sclerosis (N = 4), and nephrosclerosis (N = 6), and in morphologically normal tissues obtained from tumor nephrectomies (N = 8). Decorin and biglycan mRNA synthesis was evaluated by in situ hybridization.
RESULTS - Decorin and biglycan protein were not identified in normal glomeruli. Decorin accumulated in amyloid deposits, but not in deposits of fibrillary glomerulonephritis or immunotactoid glomerulopathy. Biglycan weakly accumulated in amyloid deposits, and both decorin and biglycan weakly stained mesangial nodules in cases of morphologically advanced light-chain deposition disease and diabetic nephropathy. In all analyzed cases, irrespective of the underlying disease, decorin and biglycan accumulated in glomeruli in areas of fibrous organization of the urinary space and in areas of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Biglycan, but not decorin, accumulated in the neointima of arteriosclerotic blood vessels. Decorin and biglycan mRNA synthesis was detected at sites of proteoglycan accumulation in glomeruli, interstitium, and neointima. Collagen type I colocalized with decorin and biglycan deposits.
CONCLUSIONS - Differences in extracellular matrix proteoglycan composition may be diagnostically useful in distinguishing morphologically similar diseases. Distinct patterns of proteoglycan expression may be related to modulation of specific growth factor activity in different glomerular diseases.