The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
RATIONALE - Intensive care unit (ICU) delirium is highly prevalent and a potentially avoidable hospital complication. The current cost of ICU delirium is unknown.
OBJECTIVES - To specify the association between the daily occurrence of delirium in the ICU with costs of ICU care accounting for time-varying illness severity and death.
RESEARCH DESIGN - We performed a prospective cohort study within medical and surgical ICUs in a large academic medical center.
SUBJECTS - We analyzed critically ill patients (N=479) with respiratory failure and/or shock.
MEASURES - Covariates included baseline factors (age, insurance, cognitive impairment, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II Score) and time-varying factors (sequential organ failure assessment score, mechanical ventilation, and severe sepsis). The primary analysis used a novel 3-stage regression method: first, estimation of the cumulative cost of delirium over 30 ICU days and then costs separated into those attributable to increased resource utilization among survivors and those that were avoided on the account of delirium's association with early mortality in the ICU.
RESULTS - The patient-level 30-day cumulative cost of ICU delirium attributable to increased resource utilization was $17,838 (95% confidence interval, $11,132-$23,497). A combination of professional, dialysis, and bed costs accounted for the largest percentage of the incremental costs associated with ICU delirium. The 30-day cumulative incremental costs of ICU delirium that were avoided due to delirium-associated early mortality was $4654 (95% confidence interval, $2056-7869).
CONCLUSIONS - Delirium is associated with substantial costs after accounting for time-varying illness severity and could be 20% higher (∼$22,500) if not for its association with early ICU mortality.
Chronic end-organ complications result in morbidity and mortality in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). In a retrospective-prospective cohort of 150 adults with SCD who received standard care screening for pulmonary function abnormalities, cardiac disease, and renal assessment from January 2003 to 2016, we tested the hypothesis that clustering of end-organ disease is common and multiple organ impairment predicts mortality. Any end-organ disease occurred in 59.3% of individuals, and 24.0% developed multiple organ (>1) end-organ disease. The number of end-organs affected was associated with mortality (P ≤ .001); 8.2% (5 of 61) of individuals with no affected end-organ, 9.4% (5 of 53) of those with 1 affected organ, 20.7% (6 of 29) of those with 2 affected end-organs, and 85.7% (6 of 7) with 3 affected end-organs died over a median follow up period of 8.7 (interquartile range 3.5-11.4) years. Of the 22 individuals who died, 77.3% had evidence of any SCD-related end-organ impairment, and this was the primary or secondary cause of death in 45.0%. SCD-related chronic impairment in multiple organs, and its association with mortality, highlights the need to understand the common mechanisms underlying chronic end-organ damage in SCD, and the urgent need to develop interventions to prevent irreversible end-organ complications in SCD.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with a fragile antidepressant response and high recurrence risk. This study examined what measures predict recurrence in remitted LLD.
METHODS - Individuals of age 60 years or older with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - IV (DSM-IV) diagnosis of major depressive disorder were enrolled in the neurocognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly study. Participants received manualized antidepressant treatment and were followed longitudinally for an average of 5 years. Study analyses included participants who remitted. Measures included demographic and clinical measures, medical comorbidity, disability, life stress, social support, and neuropsychological testing. A subset underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
RESULTS - Of 241 remitted elders, approximately over 4 years, 137 (56.8%) experienced recurrence and 104 (43.2%) maintained remission. In the final model, greater recurrence risk was associated with female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.536; confidence interval [CI] = 1.027-2.297), younger age of onset (HR = 0.990; CI = 0.981-0.999), higher perceived stress (HR = 1.121; CI = 1.022-1.229), disability (HR = 1.060; CI = 1.005-1.119), and less support with activities (HR = 0.885; CI = 0.812-0.963). Recurrence risk was also associated with higher Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores prior to censoring (HR = 1.081; CI = 1.033-1.131) and baseline symptoms of suicidal thoughts by MADRS (HR = 1.175; CI = 1.002-1.377) and sadness by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (HR = 1.302; CI, 1.080-1.569). Sex, age of onset, and suicidal thoughts were no longer associated with recurrence in a model incorporating report of multiple prior episodes (HR = 2.107; CI = 1.252-3.548). Neither neuropsychological test performance nor MRI measures of aging pathology were associated with recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS - Over half of the depressed elders who remitted experienced recurrence, mostly within 2 years. Multiple clinical and environmental measures predict recurrence risk. Work is needed to develop instruments that stratify risk.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
OBJECTIVES - We aimed to investigate the role of serum uric acid (SUA) level in a broad spectrum of disease outcomes using data for 120 091 individuals from UK Biobank.
METHODS - We performed a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to identify disease outcomes associated with SUA genetic risk loci. We then implemented conventional Mendelianrandomisation (MR) analysis to investigate the causal relevance between SUA level and disease outcomes identified from PheWAS. We next applied MR Egger analysis to detect and account for potential pleiotropy, which conventional MR analysis might mistake for causality, and used the HEIDI (heterogeneity in dependent instruments) test to remove cross-phenotype associations that were likely due to genetic linkage.
RESULTS - Our PheWAS identified 25 disease groups/outcomes associated with SUA genetic risk loci after multiple testing correction (P<8.57e-05). Our conventional MR analysis implicated a causal role of SUA level in three disease groups: inflammatory polyarthropathies (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.34), hypertensive disease (OR=1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14) and disorders of metabolism (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14); and four disease outcomes: gout (OR=4.88, 95% CI 3.91 to 6.09), essential hypertension (OR=1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14), myocardial infarction (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.30) and coeliac disease (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.89). After balancing pleiotropic effects in MR Egger analysis, only gout and its encompassing disease group of inflammatory polyarthropathies were considered to be causally associated with SUA level. Our analysis highlighted a locus () that may influence SUA level and multiple cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases via pleiotropy.
CONCLUSIONS - Elevated SUA level is convincing to cause gout and inflammatory polyarthropathies, and might act as a marker for the wider range of diseases with which it associates. Our findings support further investigation on the clinical relevance of SUA level with cardiovascular, metabolic, autoimmune and respiratory diseases.
© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
PURPOSE - Nephrolithiasis is an increasingly common ailment in the United States. Ureteroscopic management has supplanted shockwave lithotripsy as the most common treatment of upper tract stone disease. Ureteral stricture is a rare but serious complication of stone disease and its management. The impact of new technologies and more widespread ureteroscopic management on stricture rates is unknown. We describe our experience in managing strictures incurred following ureteroscopy for upper tract stone disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Records for patients managed at four tertiary care centers between December 2006 and October 2015 with the diagnosis of ureteral stricture following ureteroscopy for upper tract stone disease were retrospectively reviewed. Study outcomes included number and type (endoscopic, reconstructive, or nephrectomy) of procedures required to manage stricture.
RESULTS - Thirty-eight patients with 40 ureteral strictures following URS for upper tract stone disease were identified. Thirty-five percent of patients had hydronephrosis or known stone impaction at the time of initial URS, and 20% of cases had known ureteral perforation at the time of initial URS. After stricture diagnosis, the mean number of procedures requiring sedation or general anesthesia performed for stricture management was 3.3 ± 1.8 (range 1-10). Eleven strictures (27.5%) were successfully managed with endoscopic techniques alone, 37.5% underwent reconstruction, 10% had a chronic stent/nephrostomy, and 10 (25%) required nephrectomy.
CONCLUSIONS - The surgical morbidity of ureteral strictures incurred following ureteroscopy for stone disease can be severe, with a low success rate of endoscopic management and a high procedural burden that may lead to nephrectomy. Further studies that assess specific technical risk factors for ureteral stricture following URS are needed.
infection is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and is mediated by the actions of two toxins, TcdA and TcdB. The toxins perturb host cell function through a multistep process of receptor binding, endocytosis, low pH-induced pore formation, and the translocation and delivery of an N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain that inactivates host GTPases. Infection studies with isogenic strains having defined toxin deletions have established TcdB as an important target for therapeutic development. Monoclonal antibodies that neutralize TcdB function have been shown to protect against infection in animal models and reduce recurrence in humans. Here, we report the mechanism of TcdB neutralization by PA41, a humanized monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing TcdB from a diverse array of strains. Through a combination of structural, biochemical, and cell functional studies, involving X-ray crystallography and EM, we show that PA41 recognizes a single, highly conserved epitope on the TcdB glucosyltransferase domain and blocks productive translocation and delivery of the enzymatic cargo into the host cell. Our study reveals a unique mechanism of toxin neutralization by a monoclonal antibody, which involves targeting a process that is conserved across the large clostridial glucosylating toxins. The PA41 antibody described here provides a valuable tool for dissecting the mechanism of toxin pore formation and translocation across the endosomal membrane.
OBJECTIVE - The traditional fee-for-service approach to healthcare can lead to the management of a patient's conditions in a siloed manner, inducing various negative consequences. It has been recognized that a bundled approach to healthcare - one that manages a collection of health conditions together - may enable greater efficacy and cost savings. However, it is not always evident which sets of conditions should be managed in a bundled manner. In this study, we investigate if a data-driven approach can automatically learn potential bundles.
METHODS - We designed a framework to infer health condition collections (HCCs) based on the similarity of their clinical workflows, according to electronic medical record (EMR) utilization. We evaluated the framework with data from over 16,500 inpatient stays from Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. The plausibility of the inferred HCCs for bundled care was assessed through an online survey of a panel of five experts, whose responses were analyzed via an analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 95% confidence level. We further assessed the face validity of the HCCs using evidence in the published literature.
RESULTS - The framework inferred four HCCs, indicative of (1) fetal abnormalities, (2) late pregnancies, (3) prostate problems, and (4) chronic diseases, with congestive heart failure featuring prominently. Each HCC was substantiated with evidence in the literature and was deemed plausible for bundled care by the experts at a statistically significant level.
CONCLUSIONS - The findings suggest that an automated EMR data-driven framework conducted can provide a basis for discovering bundled care opportunities. Still, translating such findings into actual care management will require further refinement, implementation, and evaluation.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.