The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) provokes an inflammatory response in the heart that removes damaged tissues to facilitate tissue repair/regeneration. However, overactive and prolonged inflammation compromises healing, which may be counteracted by antiinflammatory mechanisms. A key regulatory factor in an inflammatory response is the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, which can be produced by a number of immune cells, including subsets of B lymphocytes. Here, we investigated IL-10-producing B cells in pericardial adipose tissues (PATs) and their role in the healing process following acute MI in mice. We found that IL-10-producing B cells were enriched in PATs compared to other adipose depots throughout the body, with the majority of them bearing a surface phenotype consistent with CD5 B-1a cells (CD5 B cells). These cells were detected early in life, maintained a steady presence during adulthood, and resided in fat-associated lymphoid clusters. The cytokine IL-33 and the chemokine CXCL13 were preferentially expressed in PATs and contributed to the enrichment of IL-10-producing CD5 B cells. Following acute MI, the pool of CD5 B cells was expanded in PATs. These cells accumulated in the infarcted heart during the resolution of MI-induced inflammation. B cell-specific deletion of IL-10 worsened cardiac function, exacerbated myocardial injury, and delayed resolution of inflammation following acute MI. These results revealed enrichment of IL-10-producing B cells in PATs and a significant contribution of these cells to the antiinflammatory processes that terminate MI-induced inflammation. Together, these findings have identified IL-10-producing B cells as therapeutic targets to improve the outcome of MI.
Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) is a target of the FDA approved HDAC inhibitors, which are used for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Here, we used Cd19-Cre to conditionally delete Hdac3 to define its role in germinal center B cells, which represent the cell of origin for many B cell malignancies. Cd19-Cre-Hdac3-/- mice showed impaired germinal center formation along with a defect in plasmablast production. Analysis of Hdac3-/- germinal centers revealed a reduction in dark zone centroblasts and accumulation of light zone centrocytes. RNA-seq revealed a significant correlation between genes up-regulated upon Hdac3 loss and those up-regulated in Foxo1-deleted germinal center B cells, even though Foxo1 typically activates transcription. Therefore, to determine whether gene expression changes observed in Hdac3-/- germinal centers were a result of direct effects of Hdac3 deacetylase activity, we used an HDAC3 selective inhibitor and examined nascent transcription in germinal center-derived cell lines. Transcriptional changes upon HDAC3 inhibition were enriched for light zone gene signatures as observed in germinal centers. Further comparison of PRO-seq data with ChIP-seq/exo data for BCL6, SMRT, FOXO1 and H3K27ac identified direct targets of HDAC3 function including CD86, CD83 and CXCR5 that are likely responsible for driving the light zone phenotype observed in vivo.
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Unchecked collaboration between islet-reactive T and B lymphocytes drives type 1 diabetes (T1D). In the healthy setting, CD8 T regulatory cells (Tregs) terminate ongoing T-B interactions. We determined that specific CD8 Tregs from NOD mice lack suppressive function, representing a previously unreported regulatory cell deficit in this T1D-prone strain. NOD mice possess 11-fold fewer Ly-49 CD8 Tregs than nonautoimmune mice, a deficiency that worsens as NOD mice age toward diabetes and leaves them unable to regulate CD4 T follicular helper cells. As IL-15 is required for Ly-49 CD8 Treg development, we determined that NOD macrophages inadequately -present IL-15. Despite reduced IL-15 -presentation, NOD Ly-49 CD8 Tregs can effectively transduce IL-15-mediated survival signals when they are provided. Following stimulation with an IL-15/IL-15Ra superagonist complex, Ly-49 CD8 Tregs expanded robustly and became activated to suppress the Ag-specific Ab response. IL-15/IL-15Ra superagonist complex-activated CD8CD122 T cells also delayed diabetes transfer, indicating the presence of an underactivated CD8 T cell subset with regulatory capacity against late stage T1D. We identify a new cellular contribution to anti-islet autoimmunity and demonstrate the correction of this regulatory cell deficit. Infusion of IL-15-activated CD8 Tregs may serve as an innovative cellular therapy for the treatment of T1D.
Copyright © 2019 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
T cell help in humoral immunity includes interactions of B cells with activated extrafollicular CD4 and follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. Each can promote antibody responses but Tfh cells play critical roles during germinal center (GC) reactions. After restimulation of their antigen receptor (TCR) by B cells, helper T cells act on B cells via CD40 ligand and secreted cytokines that guide Ig class switching. Hypoxia is a normal feature of GC, raising questions about molecular mechanisms governing the relationship between hypoxia response mechanisms and T cell help to antibody responses. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) are prominent among mechanisms that mediate cellular responses to limited oxygen but also are induced by lymphocyte activation. We now show that loss of HIF-1α or of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α in CD4 T cells compromised essential functions in help during antibody responses. HIF-1α depletion from CD4 T cells reduced frequencies of antigen-specific GC B cells, Tfh cells, and overall antigen-specific Ab after immunization with sheep red blood cells. Compound deficiency of HIF-1α and HIF-2α led to humoral defects after hapten-carrier immunization. Further, HIF promoted CD40L expression while restraining the FoxP3-positive CD4 cells in the CXCR5 follicular regulatory population. Glycolysis increases T helper cytokine expression, and HIF promoted glycolysis in T helper cells via TCR or cytokine stimulation, as well as their production of cytokines that direct antibody class switching. Indeed, IFN-γ elaboration by HIF-deficient in vivo-generated Tfh cells was impaired. Collectively, the results indicate that HIF transcription factors are vital components of the mechanisms of help during humoral responses.
Imatinib (Gleevec) reverses type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice and is currently in clinical trials in individuals with recent-onset disease. While research has demonstrated that imatinib protects islet β cells from the harmful effects of ER stress, the role the immune system plays in its reversal of T1D has been less well understood, and specific cellular immune targets have not been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that B lymphocytes, an immune subset that normally drives diabetes pathology, are unexpectedly required for reversal of hyperglycemia in NOD mice treated with imatinib. In the presence of B lymphocytes, reversal was linked to an increase in serum insulin concentration, but not an increase in islet β cell mass or proliferation. However, improved β cell function was reflected by a partial recovery of MafA transcription factor expression, a sensitive marker of islet β cell stress that is important to adult β cell function. Imatinib treatment was found to increase the antioxidant capacity of B lymphocytes, improving reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling in NOD islets. This study reveals a novel mechanism through which imatinib enables B lymphocytes to orchestrate functional recovery of T1D β cells.
CD40 expression is required for germinal center (GC) formation and function, but the kinetics and magnitude of signaling following CD40 engagement remain poorly characterized in human B cells undergoing GC reactions. Here, differences in CD40 expression and signaling responses were compared across differentiation stages of mature human tonsillar B cells. A combination of mass cytometry and phospho-specific flow cytometry was used to quantify protein expression and CD40L-induced signaling in primary human naïve, GC, and memory B cells. Protein expression signatures of cell subsets were quantified using viSNE and Marker Enrichment Modeling (MEM). This approach revealed enriched expression of CD40 protein in GC B cells, compared to naïve and memory B cells. Despite this, GC B cells responded to CD40L engagement with lower phosphorylation of NFκB p65 during the first 30 min following CD40L activation. Before CD40L stimulation, GC B cells expressed higher levels of suppressor protein IκBα than naïve and memory B cells. Following CD40 activation, IκBα was rapidly degraded and reached equivalently low levels in naïve, GC, and memory B cells at 30 min following CD40L. Quantifying CD40 signaling responses as a function of bound ligand revealed a correlation between bound CD40L and degree of induced NFκB p65 phosphorylation, whereas comparable IκBα degradation occurred at all measured levels of CD40L binding. These results characterize cell-intrinsic signaling differences that exist in mature human B cells undergoing GC reactions. © 2019 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
© 2019 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
The human genome contains approximately 20 thousand protein-coding genes, but the size of the collection of antigen receptors of the adaptive immune system that is generated by the recombination of gene segments with non-templated junctional additions (on B cells) is unknown-although it is certainly orders of magnitude larger. It has not been established whether individuals possess unique (or private) repertoires or substantial components of shared (or public) repertoires. Here we sequence recombined and expressed B cell receptor genes in several individuals to determine the size of their B cell receptor repertoires, and the extent to which these are shared between individuals. Our experiments revealed that the circulating repertoire of each individual contained between 9 and 17 million B cell clonotypes. The three individuals that we studied shared many clonotypes, including between 1 and 6% of B cell heavy-chain clonotypes shared between two subjects (0.3% of clonotypes shared by all three) and 20 to 34% of λ or κ light chains shared between two subjects (16 or 22% of λ or κ light chains, respectively, were shared by all three). Some of the B cell clonotypes had thousands of clones, or somatic variants, within the clonotype lineage. Although some of these shared lineages might be driven by exposure to common antigens, previous exposure to foreign antigens was not the only force that shaped the shared repertoires, as we also identified shared clonotypes in umbilical cord blood samples and all adult repertoires. The unexpectedly high prevalence of shared clonotypes in B cell repertoires, and identification of the sequences of these shared clonotypes, should enable better understanding of the role of B cell immune repertoires in health and disease.
The human B cell response to natural filovirus infections early after recovery is poorly understood. Previous serologic studies suggest that some Ebola virus survivors exhibit delayed antibody responses with low magnitude and quality. Here, we sought to study the population of individual memory B cells induced early in convalescence. We isolated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from memory B cells from four survivors treated for Ebola virus disease (EVD) 1 or 3 months after discharge from the hospital. At the early time points postrecovery, the frequency of Ebola-specific B cells was low and dominated by clones that were cross-reactive with both Ebola glycoprotein (GP) and with the secreted GP (sGP) form. Of 25 MAbs isolated from four donors, only one exhibited neutralization activity. This neutralizing MAb, designated MAb EBOV237, recognizes an epitope in the glycan cap of the surface glycoprotein. murine lethal challenge studies showed that EBOV237 conferred protection when given prophylactically at a level similar to that of the ZMapp component MAb 13C6. The results suggest that the human B cell response to EVD 1 to 3 months postdischarge is characterized by a paucity of broad or potent neutralizing clones. However, the neutralizing epitope in the glycan cap recognized by EBOV237 may play a role in the early human antibody response to EVD and should be considered in rational design strategies for new Ebola virus vaccine candidates. The pathogenesis of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans is complex, and the mechanisms contributing to immunity are poorly understood. In particular, it appears that the quality and magnitude of the human B cell response early after recovery from EVD may be reduced compared to most viral infections. Here, we isolated human monoclonal antibodies from B cells of four survivors of EVD at 1 or 3 months after hospital discharge. Ebola-specific memory B cells early in convalescence were low in frequency, and the antibodies they encoded demonstrated poor neutralizing potencies. One neutralizing antibody that protected mice from lethal infection, EBOV237, was identified in the panel of 25 human antibodies isolated. Recognition of the glycan cap epitope recognized by EBOV237 suggests that this antigenic site should be considered in vaccine design and treatment strategies for EVD.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.
Understanding antigenic variation in influenza virus strains and how the human immune system recognizes strains are central challenges for vaccinologists. Antibodies directed to the 2 major viral surface membrane proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), mediate protection against reinfection following natural infection or vaccination, but HA and NA protein sequences in field strains are highly variable. The central questions are how to achieve protective antibody responses in a higher proportion of individuals and how to induce responses with more breadth and durability. Studies using isolation of human monoclonal antibodies followed by structural and functional characterization revealed conserved antigenic sites recognized by broadly cross-reactive antibodies. The antigenic landscape on HA and NA proteins is coming into focus to inform studies of the correlates and mechanisms of immunity. Understanding the antibody determinants of influenza immunity points the way toward development and testing of next-generation vaccines with potential to confer broadly protective immunity.
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: email@example.com.
The diversity of Ag-specific adaptive receptors on the surface of B cells and in the population of secreted Abs is enormous, but increasingly, we are acquiring the technical capability to interrogate Ab repertoires in great detail. These Ab technologies have been especially pointed at understanding the complex issues of immunity to infection and disease caused by influenza virus, one of the most common and vexing medical problems in man. Influenza immunity is particularly interesting as a model system because the antigenic diversity of influenza strains and proteins is high and constantly evolving. Discovery of canonical features in the subset of the influenza repertoire response that is broadly reactive for diverse influenza strains has spurred the recent optimism for creating universal influenza vaccines. Using new technologies for sequencing Ab repertoires at great depth is helping us to understand the central features of influenza immunity.
Copyright © 2019 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.