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The ATR checkpoint kinase coordinates cellular responses to DNA replication stress. Budding yeast contain three activators of Mec1 (the ATR orthologue); however, only TOPBP1 is known to activate ATR in vertebrates. We identified ETAA1 as a replication stress response protein in two proteomic screens. ETAA1-deficient cells accumulate double-strand breaks, sister chromatid exchanges, and other hallmarks of genome instability. They are also hypersensitive to replication stress and have increased frequencies of replication fork collapse. ETAA1 contains two RPA-interaction motifs that localize ETAA1 to stalled replication forks. It also interacts with several DNA damage response proteins including the BLM/TOP3α/RMI1/RMI2 and ATR/ATRIP complexes. It binds ATR/ATRIP directly using a motif with sequence similarity to the TOPBP1 ATR-activation domain; and like TOPBP1, ETAA1 acts as a direct ATR activator. ETAA1 functions in parallel to the TOPBP1/RAD9/HUS1/RAD1 pathway to regulate ATR and maintain genome stability. Thus, vertebrate cells contain at least two ATR-activating proteins.
The ATR replication checkpoint ensures that stalled forks remain stable when replisome movement is impeded. Using an improved iPOND protocol combined with SILAC mass spectrometry, we characterized human replisome dynamics in response to fork stalling. Our data provide a quantitative picture of the replisome and replication stress response proteomes in 32 experimental conditions. Importantly, rather than stabilize the replisome, the checkpoint prevents two distinct types of fork collapse. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of protein abundance on nascent DNA is sufficient to identify protein complexes and place newly identified replisome-associated proteins into functional pathways. As an example, we demonstrate that ZNF644 complexes with the G9a/GLP methyltransferase at replication forks and is needed to prevent replication-associated DNA damage. Our data reveal how the replication checkpoint preserves genome integrity, provide insights into the mechanism of action of ATR inhibitors, and will be a useful resource for replication, DNA repair, and chromatin investigators.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Accurate replication of DNA is imperative for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog (ERH) using a whole-genome RNA interference (RNAi) screen to discover novel proteins that function in the replication stress response. Here we report that ERH is important for DNA replication and recovery from replication stress. ATR pathway activity is diminished in ERH-deficient cells. The reduction in ATR signaling corresponds to a decrease in the expression of multiple ATR pathway genes, including ATR itself. ERH interacts with multiple RNA processing complexes, including splicing regulators. Furthermore, splicing of ATR transcripts is deficient in ERH-depleted cells. Transcriptome-wide analysis indicates that ERH depletion affects the levels of ∼1,500 transcripts, with DNA replication and repair genes being highly enriched among those with reduced expression. Splicing defects were evident in ∼750 protein-coding genes, which again were enriched for DNA metabolism genes. Thus, ERH regulation of RNA processing is needed to ensure faithful DNA replication and repair.
Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
The DNA damage response kinase ATR may be a useful cancer therapeutic target. ATR inhibition synergizes with loss of ERCC1, ATM, XRCC1 and DNA damaging chemotherapy agents. Clinical trials have begun using ATR inhibitors in combination with cisplatin. Here we report the first synthetic lethality screen with a combination treatment of an ATR inhibitor (ATRi) and cisplatin. Combination treatment with ATRi/cisplatin is synthetically lethal with loss of the TLS polymerase ζ and 53BP1. Other DNA repair pathways including homologous recombination and mismatch repair do not exhibit synthetic lethal interactions with ATRi/cisplatin, even though loss of some of these repair pathways sensitizes cells to cisplatin as a single-agent. We also report that ATRi strongly synergizes with PARP inhibition, even in homologous recombination-proficient backgrounds. Lastly, ATR inhibitors were able to resensitize cisplatin-resistant cell lines to cisplatin. These data provide a comprehensive analysis of DNA repair pathways that exhibit synthetic lethality with ATR inhibitors when combined with cisplatin chemotherapy, and will help guide patient selection strategies as ATR inhibitors progress into the cancer clinic.
The essential micronutrient manganese is enriched in brain, especially in the basal ganglia. We sought to identify neuronal signaling pathways responsive to neurologically relevant manganese levels, as previous data suggested that alterations in striatal manganese handling occur in Huntington's disease (HD) models. We found that p53 phosphorylation at serine 15 is the most responsive cell signaling event to manganese exposure (of 18 tested) in human neuroprogenitors and a mouse striatal cell line. Manganese-dependent activation of p53 was severely diminished in HD cells. Inhibitors of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase decreased manganese-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Likewise, analysis of ATM autophosphorylation and additional ATM kinase targets, H2AX and CHK2, support a role for ATM in the activation of p53 by manganese and that a defect in this process occurs in HD. Furthermore, the deficit in Mn-dependent activation of ATM kinase in HD neuroprogenitors was highly selective, as DNA damage and oxidative injury, canonical activators of ATM, did not show similar deficits. We assessed cellular manganese handling to test for correlations with the ATM-p53 pathway, and we observed reduced Mn accumulation in HD human neuroprogenitors and HD mouse striatal cells at manganese exposures associated with altered p53 activation. To determine if this phenotype contributes to the deficit in manganese-dependent ATM activation, we used pharmacological manipulation to equalize manganese levels between HD and control mouse striatal cells and rescued the ATM-p53 signaling deficit. Collectively, our data demonstrate selective alterations in manganese biology in cellular models of HD manifest in ATM-p53 signaling.
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Effective therapy to prevent organ fibrosis, which is associated with more than half of all mortalities, remains elusive. Involvement of tumor suppressor ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) in the TGF-β1 pathway related to renal fibrosis is largely unknown. ATM activation (pATM(Ser1981)) increased 4-fold in the tubulointerstitial region of the unilateral ureteral obstruction-injured kidney in mice correlating with SMAD3 and p53(Ser15) phosphorylation and elevated levels of p22(phox) subunit of the NADPH oxidases (NOXs), and fibrotic markers, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and fibronectin, when compared to contralateral (contra) or sham controls. In fact, ATM is rapidly phosphorylated at Ser(1981) by TGF-β1 stimulation. Stable silencing and pharmacologic inhibition of ATM ablated TGF-β1-induced p53 activation (>95%) and subsequent PAI-1, fibronectin, connective tissue growth factor, and p21 expression in human kidney 2 (HK-2) tubular epithelial cells and normal rat kidney-49 fibroblasts (NRK-49F). ATM or p53 depletion in HK-2 cells, moreover, bypassed TGF-β1-mediated cytostasis evident in control short hairpin RNA-expressing HK-2 cells. Interestingly, stable silencing of NOX subunits, p22(phox) and p47(phox), in HK-2 cells blocked TGF-β1-induced pATM(Ser1981) (>90%) and target gene induction via p53-dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, NRK-49F fibroblast proliferation triggered by conditioned media from TGF-β1-stimulated, control vector-transfected HK-2 cells decreased (∼ 50%) when exposed to conditioned media from ATM-deficient, TGF-β1-treated HK-2 cells. Thus, TGF-β1 promotes NOX-dependent ATM activation leading to p53-mediated fibrotic gene reprogramming and growth arrest in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, TGF-β1/ATM-initiated paracrine factor secretion by dysfunctional renal epithelium promotes interstitial fibroblast growth, suggesting a role of tubular ATM in mediating epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk highlighting the translational benefit of targeting the NOX/ATM/p53 axis in renal fibrosis.
Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs) kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs) and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.
There is an unmet need to develop new, more effective and safe therapies for the aggressive forms of triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). While up to 20% of women under 50 years of age with TNBC harbor germline mutations in BRCA1, and these tumors are sensitive to treatment with poly(ADP) ribose polymerase inhibitors, a majority of TNBCs lack BRCA1 mutations or loss of expression. Findings presented here demonstrate that by attenuating the levels of DNA damage response and homologous recombination proteins, pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI) treatment induces 'BRCAness' and sensitizes TNBC cells lacking BRCA1 to lethal effects of PARP inhibitor or cisplatin. Treatment with HDI also induced hyperacetylation of nuclear hsp90. Similar effects were observed following shRNA-mediated depletion of HDAC3, confirming its role as the deacetylase for nuclear HSP90. Furthermore, cotreatment with HDI and ABT-888 induced significantly more DNA strand breaks than either agent alone, and synergistically induced apoptosis of TNBC cells. Notably, co-treatment with HDI and ABT-888 significantly reduced in vivo tumor growth and markedly improved the survival of mice bearing TNBC cell xenografts. These findings support the rationale to interrogate the clinical activity of this novel combination against human TNBC, irrespective of its expression of mutant BRCA1.
Subcellular localization, protein interactions, and post-translational modifications regulate the DNA damage response kinases ATR, ATM, and DNA-PK. During an analysis of putative ATR phosphorylation sites, we found that a single mutation at S1333 creates a hyperactive kinase. In vitro and in cells, mutation of S1333 to alanine (S1333A-ATR) causes elevated levels of kinase activity with and without the addition of the protein activator TOPBP1. S1333 mutations to glycine, arginine, or lysine also create a hyperactive kinase, while mutation to aspartic acid decreases ATR activity. S1333A-ATR maintains the G2 checkpoint and promotes completion of DNA replication after transient exposure to replication stress but the less active kinase, S1333D-ATR, has modest defects in both of these functions. While we find no evidence that S1333 is phosphorylated in cultured cells, our data indicate that small changes in the HEAT repeats can have large effects on kinase activity. These mutants may serve as useful tools for future studies of the ATR pathway.
INTRODUCTION - Inactivation of serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11 or LKB1) is common in lung cancer, and understanding the pathways and phenotypes altered as a consequence will aid the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. Gene and protein expressions in a murine model of v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras)-mutant lung cancer have been studied to gain insight into the biology of these tumors. However, the molecular consequences of LKB1 loss in human lung cancer have not been fully characterized.
METHODS - We studied gene expression profiles associated with LKB1 loss in resected lung adenocarcinomas, non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, and murine tumors. The biological significance of dysregulated genes was interpreted using gene set enrichment and transcription factor analyses and also by integration with somatic mutations and proteomic data.
RESULTS - Loss of LKB1 is associated with consistent gene expression changes in resected human lung cancers and cell lines that differ substantially from the mouse model. Our analysis implicates novel biological features associated with LKB1 loss, including altered mitochondrial metabolism, activation of the nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF2) transcription factor by kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) mutations, and attenuation of the phosphatidylinositiol 3-kinase and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (PI3K/AKT) pathway. Furthermore, we derived a 16-gene classifier that accurately predicts LKB1 mutations and loss by nonmutational mechanisms. In vitro, transduction of LKB1 into LKB1-mutant cell lines results in attenuation of this signature.
CONCLUSION - Loss of LKB1 defines a subset of lung adenocarcinomas associated with characteristic molecular phenotypes and distinctive gene expression features. Studying these effects may improve our understanding of the biology of these tumors and lead to the identification of targeted treatment strategies.