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The rate-limiting step of folding of the collagen triple helix is catalyzed by cyclophilin B (CypB). The G6R mutation in cyclophilin B found in the American Quarter Horse leads to autosomal recessive hyperelastosis cutis, also known as hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia. The mutant protein shows small structural changes in the region of the mutation at the side opposite the catalytic domain of CypB. The peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of the mutant CypB is normal when analyzed in vitro. However, the biosynthesis of type I collagen in affected horse fibroblasts shows a delay in folding and secretion and a decrease in hydroxylysine and glucosyl-galactosyl hydroxylysine. This leads to changes in the structure of collagen fibrils in tendon, similar to those observed in P3H1 null mice. In contrast to cyclophilin B null mice, where little 3-hydroxylation was found in type I collagen, 3-hydroxylation of type I collagen in affected horses is normal. The mutation disrupts the interaction of cyclophilin B with the P-domain of calreticulin, with lysyl hydroxylase 1, and probably other proteins, such as the formation of the P3H1·CypB·cartilage-associated protein complex, resulting in less effective catalysis of the rate-limiting step in collagen folding in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Human autoimmune diseases are often characterized by a relative deficiency in CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). We therefore hypothesized that expansion of Treg can ameliorate autoimmune pathology. We tested this hypothesis in an experimental model for autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG), a B-cell-mediated disease characterized by auto-Ab directed against the acetylcholine receptor within neuromuscular junctions. We showed that injection of immune complexes composed of the cytokine IL-2 and anti-IL-2 mAb (JES6-1A12) induced an effective and sustained expansion of Treg, via peripheral proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells and peripheral conversion of CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(-) cells. The expanded Treg potently suppressed autoreactive T- and B-cell responses to acetylcholine receptor and attenuated the muscular weakness that is characteristic of MG. Thus, IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb complexes can expand functional Treg in vivo, providing a potential clinical application of this modality for treatment of MG and other autoimmune disorders.
We report the case of a 55-year-old man with non-small-cell lung cancer who underwent radiation, chemotherapy with carbotaxol and paclitaxel, and left upper lobe removal 2 years prior to evaluation. He was referred for disabling orthostatic hypotension (113/69 mm Hg supine and 66/47 mm Hg standing after 10 minutes) without a compensatory heart rate increase (57 to 59 beats per minute), fatigue, and constipation with episodes of ileus. Clinical examination showed mild ptosis bilaterally, fatiguable neck flexor weakness, and hip flexor weakness. Blood pressure response to Valsalva maneuver was abnormal with an absence of phase 4 overshoot and a Valsalva heart rate ratio of 1.04. Plasma norepinephrine level was low (79 pg/ml supine, 330 pg/ml standing). Single-fiber electromyography of the right extensor digitorum communis revealed normal mean consecutive difference (jitter) but several pairs exceeded a jitter of 100 mus. Antibodies against muscle acetylcholine receptor [(AChR) 0.66 nmol/L, normal <0.02 nmol/L] and ganglionic AChR (0.34 nmol/L, normal <0.02 nmol/L) were present. Treatment with plasma exchange normalized responses to standing posture (105/68 supine to 118/82 mm Hg standing, 66 to 79 beats per minute), to Valsalva (normal blood pressure overshoot, hazard ratio 1.47), norepinephrine (194 pg/ml supine, 763 pg/ml standing), and jitter measurements. We conclude that autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy and myasthenia gravis can coexist and suggest that the latter should be excluded in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy who complain of fatigue that shows improvement with non-supine rest.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are an unusual subset of innate immune cells that express a surface receptor generated by somatic DNA rearrangement, a hallmark of cells of the adaptive immune system. NKT cells express a highly restricted repertoire of T cell receptors that recognize glycolipid antigens bound with the antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. A hallmark of NKT cells is their capacity to produce copious amounts of immunomodulatory cytokines upon antigenic stimulation, which endows these cells with potent immunoregulatory properties. Consequently, NKT cells have been implicated in regulating a wide variety of immune responses, including immune responses against autoantigens. In patients and mice with a variety of autoimmune diseases, numbers and functions of NKT cells are disturbed, but the relevance of these findings to the etiology of autoimmunity remains to be fully established. Nevertheless, in some mouse models of autoimmunity, NKT cell-deficiency exacerbates disease, suggesting that NKT cells play a role in suppressing autoimmunity. Conversely, specific activation of NKT cells with glycolipid antigens generally protects mice against the development of autoimmunity. Most of these studies have employed the potent sponge-derived NKT cell antigen alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer). However, alpha-GalCer treatment in mice was associated with detrimental side effects and treatment efficacy was influenced by a variety of parameters, resulting sometimes in disease exacerbation rather than protection. Recent efforts have focused on developing NKT cell agonists with superior treatment efficacy than alpha-GalCer. Collectively, these studies have identified NKT cells as attractive targets for treatment of human autoimmune diseases.
CD1d-restricted NKT cells and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are thymus-derived subsets of regulatory T cells that have an important role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. Whether NKT cells and Treg cells cooperate functionally in the regulation of autoimmunity is not known. We have explored this possibility in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of human myasthenia gravis, induced by immunization of C57BL/6 mice with the autoantigen acetylcholine receptor. We have demonstrated that activation of NKT cells by a synthetic glycolipid agonist of NKT cells, alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer), inhibits the development of EAMG. alpha-GalCer administration in EAMG mice increased the size of the Treg cell compartment, and augmented the expression of foxp3 and the potency of CD4+CD25+ cells to inhibit proliferation of autoreactive T cells. Furthermore, alpha-GalCer promoted NKT cells to transcribe the IL-2 gene and produce IL-2 protein. Depletion of CD25+ cells or neutralization of IL-2 reduced the therapeutic effect of alpha-GalCer in this model. Thus, alpha-GalCer-activated NKT cells can induce expansion of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells, which in turn mediate the therapeutic effects of alpha-GalCer in EAMG. Induced cooperation of NKT cells and Treg cells may serve as a superior strategy to treat autoimmune disease.
Natural killer (NK) cells can affect the outcome of adaptive immune responses. NK cells, but not NK1.1+T cells, were found to participate in the development of myasthenia gravis (a T cell-dependent, B cell- and antibody-mediated autoimmune disease) in C57BL/6 mice. The requirement for NK cells was reflected by the lack of a type I helper T cell response and antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor in both NK1.1+ cell-depleted and NK cell-deficient IL-18-/- mice. These findings establish a previously unrecognized link between NK cells and autoreactive T and B cells.
PURPOSE - Flavopiridol is the first cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor to enter clinical trials. Serum levels of flavopiridol obtained during phase I studies were sufficient to inhibit in vitro cancer cell growth. Because responses were observed in kidney cancer patients in the phase I trials, we performed a phase II trial of flavopiridol in this patient population.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - Thirty-five minimally pretreated patients were accrued using a standard two-step mechanism. Flavopiridol (50 mg/m(2)/d) was administered by continuous infusion for 72 hours every 2 weeks, and response was evaluated every 8 weeks. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected at baseline, at completion of drug infusion, and on day 7 of the first therapy cycle, and cell cycle parameters after phytohemagglutinin and interleukin-2 stimulation were assessed.
RESULTS - There were two objective responses (response rate = 6%, 95% confidence interval, 1% to 20%). The most common toxicities were asthenia, occurring in 83% of patients (grade 3 or 4 in 9%), and diarrhea, occurring in 77% of patients (grade 3 or 4 in 20%). Also, nine patients (26%) experienced grade 3 or 4 vascular thrombotic events, including one myocardial infarction, two transient neurologic ischemic attacks, four deep venous thrombosis, and two pulmonary emboli. Cell cycle studies did not reveal any effect of flavopiridol on stimulated PBMCs.
CONCLUSION - Flavopiridol, at the dose and schedule administered in this trial, is ineffective in metastatic renal cancer. In addition to the diarrhea observed in phase I studies, we also observed a higher incidence of asthenia and serious vascular thrombotic events than expected.
Platelet adhesion to fibrin at high shear rates depends on both the glycoprotein (GP) IIb:IIIa complex and a secondary interaction between GPIb and von Willebrand factor (vWF). This alternative link between platelets and vWF in promoting platelet adhesion to fibrin has been examined in flowing whole blood with a rectangular perfusion chamber. Optimal adhesion required both platelets and vWF, as shown by the following observations. No binding of vWF could be detected when plasma was perfused over a fibrin surface or when coated fibrinogen was incubated with control plasma in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, when platelets were present during perfusion, interactions between vWF and fibrin could be visualized with immunoelectron microscopy. Exposure of fibrin surfaces to normal plasma before perfusion with severe von Willebrand's disease blood did not compensate for the presence of plasma vWF necessary for adhesion. vWF mutants in which the GPIIb:IIIa binding site was mutated or the GPIb binding site was deleted showed that vWF only interacts with GPIb on platelets in supporting adhesion to fibrin and not with GPIIb:IIIa. Complementary results were obtained with specific monoclonal antibodies against vWF. Thus, vWF must first bind to platelets before it can interact with fibrin and promote platelet adhesion. Furthermore, only GPIb, but not GPIIb:IIIa is directly involved in this interaction of vWF with platelets.