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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many genetic variations associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asians, but understanding the functional genetic variants that influence traits is often a complex process. In this study, fine mapping and other analytical strategies were performed to investigate the effects of G protein signaling modulator 1 (GPSM1) on insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. A total of 128 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GPSM1 were analysed in 21,897 T2DM cases and 32,710 healthy controls from seven GWASs. The SNP rs28539249 in intron 9 of GPSM1 showed a nominally significant association with T2DM in Asians (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.04-1.10, P < 10). The GPSM1 mRNA was increased in skeletal muscle and correlated with T2DM traits across obese mice model. An eQTL for the cis-acting regulation of GPSM1 expression in human skeletal muscle was identified for rs28539249, and the increased GPSM1 expression related with T2DM traits within GEO datasets. Another independent Asian cohort showed that rs28539249 is associated with the skeletal muscle expression of CACFD1, GTF3C5, SARDH, and FAM163B genes, which are functionally enriched for endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways. Moreover, rs28539249 locus was predicted to disrupt regulatory regions in human skeletal muscle with enriched epigenetic marks and binding affinity for CTCF. Supershift EMSA assays followed luciferase assays demonstrated the CTCF specifically binding to rs28539249-C allele leading to decreased transcriptional activity. Thus, the post-GWAS annotation confirmed the Asian-specific association of genetic variant in GPSM1 with T2DM, suggesting a role for the variant in the regulation in skeletal muscle.
Controversies exist with regard to in vivo approaches to delayed immunologically mediated adverse drug reactions, such as exanthem (maculopapular eruption), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis, and fixed drug eruptions. In particular, widespread differences exist between regions and practice on the availability and use of intradermal and patch testing, the standard drug concentrations used, the use of additional drugs in intradermal and patch testing to help determine cross-reactivity, the timing of testing in relation to the occurrence of the adverse drug reaction, the use of testing in specific phenotypes, and the use of oral challenge in conjunction with delayed intradermal and patch testing to ascertain drug tolerance. It was noted that there have been advances in the science of delayed T cell-mediated reactions that have shed light on immunopathogenesis and provided a mechanism of preprescription screening in the case of HLA-B*57:01 and abacavir hypersensitivity and HLA-B*15:02 and carbamazepine Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis in Southeast Asian subjects. Future directions should include the collaboration of large international networks to develop and standardize in vivo diagnostic approaches, such as skin testing and patch testing, combined with ex vivo and in vitro laboratory approaches.
Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - Little evidence exists regarding long-term diet quality and the risk of type 2 diabetes among Asian populations, who have undergone a nutrition transition and a diabetes epidemic.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 117,919 Chinese men and women, 40-74 years old, free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline, were followed from 1996 to 2015. Diet quality was assessed by a healthy diet score (HDS) based on eight commonly consumed food groups previously suggested to be related to diabetes. Long-term diet quality and its changes were assessed by repeated surveys using food-frequency questionnaires.
RESULTS - We identified 6,111 incident diabetes cases during a mean follow-up of 11.5 years. Higher HDS was associated with lower diabetes risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85 [95% CI 0.78-0.92] in the highest vs. lowest quintile, <0.0001) after adjustment for potential confounders including BMI. Maintaining a high HDS during follow-up was associated with 26% lower risk compared with a consistently low HDS (HR 0.74 [95% CI 0.63-0.85]). The inverse association between HDS and diabetes was observed regardless of participants' age, sex, smoking and exercise habits, obesity status, and metabolic disease status but was more prominent among those who participated in leisure-time exercise ( = 0.004). When considered jointly, a sustained high HDS plus exercise was associated with a 45% reduced risk of diabetes (HR 0.55 [95% CI 0.45-0.67]).
CONCLUSIONS - A high-quality diet, especially maintained over the long term and in conjunction with leisure-time exercise, is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes among urban Chinese adults.
© 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Most genome-wide association studies have been of European individuals, even though most genetic variation in humans is seen only in non-European samples. To search for novel loci associated with blood lipid levels and clarify the mechanism of action at previously identified lipid loci, we used an exome array to examine protein-coding genetic variants in 47,532 East Asian individuals. We identified 255 variants at 41 loci that reached chip-wide significance, including 3 novel loci and 14 East Asian-specific coding variant associations. After a meta-analysis including >300,000 European samples, we identified an additional nine novel loci. Sixteen genes were identified by protein-altering variants in both East Asians and Europeans, and thus are likely to be functional genes. Our data demonstrate that most of the low-frequency or rare coding variants associated with lipids are population specific, and that examining genomic data across diverse ancestries may facilitate the identification of functional genes at associated loci.
Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.
Objective Osteoporosis, which is now recognized as a major comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), must be diagnosed by appropriate methods. The aims of this study were to clarify the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and COPD-related clinical variables and to explore the association of BMD with the updated Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification in men. Methods We enrolled 50 Japanese men with clinically stable COPD who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), pulmonary function testing, and computerized tomography (CT) and who had completed a questionnaire (COPD assessment test [CAT]). We determined the association between the T-score and other tested parameters and compared the BMD of patients in each GOLD category. Results Twenty-three of the 50 patients (46.0%) were diagnosed with osteopenia, and 7 (14.0%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The BMD findings were significantly correlated with the CAT score, forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentage predicted (FEV% predicted), low attenuation volume percentage (LAV%), and percentage of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels (%CSA) on CT images. Notably, the median T-score of the GOLD category D participants was significantly lower than that of the participants in each of the other categories (A [-0.98], B [-1.06], C [-1.05], and D [-2.19], p<0.05). Conclusion Reduced BMD was associated with airflow limitation, extent of radiographic findings, and a poor quality of life (QOL) in patients with COPD. The BMD of GOLD category D patients was the lowest of all of the patients evaluated, and category D patients may benefit from active intervention for osteoporosis.
Haptoglobin (HP) protein plays a critical role in binding and removing free hemoglobin from blood. A deletion in the HP gene affects the protein structure and function. A recent study developed a novel method to impute this variant and discovered significant association of this variant with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol levels among European descendants. In the present study, we investigated this variant among 3608 Chinese women. Consistent with findings from Europeans, we found significant associations between the deletion with lower cholesterol levels; women homozygous for the deletion allele (HP1-HP1), had a lower level of total cholesterol (-4.24 mg dl, P=0.02) and LDL cholesterol (-3.43 mg dl, P=0.03) than those not carrying the deletion allele (HP2-HP2). Especially, women carrying the HP1S-HP1S, had an even lower level of total cholesterol (-5.59 mg dl, P=7.0 × 10) and LDL cholesterol (-4.68 mg dl, P=8.0 × 10) compared to those carrying HP2-HP2. These associations remained significant after an adjustment for an established cholesterol level-related variant, rs2000999. Our study extends the previous findings regarding the association of HP structure variant with blood cholesterol levels to East Asians and affirms the validity of the new methodology for assessing HP structure variation.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a highly heterogeneous disease displaying considerable interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variation, including disease severity, age of onset, and disease progression. This poorly understood variance raises the possibility of genetic modifier effects, particularly in MYBPC3-associated HCM.In a large consanguineous Chinese HCM family, we identified 8 members harboring the MYBPC3 c.3624delC (p.Lys1209Serfs) disease-causing mutation, but with very disparate phenotypes. Genotyping ruled out the modifying effect of previously described variants in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Afterwards, we screened for modifying variants in all known causing genes and closely related genes for cardiomyopathy and channelopathy by performing targeted next-generation sequencing. For first time, we showed that a c.1598C>T (p.Ser533Leu) mutation in voltage-dependent l-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 (CACNB2) was present in all severely affected HCM patients, but not in those moderately affected or genotype-positive phenotype-negative patients. This CACNB2 p.Ser533Leu mutation is extremely conserved in evolution, and was not found in 550 healthy controls.Our results suggest that CACNB2 is a possible candidate genetic modifier of MYBPC3-associated familial HCM, but more genetic evidence and functional experiments are needed to confirm.