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Cardiovascular disease risk depends on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function, not HDL-cholesterol. Isolevuglandins (IsoLGs) are lipid dicarbonyls that react with lysine residues of proteins and phosphatidylethanolamine. IsoLG adducts are elevated in atherosclerosis. The consequences of IsoLG modification of HDL have not been studied. We hypothesized that IsoLG modification of apoA-I deleteriously alters HDL function. We determined the effect of IsoLG on HDL structure-function and whether pentylpyridoxamine (PPM), a dicarbonyl scavenger, can preserve HDL function. IsoLG adducts in HDL derived from patients with familial hypercholesterolemia ( = 10, 233.4 ± 158.3 ng/mg) were found to be significantly higher than in healthy controls ( = 7, 90.1 ± 33.4 pg/mg protein). Further, HDL exposed to myeloperoxidase had elevated IsoLG-lysine adducts (5.7 ng/mg protein) compared with unexposed HDL (0.5 ng/mg protein). Preincubation with PPM reduced IsoLG-lysine adducts by 67%, whereas its inactive analogue pentylpyridoxine did not. The addition of IsoLG produced apoA-I and apoA-II cross-links beginning at 0.3 molar eq of IsoLG/mol of apoA-I (0.3 eq), whereas succinylaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal required 10 and 30 eq. IsoLG increased HDL size, generating a subpopulation of 16-23 nm. 1 eq of IsoLG decreased HDL-mediated [H]cholesterol efflux from macrophages via ABCA1, which corresponded to a decrease in HDL-apoA-I exchange from 47.4% to only 24.8%. This suggests that IsoLG inhibits apoA-I from disassociating from HDL to interact with ABCA1. The addition of 0.3 eq of IsoLG ablated HDL's ability to inhibit LPS-stimulated cytokine expression by macrophages and increased IL-1β expression by 3.5-fold. The structural-functional effects were partially rescued with PPM scavenging.
© 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Tissue cholesterol accumulation, macrophage infiltration, and inflammation are features of atherosclerosis and some forms of dermatitis. HDL and its main protein, apoAI, are acceptors of excess cholesterol from macrophages; this process inhibits tissue inflammation. Recent epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence questions the role of HDL and its manipulation in cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effect of ectopic macrophage apoAI expression on atherosclerosis and dermatitis induced by the combination of hypercholesterolemia and absence of HDL in mice. Hematopoietic progenitor cells were transduced to express human apoAI and transplanted into lethally irradiated LDL receptor(-/-)/apoAI(-/-) mice, which were then placed on a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Macrophage apoAI expression reduced aortic CD4(+) T-cell levels (-39.8%), lesion size (-25%), and necrotic core area (-31.6%), without affecting serum HDL or aortic macrophage levels. Macrophage apoAI reduced skin cholesterol by 39.8%, restored skin morphology, and reduced skin CD4(+) T-cell levels. Macrophage apoAI also reduced CD4(+) T-cell levels (-32.9%) in skin-draining lymph nodes but had no effect on other T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, or macrophages compared with control transplanted mice. Thus, macrophage apoAI expression protects against atherosclerosis and dermatitis by reducing cholesterol accumulation and regulating CD4(+) T-cell levels, without affecting serum HDL or tissue macrophage levels.
Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Although the interaction of macrophages with oxidized low density liopoprotein (oxLDL) is critical to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, relatively little is known about their metabolic response to oxLDL. Our development of the multianalyte microphysiometer (MAMP) allows for simultaneous measurement of extracellular metabolic substrates and products in real-time. Here, we use the MAMP to study changes in the metabolic rates of RAW-264.7 cells undergoing respiratory burst in response to oxLDL. These studies indicate that short duration exposure of macrophages to oxLDL results in time-dependent increases in glucose and oxygen consumption and in lactate production and extracellular acidification rate. Since apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoA-I mimetics prevent experimental atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that the metabolic response of the macrophage during respiratory burst can be modulated by apoA-I mimetics. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of the apoA-I peptide mimetic, L-4F, alone and complexed with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) on the macrophage metabolic response to oxLDL. L-4F and the DMPC/L-4F complexes attenuated the macrophage respiratory burst in response to oxLDL. The MAMP provides a novel approach for studying macrophage ligand-receptor interactions and cellular metabolism and our results provide new insights into the metabolic effects of oxLDL and mechanism of action of apoA-I mimetics.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This report details the lipid composition of nascent HDL (nHDL) particles formed by the action of the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) on apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). nHDL particles of different size (average diameters of ∼ 12, 10, 7.5, and <6 nm) and composition were purified by size-exclusion chromatography. Electron microscopy suggested that the nHDL were mostly spheroidal. The proportions of the principal nHDL lipids, free cholesterol, glycerophosphocholine, and sphingomyelin were similar to that of lipid rafts, suggesting that the lipid originated from a raft-like region of the cell. Smaller amounts of glucosylceramides, cholesteryl esters, and other glycerophospholipid classes were also present. The largest particles, ∼ 12 nm and 10 nm diameter, contained ∼ 43% free cholesterol, 2-3% cholesteryl ester, and three apoA-I molecules. Using chemical cross-linking chemistry combined with mass spectrometry, we found that three molecules of apoA-I in the ∼ 9-14 nm nHDL adopted a belt-like conformation. The smaller (7.5 nm diameter) spheroidal nHDL particles carried 30% free cholesterol and two molecules of apoA-I in a twisted, antiparallel, double-belt conformation. Overall, these new data offer fresh insights into the biogenesis and structural constraints involved in forming nascent HDL from ABCA1.
CONTEXT - Familial combined hypolipidemia causes a global reduction of plasma lipoproteins. Its clinical correlates and metabolic implications have not been well defined.
OBJECTIVE - The objective of the study was to investigate the genetic, clinical, and metabolic characteristics of a cohort of subjects with familial combined hypolipidemia.
DESIGN - The design of the study included candidate gene screening and the comparison of the clinical and metabolic characteristics between carrier and noncarrier individuals.
SETTING - The study was conducted in a general community.
SUBJECTS - Participants in the study included individuals belonging to nine families with familial combined hypolipidemia identified in a small town (Campodimele) as well as from other 352 subjects living in the same community.
MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES - Serum concentrations of lipoproteins, Angiopoietin-like 3 (Angptl3) proteins, and noncholesterol sterols were measured.
RESULTS - The ANGPTL3 S17X mutation was found in all probands, 20 affected family members, and 32 individuals of the community. Two additional frame shift mutations, FsE96del and FsS122, were also identified in two hypocholesterolemic individuals. Homozygotes for the ANGPTL3 S17X mutation had no circulating Angptl3 and a marked reduction of all plasma lipids (P < 0.001). Heterozygotes had 42% reduction in Angptl3 level compared with noncarriers (P < 0.0001) but a significant reduction of only total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No differences were observed in the plasma noncholesterol sterols between carriers and noncarriers. No association between familial combined hypolipidemia and the risk of hepatic or cardiovascular diseases were detected.
CONCLUSIONS - Familial combined hypolipidemia segregates as a recessive trait so that apolipoprotein B- and apolipoprotein A-I-containing lipoproteins are comprehensively affected only by the total deficiency of Angptl3. Familial combined hypolipidemia does not perturb whole-body cholesterol homeostasis and is not associated with adverse clinical sequelae.
The mutation L159R apoA-I or apoA-I(L159R) (FIN) is a single amino acid substitution within the sixth helical repeat of apoA-I. It is associated with a dominant negative phenotype, displaying hypoalphaproteinemia and an increased risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Mice lacking both mouse apoA-I and LDL receptor (LDL(-/-), apoA-I(-/-)) (double knockout or DKO) were crossed>9 generations with mice transgenic for human FIN to obtain L159R apoA-I, LDLr(-/-), ApoA-I(-/-) (FIN-DKO) mice. A similar cross was also performed with human wild-type (WT) apoA-I (WT-DKO). In addition, FIN-DKO and WT-DKO were crossed to obtain WT/FIN-DKO mice. To determine the effects of the apoA-I mutations on atherosclerosis, groups of each genotype were fed either chow or an atherogenic diet for 12weeks. Interestingly, the production of dysfunctional HDL-like particles occurred in DKO and FIN-DKO mice. These particles were distinct with respect to size, and their enrichment in apoE and cholesterol esters. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicated that particles found in the plasma of FIN-DKO mice migrated as large α(3)-HDL. Atherosclerosis analysis showed that FIN-DKO mice developed the greatest extent of aortic cholesterol accumulation compared to all other genotypes, including DKO mice which lack any apoA-I. Taken together these data suggest that the presence of large apoE enriched HDL particles containing apoA-I L159R lack the normal cholesterol efflux promoting properties of HDL, rendering them dysfunctional and pro-atherogenic. In conclusion, large HDL-like particles containing apoE and apoA-I(L159R) contribute rather than protect against atherosclerosis, possibly through defective efflux properties and their potential for aggregation at their site of interaction in the aorta. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in High Density Lipoprotein Formation and Metabolism: A Tribute to John F. Oram (1945-2010).
Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) mediate cholesterol transport and protection from cardiovascular disease. Although synthetic HDLs have been studied for 30 years, the structures of human plasma-derived HDL and its major protein apolipoprotein apoA-I are unknown. We separated normal human HDL into five density subfractions and then further isolated those containing predominantly apoA-I (LpA-I). Using cross-linking chemistry and mass spectrometry, we found that apoA-I adopts a structural framework in these particles that closely mirrors that in synthetic HDL. We adapted established structures for synthetic HDL to generate the first detailed models of authentic human plasma HDL in which apoA-I adopts a symmetrical cage-like structure. The models suggest that HDL particle size is modulated by means of a twisting motion of the resident apoA-I molecules. This understanding offers insights into how apoA-I structure modulates HDL function and its interactions with other apolipoproteins.
BACKGROUND - A growing body of evidence from epidemiological data, animal studies, and clinical trials supports HDL as the next target to reduce residual cardiovascular risk in statin-treated, high-risk patients. For more than 3 decades, HDL cholesterol has been employed as the principal clinical measure of HDL and cardiovascular risk associated with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The physicochemical and functional heterogeneity of HDL present important challenges to investigators in the cardiovascular field who are seeking to identify more effective laboratory and clinical methods to develop a measurement method to quantify HDL that has predictive value in assessing cardiovascular risk.
CONTENT - In this report, we critically evaluate the diverse physical and chemical methods that have been employed to characterize plasma HDL. To facilitate future characterization of HDL subfractions, we propose the development of a new nomenclature based on physical properties for the subfractions of HDL that includes very large HDL particles (VL-HDL), large HDL particles (L-HDL), medium HDL particles (M-HDL), small HDL particles (S-HDL), and very-small HDL particles (VS-HDL). This nomenclature also includes an entry for the pre-β-1 HDL subclass that participates in macrophage cholesterol efflux.
SUMMARY - We anticipate that adoption of a uniform nomenclature system for HDL subfractions that integrates terminology from several methods will enhance our ability not only to compare findings with different approaches for HDL fractionation, but also to assess the clinical effects of different agents that modulate HDL particle structure, metabolism, and function, and in turn, cardiovascular risk prediction within these HDL subfractions.
Over the past decade, large multicenter trials have unequivocally demonstrated that decreasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol can reduce both primary and secondary cardiovascular events in patients at risk. However, even in the context of maximal LDL lowering, there remains considerable residual cardiovascular risk. Some of this risk can be attributed to variability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. As such, there is tremendous interest in defining determinants of HDL homeostasis. Risk prediction models are being constructed based upon (1) clinical contributors, (2) known molecular determinants and (3) the genetic architecture underlying HDL cholesterol levels. To date, however, no single resource has combined these factors within the context of a practice-based data set. Recently, a number of academic medical centers have begun constructing DNA biobanks linked to secure encrypted versions of their respective electronic medical record. As these biobanks combine resources, the clinical community is in a position to characterize lipid-related treatment outcome on an unprecedented scale.
The field of cardiovascular prevention has long anticipated the evolution of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) therapy from unproven metabolic tweaking to pillar of risk reduction on par with low-density lipoprotein control. However, the convincing epidemiologic data linking HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and cardiovascular disease risk in an inverse correlation has not yet translated into clinical trial evidence supporting linearity between HDL-C increases and risk reduction, or identifying obvious goals of therapy. Although HDL-C-increasing lifestyle maneuvers and established HDL drugs such as niacin and fibrates are likely to protect the vasculature, the negative results obtained in trials of a cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor remind us that HDL-C increases are not always beneficial. It is becoming clear that a functional HDL is a more desirable target than simply increasing HDL-C levels. The larger objective of improving HDL functionality (with or without HDL-C level changes) is bound to become the guiding principle for pharmaceutical research in this area. Several new compounds currently being tested bridge the classical aim of increasing HDL-C levels with the novel target of improving HDL function.
Copyright © 2010 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.