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colonizes the stomach in about half of the world's population. strains containing the pathogenicity island ( PAI) are associated with a higher risk of gastric adenocarcinoma or peptic ulcer disease than PAI-negative strains. The PAI encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that mediates delivery of the CagA effector protein as well as nonprotein bacterial constituents into gastric epithelial cells. -induced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion are attributed to T4SS-dependent delivery of lipopolysaccharide metabolites and peptidoglycan into host cells, and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation is attributed to delivery of bacterial DNA. In this study, we analyzed the bacterial energetic requirements associated with these cellular alterations. Mutant strains lacking Cagα, Cagβ, or CagE (putative ATPases corresponding to VirB11, VirD4, and VirB4 in prototypical T4SSs) were capable of T4SS core complex assembly but defective in CagA translocation into host cells. Thus, the three Cag ATPases are not functionally redundant. Cagα and CagE were required for -induced NF-κB activation, IL-8 secretion, and TLR9 activation, but Cagβ was dispensable for these responses. We identified putative ATP-binding motifs (Walker-A and Walker-B) in each of the ATPases and generated mutant strains in which these motifs were altered. Each of the Walker box mutant strains exhibited properties identical to those of the corresponding deletion mutant strains. These data suggest that Cag T4SS-dependent delivery of nonprotein bacterial constituents into host cells occurs through mechanisms different from those used for recruitment and delivery of CagA into host cells.
Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology.
Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) is a target of the FDA approved HDAC inhibitors, which are used for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Here, we used Cd19-Cre to conditionally delete Hdac3 to define its role in germinal center B cells, which represent the cell of origin for many B cell malignancies. Cd19-Cre-Hdac3-/- mice showed impaired germinal center formation along with a defect in plasmablast production. Analysis of Hdac3-/- germinal centers revealed a reduction in dark zone centroblasts and accumulation of light zone centrocytes. RNA-seq revealed a significant correlation between genes up-regulated upon Hdac3 loss and those up-regulated in Foxo1-deleted germinal center B cells, even though Foxo1 typically activates transcription. Therefore, to determine whether gene expression changes observed in Hdac3-/- germinal centers were a result of direct effects of Hdac3 deacetylase activity, we used an HDAC3 selective inhibitor and examined nascent transcription in germinal center-derived cell lines. Transcriptional changes upon HDAC3 inhibition were enriched for light zone gene signatures as observed in germinal centers. Further comparison of PRO-seq data with ChIP-seq/exo data for BCL6, SMRT, FOXO1 and H3K27ac identified direct targets of HDAC3 function including CD86, CD83 and CXCR5 that are likely responsible for driving the light zone phenotype observed in vivo.
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
BACKGROUND - Accumulating data support a protective role of Helicobacter pylori against inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which might be mediated by strain-specific constituents, specifically cagA expression.
AIM - To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to more clearly define the association between CagA seropositivity and IBD.
METHODS - We identified comparative studies that included sufficient detail to determine the odds or risk of IBD, Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) amongst individuals with vs without evidence of cagA expression (eg CagA seropositivity). Estimates were pooled using a random effects model.
RESULTS - Three clinical studies met inclusion criteria. cagA expression was represented by CagA seropositivity in all studies. Compared to CagA seronegativity overall, CagA seropositivity was associated with lower odds of IBD (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.21-0.44) and CD (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.17-0.38), and statistically nonsignificant lower odds for UC (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.35-1.32). Similarly, compared to H pylori non-exposed individuals, H pylori exposed, CagA seropositive individuals had lower odds of IBD (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.16-0.41) and CD (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15-0.35), but not UC (OR 0.66, 0.34-1.27). However, there was no significant difference in the odds of IBD, CD or UC between H pylori exposed, CagA seronegative and H pylori non-exposed individuals.
CONCLUSION - We found evidence for a significant association between CagA seropositive H pylori exposure and reduced odds of IBD, particularly CD, but not for CagA seronegative H pylori exposure. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and define underlying mechanisms.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles have been implicated as risk factors for immune-mediated adverse drug reactions. The authors recently reported a strong association between HLA-A*32:01 and vancomycin-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. Identification of individuals with the risk allele before or shortly after the initiation of vancomycin therapy is of great clinical importance to prevent morbidity and mortality, and improve drug safety and antibiotic treatment options. A prerequisite to the success of pharmacogenetic screening tests is the development of simple, robust, cost-effective single HLA allele test that can be implemented in routine diagnostic laboratories. In this study, the authors developed a simple, real-time allele-specific PCR for typing the HLA-A*32:01 allele. Four-hundred and fifty-eight DNA samples including 30 HLA-A*32:01-positive samples were typed by allele-specific PCR. Compared with American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics-accredited, sequence-based, high-resolution, full-allelic HLA typing, this assay demonstrates 100% accuracy, 100% sensitivity (95% CI, 88.43% to 100%), and 100% specificity (95% CI, 99.14% to 100%). The lowest limit of detection of this assay using PowerUp SYBR Green is 10 ng of template DNA. The assay demonstrates a sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the HLA-A*32:01 allele from closely related non-HLA-A*32 alleles and may be used in clinical settings to identify individuals with the risk allele before or during the course of vancomycin therapy.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Unchecked collaboration between islet-reactive T and B lymphocytes drives type 1 diabetes (T1D). In the healthy setting, CD8 T regulatory cells (Tregs) terminate ongoing T-B interactions. We determined that specific CD8 Tregs from NOD mice lack suppressive function, representing a previously unreported regulatory cell deficit in this T1D-prone strain. NOD mice possess 11-fold fewer Ly-49 CD8 Tregs than nonautoimmune mice, a deficiency that worsens as NOD mice age toward diabetes and leaves them unable to regulate CD4 T follicular helper cells. As IL-15 is required for Ly-49 CD8 Treg development, we determined that NOD macrophages inadequately -present IL-15. Despite reduced IL-15 -presentation, NOD Ly-49 CD8 Tregs can effectively transduce IL-15-mediated survival signals when they are provided. Following stimulation with an IL-15/IL-15Ra superagonist complex, Ly-49 CD8 Tregs expanded robustly and became activated to suppress the Ag-specific Ab response. IL-15/IL-15Ra superagonist complex-activated CD8CD122 T cells also delayed diabetes transfer, indicating the presence of an underactivated CD8 T cell subset with regulatory capacity against late stage T1D. We identify a new cellular contribution to anti-islet autoimmunity and demonstrate the correction of this regulatory cell deficit. Infusion of IL-15-activated CD8 Tregs may serve as an innovative cellular therapy for the treatment of T1D.
Copyright © 2019 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
colonizes about half of humans worldwide, and its presence in the gastric mucosa is associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, gastric lymphoma, and peptic ulcer disease. strains carrying the pathogenicity island (PAI) are associated with increased risk of disease progression. The PAI encodes the Cag type IV secretion system (Cag), which delivers the CagA oncoprotein and other effector molecules into human gastric epithelial cells. We visualized structures of native and mutant Cag machines on the cell envelope by cryoelectron tomography. Individual cells contain multiple Cag nanomachines, each composed of a wheel-shaped outer membrane complex (OMC) with 14-fold symmetry and an inner membrane complex (IMC) with 6-fold symmetry. CagX, CagY, and CagM are required for assembly of the OMC, whereas strains lacking Cag3 and CagT produce outer membrane complexes lacking peripheral components. The IMC, which has never been visualized in detail, is configured as six tiers in cross-section view and three concentric rings surrounding a central channel in end-on view. The IMC contains three T4SS ATPases: (i) VirB4-like CagE, arranged as a hexamer of dimers at the channel entrance; (ii) a hexamer of VirB11-like Cagα, docked at the base of the CagE hexamer; and (iii) VirD4-like Cagβ and other unspecified Cag subunits, associated with the stacked CagE/Cagα complex and forming the outermost rings. The Cag and recently solved Dot/Icm system comprise new structural prototypes for the T4SS superfamily. Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) have been phylogenetically grouped into two subfamilies. The T4ASSs, represented by the VirB/VirD4, include "minimized" machines assembled from 12 VirB- and VirD4-like subunits and compositionally larger systems such as the Cag T4BSSs encompass systems closely related in subunit composition to the Dot/Icm Here, we present structures of native and mutant Cag machines determined by cryoelectron tomography. We identify distinct outer and inner membrane complexes and, for the first time, visualize structural contributions of all three "signature" ATPases of T4SSs at the cytoplasmic entrance of the translocation channel. Despite their evolutionary divergence, the Cag aligns structurally much more closely to the Dot/Icm than an available VirB/VirD4 subcomplex. Our findings highlight the diversity of T4SSs and suggest a structural classification scheme in which T4SSs are grouped as minimized VirB/VirD4-like or larger Cag-like and Dot/Icm-like systems.
Copyright © 2019 Hu et al.
Carbamazepine (CBZ) causes life-threating T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, including serious cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) and drug-induced liver injury (CBZ-DILI). In order to evaluate shared or phenotype-specific genetic predisposing factors for CBZ hypersensitivity reactions, we performed a meta-analysis of two genomewide association studies (GWAS) on a total of 43 well-phenotyped Northern and Southern European CBZ-SCAR cases and 10,701 population controls and a GWAS on 12 CBZ-DILI cases and 8,438 ethnically matched population controls. HLA-A*31:01 was identified as the strongest genetic predisposing factor for both CBZ-SCAR (odds ratio (OR) = 8.0; 95% CI 4.10-15.80; P = 1.2 × 10 ) and CBZ-DILI (OR = 7.3; 95% CI 2.47-23.67; P = 0.0004) in European populations. The association with HLA-A*31:01 in patients with SCAR was mainly driven by hypersensitivity syndrome (OR = 12.9; P = 2.1 × 10 ) rather than by Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis cases, which showed an association with HLA-B*57:01. We also identified a novel risk locus mapping to ALK only for CBZ-SCAR cases, which needs replication in additional cohorts and functional evaluation.
© 2019 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - Circulating levels of oxidized lipoprotein (oxLDL) correlate with myocardial infarction risk and atherosclerosis severity. Our previous study demonstrates that oxLDL immune complexes (oxLDL-ICs) can signal through FcγRs on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and enhance their activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. While global FcγR studies have shown that activating FcγRs are proatherogenic, the role of the inhibitory FcγRIIb is unclear. We sought to determine the role of DC-specific FcγRIIb in atherosclerosis.
METHODS - Bone marrow chimeras were generated by rescuing lethally irradiated Ldlr mice with hematopoietic cells from littermate CD11c-Cre or CD11c-CreFcgr2b donors. Four weeks following transplant, recipients were placed on a Western diet for eight weeks. Various tissues and organs were analyzed for differences in inflammation.
RESULTS - Quantitation of atherosclerosis in the proximal aorta demonstrated a 58% increase in female CD11c-CreFcgr2b recipients, but a surprising 44% decrease in male recipients. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in female CD11c-CreFcgr2b recipients. This was associated with an increase in CD36 and MHC Class II expression on hepatic CD11cCD11b DCs in female livers. In contrast, male CD11c-CreFcgr2b recipients had decreased hepatic lipids with a corresponding decrease in CD36 and MHC Class II expression on CD11c cells. Interestingly, both sexes of CD11c-CreFcgr2b recipients had significant decreases in serum cholesterol and TGs with corresponding decreases in liver Fasn transcripts.
CONCLUSIONS - The absence of FcγRIIb expression on CD11c cells results in sex-dependent alteration in liver inflammation influencing atherogenesis and sex-independent modulation of serum cholesterol and TGs.
Published by Elsevier B.V.
BACKGROUND - Vancomycin is a prevalent cause of the severe hypersensitivity syndrome drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), which leads to significant morbidity and mortality and commonly occurs in the setting of combination antibiotic therapy, affecting future treatment choices. Variations in HLA class I in particular have been associated with serious T cell-mediated adverse drug reactions, which has led to preventive screening strategies for some drugs.
OBJECTIVE - We sought to determine whether variation in the HLA region is associated with vancomycin-induced DRESS.
METHODS - Probable vancomycin-induced DRESS cases were matched 1:2 with tolerant control subjects based on sex, race, and age by using BioVU, Vanderbilt's deidentified electronic health record database. Associations between DRESS and carriage of HLA class I and II alleles were assessed by means of conditional logistic regression. An extended sample set from BioVU was used to conduct a time-to-event analysis of those exposed to vancomycin with and without the identified HLA risk allele.
RESULTS - Twenty-three subjects met the inclusion criteria for vancomycin-associated DRESS. Nineteen (82.6%) of 23 cases carried HLA-A*32:01 compared with 0 (0%) of 46 of the matched vancomycin-tolerant control subjects (P = 1 × 10) and 6.3% of the BioVU population (n = 54,249, P = 2 × 10). Time-to-event analysis of DRESS development during vancomycin treatment among the HLA-A*32:01-positive group indicated that 19.2% had DRESS and did so within 4 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS - HLA-A*32:01 is strongly associated with vancomycin-induced DRESS in a population of predominantly European ancestry. HLA-A*32:01 testing could improve antibiotic safety, help implicate vancomycin as the causal drug, and preserve future treatment options with coadministered antibiotics.
Copyright © 2019 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.