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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is incurable with conventional therapies and has a clinical course typified by multiple relapses after therapy. These tumors are genetically characterized by B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) translocation and mutation of genes involved in chromatin modification. By analyzing purified tumor cells, we identified additional novel recurrently mutated genes and confirmed mutations of one or more chromatin modifier genes within 96% of FL tumors and two or more in 76% of tumors. We defined the hierarchy of somatic mutations arising during tumor evolution by analyzing the phylogenetic relationship of somatic mutations across the coding genomes of 59 sequentially acquired biopsies from 22 patients. Among all somatically mutated genes, CREBBP mutations were most significantly enriched within the earliest inferable progenitor. These mutations were associated with a signature of decreased antigen presentation characterized by reduced transcript and protein abundance of MHC class II on tumor B cells, in line with the role of CREBBP in promoting class II transactivator (CIITA)-dependent transcriptional activation of these genes. CREBBP mutant B cells stimulated less proliferation of T cells in vitro compared with wild-type B cells from the same tumor. Transcriptional signatures of tumor-infiltrating T cells were indicative of reduced proliferation, and this corresponded to decreased frequencies of tumor-infiltrating CD4 helper T cells and CD8 memory cytotoxic T cells. These observations therefore implicate CREBBP mutation as an early event in FL evolution that contributes to immune evasion via decreased antigen presentation.
UNLABELLED - Type I IFN signaling, which is initiated through activation of the alpha interferon receptor (IFNAR), regulates the expression of proteins that are crucial contributors to immune responses. Paramyxoviruses, including human metapneumovirus (HMPV), have evolved mechanisms to inhibit IFNAR signaling, but the specific contribution of IFNAR signaling to the control of HMPV replication, pathogenesis, and adaptive immunity is unknown. We used IFNAR-deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice to assess the effect of IFNAR signaling on HMPV replication and the CD8(+) T cell response. HMPV-infected IFNAR(-/-) mice had a higher peak of early viral replication but cleared the virus with kinetics similar to those of wild-type (WT) mice. However, IFNAR(-/-) mice infected with HMPV displayed less airway dysfunction and lung inflammation. CD8(+) T cells of IFNAR(-/-) mice after HMPV infection expressed levels of the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) similar to those of WT mice. However, despite lower expression of inhibitory programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), HMPV-specific CD8(+) T cells of IFNAR(-/-) mice were more functionally impaired than those of WT mice and upregulated the inhibitory receptor Tim-3. Analysis of the antigen-presenting cell subsets in the lungs revealed that the expansion of PD-L1(low) dendritic cells (DCs), but not PD-L1(high) alveolar macrophages, was dependent on IFNAR signaling. Collectively, our results indicate a role for IFNAR signaling in the early control of HMPV replication, disease progression, and the development of an optimal adaptive immune response. Moreover, our findings suggest an IFNAR-independent mechanism of lung CD8(+) T cell impairment.
IMPORTANCE - Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory illness. CD8(+) T cells are critical for clearing viral infection, yet recent evidence shows that HMPV and other respiratory viruses induce CD8(+) T cell impairment via PD-1-PD-L1 signaling. We sought to understand the role of type I interferon (IFN) in the innate and adaptive immune responses to HMPV by using a mouse model lacking IFN signaling. Although HMPV titers were higher in the absence of type I IFN, virus was nonetheless cleared and mice were less ill, indicating that type I IFN is not required to resolve HMPV infection but contributes to pathogenesis. Further, despite lower levels of the inhibitory ligand PD-L1 in mice lacking type I IFN, CD8(+) T cells were more impaired in these mice than in WT mice. Our data suggest that specific antigen-presenting cell subsets and the inhibitory receptor Tim-3 may contribute to CD8(+) T cell impairment.
Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Oxidative damage and inflammation are both implicated in the genesis of hypertension; however, the mechanisms by which these stimuli promote hypertension are not fully understood. Here, we have described a pathway in which hypertensive stimuli promote dendritic cell (DC) activation of T cells, ultimately leading to hypertension. Using multiple murine models of hypertension, we determined that proteins oxidatively modified by highly reactive γ-ketoaldehydes (isoketals) are formed in hypertension and accumulate in DCs. Isoketal accumulation was associated with DC production of IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-23 and an increase in costimulatory proteins CD80 and CD86. These activated DCs promoted T cell, particularly CD8+ T cell, proliferation; production of IFN-γ and IL-17A; and hypertension. Moreover, isoketal scavengers prevented these hypertension-associated events. Plasma F2-isoprostanes, which are formed in concert with isoketals, were found to be elevated in humans with treated hypertension and were markedly elevated in patients with resistant hypertension. Isoketal-modified proteins were also markedly elevated in circulating monocytes and DCs from humans with hypertension. Our data reveal that hypertension activates DCs, in large part by promoting the formation of isoketals, and suggest that reducing isoketals has potential as a treatment strategy for this disease.
We report herein application of an in situ material strategy to attenuate allograft T cell responses in a skin transplant mouse model. Functionalized peptidic membranes were used to impede trafficking of donor antigen-presenting cells (dAPCs) from skin allografts in recipient mice. Membranes formed by self-assembling peptides (SAPs) presenting antibodies were found to remain underneath grafted skins for up to 6 days. At the host-graft interface, dAPCs were targeted by using a monoclonal antibody that binds to a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule (I-A(d)) expressed exclusively by donor cells. Using a novel cell labeling near-infrared nanoemulsion, we found more dAPCs remained in allografts treated with membranes loaded with anti-I-A(d) antibodies than without. In vitro, dAPCs released from skin explants were found adsorbed preferentially on anti-I-A(d) antibody-loaded membranes. Recipient T cells from these mice produced lower concentrations of interferon-gamma cultured ex vivo with donor cells. Taken together, the data indicate that the strategy has the potential to alter the natural course of rejection immune mechanisms in allogeneic transplant models.
Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
To mount an immune response, T lymphocytes must successfully search for foreign material bound to the surface of antigen-presenting cells. How T cells optimize their chances of encountering and responding to these antigens is unknown. T cell motility in tissues resembles a random or Levy walk and is regulated in part by external factors including chemokines and lymph-node topology, but motility parameters such as speed and propensity to turn may also be cell intrinsic. Here we found that the unconventional myosin 1g (Myo1g) motor generates membrane tension, enforces cell-intrinsic meandering search, and enhances T-DC interactions during lymph-node surveillance. Increased turning and meandering motility, as opposed to ballistic motility, is enhanced by Myo1g. Myo1g acts as a "turning motor" and generates a form of cellular "flânerie." Modeling and antigen challenges show that these intrinsically programmed elements of motility search are critical for the detection of rare cognate antigen-presenting cells.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Autoreactive B lymphocytes that are not culled by central tolerance in the bone marrow frequently enter the peripheral repertoire in a state of functional impairment, termed anergy. These cells are recognized as a liability for autoimmunity, but their contribution to disease is not well understood. Insulin-specific 125Tg B cells support T cell-mediated type 1 diabetes in NOD mice, despite being anergic to B cell mitogens and T cell-dependent immunization. Using this model, the potential of anergic, autoreactive B cells to present Ag and activate T cells was investigated. The data show that 1) insulin is captured and rapidly internalized by 125Tg BCRs, 2) these Ag-exposed B cells are competent to activate both experienced and naive CD4(+) T cells, 3) anergic 125Tg B cells are more efficient than naive B cells at activating T cells when Ag is limiting, and 4) 125Tg B cells are competent to generate low-affinity insulin B chain epitopes necessary for activation of diabetogenic anti-insulin BDC12-4.1 T cells, indicating the pathological relevance of anergic B cells in type 1 diabetes. Thus, phenotypically tolerant B cells that are retained in the repertoire may promote autoimmunity by driving activation and expansion of autoaggressive T cells via Ag presentation.
It is generally assumed that the MHC class I antigen (Ag)-processing (CAP) machinery - which supplies peptides for presentation by class I molecules - plays no role in class II-restricted presentation of cytoplasmic Ags. In striking contrast to this assumption, we previously reported that proteasome inhibition, TAP deficiency or ERAAP deficiency led to dramatically altered T helper (Th)-cell responses to allograft (HY) and microbial (Listeria monocytogenes) Ags. Herein, we tested whether altered Ag processing and presentation, altered CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, or both underlay the above finding. We found that TAP deficiency and ERAAP deficiency dramatically altered the quality of class II-associated self peptides suggesting that the CAP machinery impacts class II-restricted Ag processing and presentation. Consistent with altered self peptidomes, the CD4(+) T-cell receptor repertoire of mice deficient in the CAP machinery substantially differed from that of WT animals resulting in altered CD4(+) T-cell Ag recognition patterns. These data suggest that TAP and ERAAP sculpt the class II-restricted peptidome, impacting the CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, and ultimately altering Th-cell responses. Together with our previous findings, these data suggest multiple CAP machinery components sequester or degrade MHC class II-restricted epitopes that would otherwise be capable of eliciting functional Th-cell responses.
© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
BACKGROUND - Atherosclerosis is widely accepted as an inflammatory disease involving both innate and adaptive immunity. B cells and/or antibodies have previously been shown to play a protective role against atherosclerosis. Aside from their ability to bind to antigens, antibodies can influence inflammatory responses by interacting with various Fcγ receptors on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Although studies in mice have determined that stimulatory Fcγ receptors contribute to atherosclerosis, the role of the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIb (FcγRIIb) has only recently been investigated.
METHODS AND RESULTS - To determine the importance of FcγRIIb in modulating the adaptive immune response to hyperlipidemia, we generated FcγRIIb-deficient mice on the apoE-deficient background (apoE/FcγRIIb(-/-)). We report that male apoE/FcγRIIb(-/-) mice develop exacerbated atherosclerosis that is independent of lipid levels, and is characterized by increased antibody titers to modified LDL and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the aorta.
CONCLUSIONS - These findings suggest that antibodies against atherosclerosis-associated antigens partially protect against atherosclerosis in male apoE(-/-) mice by conveying inhibitory signals through the FcγRIIb that downregulate pro-inflammatory signaling via other immune receptors. These data are the first to describe a significant in vivo effect for FcγRIIb in modulating the cytokine response in the aorta in male apoE(-/-) mice.
Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Sipuleucel-T, an autologous active cellular immunotherapy, has shown evidence of efficacy in reducing the risk of death among men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
METHODS - In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 512 patients in a 2:1 ratio to receive either sipuleucel-T (341 patients) or placebo (171 patients) administered intravenously every 2 weeks, for a total of three infusions. The primary end point was overall survival, analyzed by means of a stratified Cox regression model adjusted for baseline levels of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and lactate dehydrogenase.
RESULTS - In the sipuleucel-T group, there was a relative reduction of 22% in the risk of death as compared with the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61 to 0.98; P=0.03). This reduction represented a 4.1-month improvement in median survival (25.8 months in the sipuleucel-T group vs. 21.7 months in the placebo group). The 36-month survival probability was 31.7% in the sipuleucel-T group versus 23.0% in the placebo group. The treatment effect was also observed with the use of an unadjusted Cox model and a log-rank test (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.97; P=0.02) and after adjustment for use of docetaxel after the study therapy (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98; P=0.03). The time to objective disease progression was similar in the two study groups. Immune responses to the immunizing antigen were observed in patients who received sipuleucel-T. Adverse events that were more frequently reported in the sipuleucel-T group than in the placebo group included chills, fever, and headache.
CONCLUSIONS - The use of sipuleucel-T prolonged overall survival among men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. No effect on the time to disease progression was observed. (Funded by Dendreon; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00065442.)
OBJECTIVE - In this study, we investigated whether dyslipidemia-associated perturbed invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell function is due to intrinsic changes in iNKT cells or defects in the ability of antigen-presenting cells to activate iNKT cells.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We compared iNKT cell expansion and cytokine production in C57BL/6J (B6) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. In response to in vivo stimulation with alpha-galactosylceramide, a prototypic iNKT cell glycolipid antigen, apoE(-/-) mice showed significantly decreased splenic iNKT cell expansion at 3 days after injection, a profile associated with iNKT cell anergy due to chronic stimulation. This decrease in expansion and cytokine production was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in percentage of iNKT cells expressing the inhibitory marker programmed death-1 in apoE(-/-) mice compared with controls. However, in vivo and in vitro blockade of programmed death-1 using monoclonal antibody was not able to restore functions of iNKT cells from apoE(-/-) mice to B6 levels. iNKT cells from apoE(-/-) mice also had increased intracellular T cell receptor and Ly49 expression, a phenotype associated with previous activation. Changes in iNKT cell functions were cell autonomous, because dendritic cells from apoE(-/-) mice were able to activate B6 iNKT cells, but iNKT cells from apoE(-/-) mice were not able to respond to B6 dendritic cells.
CONCLUSIONS - These data suggest that chronic dyslipidemia induces an iNKT cell phenotype that is unresponsive to further simulation by exogenous glycolipid and that sustained unresponsiveness is iNKT cell intrinsic.