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Patients with active cancer are at an increased risk of arterial and venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding events. Historically, in patients with cancer, low molecular weight heparins have been preferred for treatment of VTE, whereas warfarin has been the standard anticoagulant for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). More recently, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism in large randomized clinical trials of patients with VTE and AF, respectively, thus providing an attractive oral dosing option that does not require routine laboratory monitoring. In this review, we summarize available clinical trial data and guideline recommendations, and outline a practical approach to anticoagulation management of VTE and AF in cancer.
Copyright © 2019 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The leading cause of synthetic graft failure includes thrombotic occlusion and intimal hyperplasia at the site of vascular anastomosis. Herein, we report a co-immobilization strategy of heparin and potent anti-neointimal drug (Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase II inhibitory peptide; MK2i) by using a tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidative reaction for preventing thrombotic occlusion and neointimal formation of synthetic vascular grafts. The binding of heparin-tyramine polymer (HT) onto the polycarprolactone (PCL) surface enhanced blood compatibility with significantly reduced protein absorption (64.7% decrease) and platelet adhesion (85.6% decrease) compared to bare PCL surface. When loading MK2i, 1) the HT depot surface gained high MK2i-loading efficiency through charge-charge interaction, and 2) this depot platform enabled long-term, controlled release over 4weeks (92-272μg/mL of MK2i). The released MK2i showed significant inhibitory effects on VSMC migration through down-regulated phosphorylation of target proteins (HSP27 and CREB) associated with intimal hyperplasia. In addition, it was found that the released MK2i infiltrated into the tissue with a cumulative manner in ex vivo human saphenous vein (HSV) model. This present study demonstrates that enzymatically HT-coated surface modification is an effective strategy to induce long-term MK2i release as well as hemocompatibility, thereby improving anti-neointimal activity of synthetic vascular grafts.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an unpredictable, life-threatening, immune-mediated reaction to heparin. Variation in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes is now used to prevent immune-mediated adverse drug reactions. Combinations of HLA alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are associated with multiple autoimmune diseases and infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of HLA alleles and KIR types, alone or in the presence of different HLA ligands, with HIT. HIT cases and heparin-exposed controls were identified in BioVU, an electronic health record coupled to a DNA biobank. HLA sequencing and KIR type imputation using Illumina OMNI-Quad data were performed. Odds ratios for HLA alleles and KIR types and HLA*KIR interactions using conditional logistic regressions were determined in the overall population and by race/ethnicity. Analysis was restricted to KIR types and HLA alleles with a frequency greater than 0.01. The p values for HLA and KIR association were corrected by using a false discovery rate q<0.05 and HLA*KIR interactions were considered significant at p<0.05. Sixty-five HIT cases and 350 matched controls were identified. No statistical differences in baseline characteristics were observed between cases and controls. The HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele was significantly associated with HIT in the overall population (odds ratio 2.81 [1.57-5.02], p=2.1×10 , q=0.02) and in individuals with European ancestry, independent of other alleles. No KIR types were associated with HIT, although a significant interaction was observed between KIR2DS5 and the HLA-C1 KIR binding group (p=0.03). The HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele was identified as a potential risk factor for HIT. This class II HLA gene and allele represent biologically plausible candidates for influencing HIT pathogenesis. We found limited evidence of the role of KIR types in HIT pathogenesis. Replication and further study of the HLA-DRB3*01:01 association is necessary.
© 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
The manuscript "Anticoagulation Endpoints With Clinical Implementation of Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Dosing in a Real- World Setting: A Proposal for a New Pharmacogenetic Dosing Approach" describes process outcomes in an institutional program to use pharmacogenetic testing to optimize warfarin dose in a cohort of 257 patients of diverse ancestries. The strengths and weaknesses of the approach and program are discussed, along with the current and potential future status of warfarin as a model for pharmacogenetic testing.
© 2016 ASCPT.
The blood thinner warfarin has a narrow therapeutic range and high inter- and intra-patient variability in therapeutic doses. Several studies have shown that pharmacogenomic variants help predict stable warfarin dosing. However, retrospective and randomized controlled trials that employ dosing algorithms incorporating pharmacogenomic variants under perform in African Americans. This study sought to determine if: 1) including additional variants associated with warfarin dose in African Americans, 2) predicting within single ancestry groups rather than a combined population, or 3) using percentage African ancestry rather than observed race, would improve warfarin dosing algorithms in African Americans. Using BioVU, the Vanderbilt University Medical Center biobank linked to electronic medical records, we compared 25 modeling strategies to existing algorithms using a cohort of 2,181 warfarin users (1,928 whites, 253 blacks). We found that approaches incorporating additional variants increased model accuracy, but not in clinically significant ways. Race stratification increased model fidelity for African Americans, but the improvement was small and not likely to be clinically significant. Use of percent African ancestry improved model fit in the context of race misclassification.
OBJECTIVES - Genetic factors contribute considerably toward variability in warfarin dose requirements and are important in the dose-titration phase; their effects on the stability of anticoagulation later in therapy are not known.
METHODS - Using deidentified electronic medical records linked to a DNA-biobank, we studied 140 African-Americans and 943 European-Americans after the warfarin dose-titration phase. We genotyped 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes (CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX, EPHX1, CALU) associated with altered warfarin dose requirements and tested their associations with international normalized ratio variability (INRVAR) and percent time in therapeutic range in European-Americans and African-Americans.
RESULTS - One allele copy of rs2108622 in CYP4F2 was associated with a 15% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1-26, P=0.03] decrease in the median INRVAR in European-Americans. In African-Americans, GGCX variants rs11676382 and rs699664 were associated with 4.16-fold (95% CI: 1.45-11.97, P=0.009) and 1.50-fold (95% CI: 1.07-2.08, P=0.02) changes in the median INRVAR per variant allele copy, respectively; rs11676382 was also significantly associated with a 23.19% (95% CI: 5.89-40.48, P=0.01) decrease in time in therapeutic range. The total variation in INRVAR explained by both clinical factors and rs2108622 was 5.2% for European-Americans. In African-Americans, the inclusion of GGCX variants rs11676382 and rs699664, and the CYP2C9*8 variant rs7900194 explained ∼29% of the variation in INRVAR.
CONCLUSION - The stability of anticoagulation after the warfarin dose-titration phase is differentially affected by variants in CYP4F2 in European-Americans and GGCX loci in African-Americans.
BACKGROUND - Pediatric blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) lacks accepted treatment algorithms, and postinjury outcomes are ill defined.
OBJECTIVE - To compare treatment practices among pediatric trauma centers and to describe outcomes for available treatment modalities.
METHODS - Clinical and radiographic data were collected from a patient cohort with BCVI between 2003 and 2013 at 4 academic pediatric trauma centers.
RESULTS - Among 645 pediatric patients evaluated with computed tomography angiography for BCVI, 57 vascular injuries (82% carotid artery, 18% vertebral artery) were diagnosed in 52 patients. Grade I (58%) and II (23%) injuries accounted for most lesions. Severe intracranial or intra-abdominal hemorrhage precluded antithrombotic therapy in 10 patients. Among the remaining patients, primary therapy was an antiplatelet agent in 14 (33%), anticoagulation in 8 (19%), endovascular intervention in 3 (7%), open surgery in 1 (2%), and no treatment in 16 (38%). Among 27 eligible grade I injuries, 16 (59%) were not treated, and the choice to not treat varied significantly among centers (P < .001). There were no complications from medical management. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score <8 and increasing injury grade were predictors of injury progression (P = .001 and .004, respectively). Poor GCS score (P = .02), increasing injury grade (P = .03), and concomitant intracranial injury (P = .02) correlated with increased risk of mortality. Treatment modality did not correlate with progression of vascular injury or mortality.
CONCLUSION - Treatment of BCVI with antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy is safe and may confer modest benefit. Nonmodifiable factors, including presenting GCS score, vascular injury grade, and additional intracranial injury, remain the most important predictors of poor outcome.
ABBREVIATIONS - ATT, antithrombotic therapyBCVI, blunt cerebrovascular injuryCTA, computed tomography angiographyGCS, Glasgow Coma Scale.
Chronic, unresolved thromboemboli are an important cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with specific treatment strategies differing from other types of PH. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is classified as group 4 PH by the World Health Organization. It is a rare, but underdiagnosed, complication of acute pulmonary embolism that does not resolve and results in occlusion of large pulmonary arteries with a fibro-thrombotic material. The etiology of CTEPH remains uncertain, and it is unknown why certain patients with acute pulmonary embolism develop this disorder. The evaluation for CTEPH is an important part of the evaluation for PH in general, and it is crucial not to overlook this diagnosis, as it is the only form of PH that is potentially curable. Patients diagnosed with CTEPH should be referred to an expert center for consideration of pulmonary endarterectomy, and surgical removal of the chronic thromboembolic material. Not all patients with CTEPH are surgical candidates, however, and there are emerging treatments-medical therapy and balloon pulmonary angioplasty-that have shown benefit in this patient population. Without treatment, CTEPH can lead to progressive pulmonary vascular obstruction, right heart failure, and death. Thus, it is important for clinicians to recognize this subtype of PH. In this review, we provide an overview of current understanding of the pathogenesis of CTEPH and highlight recommendations and recent advances in the evaluation and treatment of CTEPH.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Traditional methods of intraoperative human saphenous vein preparation for use as bypass grafts can be deleterious to the conduit. The purpose of this study was to characterize acute graft preparation injury, and to mitigate this harm via an improved preparation technique. Porcine saphenous veins were surgically harvested (unprepared controls, UnP) and prepared using traditional (TraP) and improved preparations (ImP). The TraP used unregulated radial distension, marking with a surgical skin marker and preservation in heparinized normal saline. ImP used pressure-regulated distension, brilliant blue FCF-based pen marking and preservation in heparinized Plasma-Lyte A. Rings from each preparation were suspended in a muscle bath for characterization of physiologic responses to vasoactive agents and viscoelasticity. Cellular viability was assessed using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay for apoptosis. Contractile responses to potassium chloride (110 mM) and phenylephrine (10 µM), and endothelial-dependent and independent vasodilatory responses to carbachol (0.5 µM) and sodium nitroprusside (1 µM), respectively, were decreased in TraP tissues compared to both UnP and ImP tissues (p ⩽ 0.05). TraP tissues demonstrated diminished viscoelasticity relative to UnP and ImP tissues (p ⩽ 0.05), and reduced cellular viability relative to UnP control (p ⩽ 0.01) by the MTT assay. On the TUNEL assay, TraP tissues demonstrated a greater degree of apoptosis relative to UnP and ImP tissues (p ⩽ 0.01). In conclusion, an improved preparation technique prevents vascular graft smooth muscle and endothelial injury observed in tissues prepared using a traditional approach.
© The Author(s) 2016.
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by clinical manifestations that include thrombosis and/or fetal loss or pregnancy morbidity in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Antiphospholipid antibodies are among the most common causes of acquired thrombophilia, but unlike most of the genetic thrombophilias are associated with both venous and arterial thrombosis. Despite an abundance of clinical and basic research on aPL, a unified mechanism that explains their prothrombotic activity has not been defined; this may reflect the heterogeneity of aPL and/or the fact that they may influence multiple pro- and/or antithrombotic pathways. Antiphospholipid antibodies are directed primarily toward phospholipid binding proteins rather than phospholipid per se, with the most common antigenic target being β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2GPI) although antibodies against other targets such as prothrombin are well described. Laboratory diagnosis of aPL depends upon the detection of a lupus anticoagulant (LA), which prolongs phospholipid-dependent anticoagulation tests, and/or anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies. Indefinite anticoagulation remains the mainstay of therapy for thrombotic APS, although new strategies that may improve outcomes are emerging. Preliminary reports suggest caution in the use of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with APS-associated thrombosis. Based on somewhat limited evidence, aspirin and low molecular weight heparin are recommended for obstetrical APS. There remains a pressing need for better understanding of the pathogenesis of APS in humans, for identification of clinical and laboratory parameters that define patients at greatest risk for APS-related events, and for targeted treatment of this common yet enigmatic disorder.
© 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.