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Cardio-oncology has emerged as an exciting new field at the intersection of cardiology and oncology. While improved oncology treatment efficacy has increased survival rates in cancer patients, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of this life-saving treatment have become more clinically relevant. Both traditional and newer (targeted) cancer therapies can have cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae, resulting in heart failure, coronary artery disease, myocarditis, pericardial disease, hypertension, and vascular and metabolic perturbations (Moslehi JJ. Cardiovascular toxic effects of targeted cancer therapies. 375: 1457-1467, 2016). Both acute and chronic cardiovascular toxicities have proven challenging for clinicians and patients, significantly contributing to morbidity and mortality. Although chronic cardiovascular disease affects a growing number of cancer survivors (~17 million in the United States in 2019), cardiovascular toxicities associated with cancer and cancer therapies are poorly understood mechanistically. To balance potential damage to the cardiovascular system with effective and efficient cancer treatment, novel strategies are sorely needed. This perspective focuses on an assembly of articles that discuss novel means of counteracting adverse cardiovascular events in response to anticancer therapy. In light of new clinical syndromes in cardiology due to cancer therapies, we hope to highlight promising research opportunities offered by cardio-oncology (Bellinger AM, Arteaga CL, Force T, Humphreys BD, Demetri GD, Druker BJ, Moslehi JJ. Cardio-oncology: how new targeted cancer therapies and precision medicine can inform cardiovascular discovery. 132: 2248-2258, 2015.).
The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provide screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for common physical and psychosocial consequences of cancer and cancer treatment to help healthcare professionals who work with survivors of adult-onset cancer in the posttreatment period. This portion of the guidelines describes recommendations regarding the management of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and lymphedema. In addition, recommendations regarding immunizations and the prevention of infections in cancer survivors are included.
Copyright © 2018 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
Doxorubicin forms the basis of chemotherapy regimens for several malignancies, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we present a coupled experimental/modeling approach to establish an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to describe how the concentration and duration of doxorubicin therapy shape subsequent cell population dynamics. This work features a series of longitudinal fluorescence microscopy experiments that characterize (1) doxorubicin uptake dynamics in a panel of TNBC cell lines, and (2) cell population response to doxorubicin over 30 days. We propose a treatment response model, fully parameterized with experimental imaging data, to describe doxorubicin uptake and predict subsequent population dynamics. We found that a three compartment model can describe doxorubicin pharmacokinetics, and pharmacokinetic parameters vary significantly among the cell lines investigated. The proposed model effectively captures population dynamics and translates well to a predictive framework. In a representative cell line (SUM-149PT) treated for 12 hours with doxorubicin, the mean percent errors of the best-fit and predicted models were 14% (±10%) and 16% (±12%), which are notable considering these statistics represent errors over 30 days following treatment. More generally, this work provides both a template for studies quantitatively investigating treatment response and a scalable approach toward predictions of tumor response in vivo.
For finding better method of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) induction, we designed a prospective clinical trial to find a more effective regimen with least toxicity for induction therapy of AML. Hence, we examined different accepted doses of daunorubicin and their outcomes. Total of 114 patients were included in the study. Fifty-five patients received 60 mg/m of daunorubicin (arm 1) 1 h IV infusion for 3 days, and the remaining 59 received 80 mg/m (arm 2) 1 h IV infusion for 3 days. Continuous infusion of 100 mg/m /day of cytosine arabinozide IV for 24 h for 7 days was given in both groups. Complete remission rate was 77.78% in group 1 and 76.92% in group 2 (p = 0.92). One-year overall survival was 55.85% [standard error (SE) = 8.05%] in arm 1 and 57.94% (SE = 7.32%) in arm 2. Median follow-up time was 11.1 (SE = 1.43) and 10.28 (SE = 1.29) months, respectively. One-year disease-free survival was 64.41% (SE = 7.39%) in arm 1 and 54.86% (SE = 7.53%) in arm 2. Complete remission, overall survival and disease-free survival were statistically the same in both groups (p = 0.92, 0.697, 0.31). Toxicity and safety profile were similar in two groups but need to transfusion was higher in arm 2. Febrile neutropenia, days of antibiotics consumption and invasive fungal infection prevalence did not show any difference. Mean transfused packed cells and platelets rate were higher in the group that received higher dose of daunorubicin. Considering these results, we found that 60 mg/m of daunorubicin would be more rational and as effective with lower toxicity to 80 mg/m in induction therapy of AML patients at least as scheduled in our trial. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease characterized by the development of subpleural foci of myofibroblasts that contribute to the exuberant fibrosis. Recent studies revealed that pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and play a pivotal role in IPF. In animal model, bleomycin induces pulmonary fibrosis exhibiting subpleural fibrosis similar to what is seen in human IPF. It is not known yet whether bleomycin induces EMT in PMCs. In the present study, PMCs were cultured and treated with bleomycin. The protein levels of collagen-I, mesenchymal phenotypic markers (vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin), and epithelial phenotypic markers (cytokeratin-8 and E-cadherin) were measured by Western blot. PMC migration was evaluated using wound-healing assay of culture PMCs in vitro, and in vivo by monitoring the localization of PMC marker, calretinin, in the lung sections of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The results showed that bleomycin induced increases in collagen-I synthesis in PMC. Bleomycin induced significant increases in mesenchymal phenotypic markers and decreases in epithelial phenotypic markers in PMC, and promoted PMC migration in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, TGF-β1-Smad2/3 signaling pathway involved in the EMT of PMC was demonstrated. Taken together, our results indicate that bleomycin induces characteristic changes of EMT in PMC and the latter contributes to subpleural fibrosis.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pancreatic islet endocrine cell and endothelial cell (EC) interactions mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) signaling are important for islet differentiation and the formation of highly vascularized islets. To dissect how VEGF-A signaling modulates intra-islet vasculature, islet microenvironment, and β cell mass, we transiently increased VEGF-A production by β cells. VEGF-A induction dramatically increased the number of intra-islet ECs but led to β cell loss. After withdrawal of the VEGF-A stimulus, β cell mass, function, and islet structure normalized as a result of a robust, but transient, burst in proliferation of pre-existing β cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (MΦs) recruited to the site of β cell injury were crucial for the β cell proliferation, which was independent of pancreatic location and circulating factors such as glucose. Identification of the signals responsible for the proliferation of adult, terminally differentiated β cells will improve strategies aimed at β cell regeneration and expansion.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES - After inducing McA tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats (McA-SD), the following hypotheses were tested: first, that hypervascular McA tumors grown in Sprague-Dawley rats provide a suitable platform to investigate drug delivery; and second, that high-field MRI can be used to measure intratumoral uptake of DOX-SPIOs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - McA cells were implanted into the livers of 18 Sprague-Dawley rats. In successfully inoculated animals, 220-μL DOX-SPIOs were delivered to tumors via the intravenous or intra-arterial route. Pretreatment and posttreatment T2*-weighted images were obtained using 7-T MRI, and change in R2* value (ΔR2*) was obtained from mean signal intensities of tumors in these images. Tumor iron concentration ([Fe]), an indicator of DOX-SPIO uptake, was measured using mass spectroscopy. The primary outcome variable was the Pearson correlation between ΔR2* and [Fe].
RESULTS - Tumors grew successfully in 13 of the 18 animals (72%). Mean (SD) maximum tumor diameter was 0.83 (0.25) cm. The results of phantom studies revealed a strong positive correlation between ΔR2* and [Fe], with r = 0.98 (P < 0.01). The results of in vivo drug uptake studies demonstrated a positive correlation between ΔR2* and [Fe], with r = 0.72 (P = 0.0004).
CONCLUSIONS - The McA tumors grown in the Sprague-Dawley rats demonstrated uptake of nanoparticle-based therapeutic agents. Magnetic resonance imaging quantification of intratumoral uptake strongly correlated with iron concentrations in pathological specimens, suggesting that MRI may be used to quantify uptake of iron-oxide nanotherapeutics.
7-Ketocholesterol (7-KC) is found at an elevated level in patients with cancer and chronic liver disease. The up-regulation of an efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) leads to drug resistance. To elucidate the effect of 7-KC on P-gp, P-gp function and expression were investigated in hepatoma cell lines Huh-7 and HepG2 and in primary hepatocyte-derived HuS-E/2 cells. At a subtoxic concentration, 48-h exposure to 7-KC reduced the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of P-gp substrate doxorubicin in hepatoma cells, but not in HuS-E/2 cells. In Huh-7 cells, 7-KC elevated efflux function through the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. 7-KC activated the downstream protein synthesis initiation factor 4E-BP1 and induced P-gp expression post-transcriptionally. The stimulation of efflux was reversible and could not be prevented by N-acetyl cysteine. Total cellular ATP content remained the same, whereas the lactate production was increased and fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound NADH was shortened. These changes suggested a metabolic shift to glycolysis, but glycolytic inhibitors did not eliminate 7-KC-mediated P-gp induction. These results demonstrate that 7-KC induces P-gp through PI3K/mTOR signaling and decreased the cell-killing efficacy of doxorubicin in hepatoma cells.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - Perioperative intravesical chemotherapy following transurethral resection of bladder tumor has been underused despite level 1 evidence supporting its performance. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the economic and humanistic consequences associated with preventable recurrences in patients initially diagnosed with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Using population based estimates of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer incidence, a 2-year model was developed to estimate the number of preventable recurrences in eligible patients untreated with perioperative intravesical chemotherapy. Therapy utilization rates were obtained from a retrospective database analysis and a chart review study of 1,010 patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Recurrence rates of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer were obtained from a randomized clinical trial comparing transurethral resection of bladder tumor with or without perioperative mitomycin C. Costs were estimated using prevailing Medicare reimbursement rates. Quality adjusted life-year estimates and disutilities for complications were obtained from the literature.
RESULTS - The model estimated that 7,827 bladder recurrences could be avoided if all patients received immediate intravesical chemotherapy. It estimated an economic savings of $3,847 per avoidable recurrence, resulting in an aggregate savings of $30.1 million. The model also estimated that 1,025 quality adjusted life-years are lost every 2 years due to preventable recurrences, resulting in 0.13 quality adjusted life-years (48 quality adjusted days) lost per avoidable recurrence. This translates into 0.02 quality adjusted life-years (8.1 quality adjusted days) lost per patient not receiving immediate intravesical chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS - Greater use of immediate intravesical chemotherapy in the United States has the potential to substantially decrease the economic and humanistic burdens of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.
Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Overall survival (OS) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poor. Determining prognostic factors will help in selecting patients for appropriate treatments. Our aim was to determine whether the level of drug-induced apoptosis (chemosensitivity) demonstrated by the microculture-kinetic drug-induced apoptosis (MiCK) assay significantly predicted outcomes after standard AML induction therapy. A total of 109 patients with untreated AML had blood and/or bone marrow aspirate samples analyzed for anthracycline-induced apoptosis using the MiCK assay. The amount of apoptosis observed over 48 h was determined and expressed as kinetic units of apoptosis (KU). Complete remission (CR) was significantly higher (72%) in patients with high idarubicin-induced apoptosis >3 KU compared to patients with apoptosis ≤ 3 KU (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed the only significant variables to be idarubicin-induced apoptosis and karyotype. Median overall survival of patients with idarubicin-induced apoptosis >3 KU was 16.1 months compared to 4.5 months in patients with apoptosis ≤ 3 KU (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed the only significant variable to be idarubicin-induced apoptosis. Chemotherapy-induced apoptosis measured by the MiCK assay demonstrated significant correlation with outcomes and appears predictive of complete remission and overall survival for patients receiving standard induction chemotherapy.