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Over the past 40 years, public health measures such as universal newborn screening, penicillin prophylaxis, vaccinations, and hydroxyurea therapy have led to an impressive decline in sickle cell disease (SCD)-related childhood mortality and SCD-related morbidity in high-income countries. We remain cautiously optimistic that the next 40 years will be focused on meeting current challenges in SCD by addressing chronic complications of SCD to reduce mortality and improve quality of life in a growing population of adults with SCD in high-income countries, while simultaneously decreasing the disparity of medical care between high and low-income countries.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PURPOSE - Observation off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis is an option for vesicoureteral reflux. We evaluated the characteristics of patients observed off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis and risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - We identified children 1 to 18 years old with primary vesicoureteral reflux between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010. We excluded patients with prior surgical correction from analysis. We recorded age, gender, race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance carrier, age at vesicoureteral reflux diagnosis, initial presentation and vesicoureteral reflux severity. We quantified bladder and bowel dysfunction with a validated questionnaire if toilet trained. We compared patients off vs on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis with the chi-square test for categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. We used a univariate Cox proportional hazards model to assess predictors of febrile urinary tract infection during observation off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis.
RESULTS - Of 529 eligible patients 224 were observed off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Patients off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis tended to be older (p <0.001), to be older at diagnosis (p <0.001), to have an initial presentation other than febrile urinary tract infection (p = 0.05), to have nondilating vesicoureteral reflux on most recent cystogram (p <0.001) and to have lower bladder/bowel dysfunction scores if toilet trained (p <0.001). Of the patients off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis a febrile urinary tract infection developed in 19 (8.5%). Risk factors associated with febrile urinary tract infection included initial presentation of multiple febrile urinary tract infections (p = 0.03), older age at diagnosis (p = 0.03) and older age starting observation off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (p = 0.0003).
CONCLUSIONS - Criteria to select patients with vesicoureteral reflux for observation off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis remain poorly defined in the literature. Observation will fail in a subset of patients with vesicoureteral reflux. Physician biases regarding patient selection for observation off continuous antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered when interpreting studies that evaluate treatment strategies.
Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - Abscess formation is a common serious adverse event after intraarterial therapy for hepatic malignancy in patients with colonized bile ducts. The combination of antibiotic prophylaxis and bowel preparation has been used to prevent hepatic abscess. We describe our outcomes with moxifloxacin prophylaxis alone without bowel preparation.
CONCLUSION - Ten patients underwent 25 procedures and were followed for a median of 250 days. No abscesses developed. Our results suggest moxifloxacin alone may suffice for prophylaxis.
OBJECTIVE - To estimate compliance with the 2002 revised perinatal group B streptococci (GBS) prevention guidelines in Tennessee, which recommend universal GBS screening of pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation and, when indicated, administration of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis.
METHODS - Active Bacterial Core surveillance conducts active, population-based surveillance for invasive GBS disease in 11 Tennessee counties. A retrospective case-cohort study was conducted using a stratified random sample of all live births in surveillance hospitals during 2003-2004, including all early-onset GBS cases. Factors associated with GBS screening and lack of optimal GBS chemoprophylaxis were analyzed using logistic regression.
RESULTS - Screening was performed for 84.7% of pregnant women, but 26.3% of prenatal tests with documented test dates were performed before 35 weeks of gestation. Among women with an indication for GBS prophylaxis, 61.2% received optimal chemoprophylaxis, defined as initiation of a recommended antibiotic 4 hours or more before delivery. When the analysis was restricted to women who were admitted 4 hours or more before delivery, 70.9% received optimal chemoprophylaxis. Women not receiving optimal chemoprophylaxis were more likely to have penicillin allergy (11.7% compared with 2.5%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 8.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-47.04) or preterm delivery (45.5% compared with 13.2%, adjusted OR 5.52, 95% CI 2.29-13.30) and were less likely to have received the recommended prenatal serologic testing for other infectious diseases (77.9% compared with 91.1%, adjusted OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.98). Forty cases of early-onset GBS were identified (0.36 per 1,000 live births); 25% of these neonates were born to women who received screening at 35 weeks of gestation or later and, when indicated, optimal chemoprophylaxis.
CONCLUSION - Universal prenatal GBS screening was implemented widely in Tennessee, although the timing of screening and administration of chemoprophylaxis often were not optimal. A substantial burden of early-onset GBS disease occurs despite optimal prenatal screening and chemoprophylaxis, suggesting that alternative strategies, such as vaccination, are needed.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE - II.
BACKGROUND - Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in renal transplant recipients. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) in moderate to high daily doses prevents Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP) and reduces the risk of UTI in renal transplant patients. Low-dose TMP/SMZ also reduces the risk of PCP, although its ability to reduce the risk of UTI is uncertain.
DESIGN - Retrospective review of 158 patients who received a renal transplant without corticosteroids for maintenance immunosuppression.
RESULTS - Forty percent of patients initially prescribed TMP/SMZ ultimately stopped this medication early because of an adverse reaction. Urinary infection occurred in 16% without a significant difference in the risk of UTI between those treated with dapsone vs. those treated with TMP/SMZ (HR [95%CI]: 1.7 [0.75, 3.9], p = 0.2). In the subset of patients who were older than age 47 yr (mean age for this cohort, SD ± 6.2 yr), those treated with dapsone originally or who switched from TMP/SMZ to dapsone had a greater risk of UTI compared to patients who remained on TMP/SMZ (HR [95%CI]: 4.3 [1.2, 15.5], p = 0.024).
CONCLUSIONS - For renal transplant recipients over the age of 47 yr, treated without long-term glucocorticoids, our retrospective data suggest that low-dose TMP/SMZ is associated with a lower risk of UTI compared to dapsone prophylaxis.
© 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE - Preoperative mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) for elective intestinal operations has been a long accepted practice. However, MBP is often unpleasant and time-consuming for patients, and clinical trials in adults have not shown improved outcomes. We conducted this pilot study to test whether omitting MBP before elective intestinal operations in infants and children would increase the risk of infectious or anastomotic complications.
METHODS - Retrospective review was performed of 143 patients who had an elective colon or distal small bowel procedure performed at our children's hospital between 1990 and 2003.
RESULTS - Thirty-three patients (No PREP) were managed by a single surgeon who routinely omitted MBP, whereas another 110 patients (PREP) were prepared with enemas, laxatives, or both. Both groups received 24 hours of preoperative dietary restriction to clear liquids and perioperative parenteral antibiotics. The No PREP group had one anastomotic leak and no wound infections, whereas the PREP group had 2 anastomotic leaks and 1 wound infection (P = .58). These results occurred despite greater duration of antibiotic therapy and incidence of delayed wound closures in the PREP group.
CONCLUSION - The results of this pilot study suggest that omitting MBP before elective intestinal operations in infants and children carries no increased risk of infectious or anastomotic complications. Eliminating MBP may reduce health care costs and inconvenience to patients. These findings warrant a large, prospective, randomized clinical trial to validate our findings and to investigate further the necessity of MBP in the pediatric population.
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to the presence of infection, mediated via the production of many cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF-), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1, which cause changes in the circulation and in the coagulation cascade. There is stagnation of blood flow and poor oxygenation, subclinical coagulopathy with elevated D-dimers, and increased production of superoxide from nitric oxide synthase. All of these changes favour endothelial apoptosis and necrosis as well as increased oxidant stress. Reduced levels of activated protein C, which is normally anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic, can lead to further tissue injury. Cirrhotic patients are particularly susceptible to bacterial infections because of increased bacterial translocation, possibly related to liver dysfunction and reduced reticuloendothelial function. Sepsis ensues when there is overactivation of pathways involved in the development of the sepsis syndrome, associated with complications such as renal failure, encephalopathy, gastrointestinal bleed, and shock with decreased survival. Thus the treating physician needs to be vigilant in diagnosing and treating bacterial infections in cirrhosis early, in order to prevent the development and downward spiral of the sepsis syndrome. Recent advances in management strategies of infections in cirrhosis have helped to improve the prognosis of these patients. These include the use of prophylactic antibiotics in patients with gastrointestinal bleed to prevent infection and the use of albumin in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis to reduce the incidence of renal impairment. The use of antibiotics has to be judicious, as their indiscriminate use can lead to antibiotic resistance with potentially disastrous consequences.
We used the data from a retrospective case controlled study to identify risk factors for methicillin-resistant staphylococcal wound infection after spinal surgery. Thirty-five cases and 35 uninfected control patients were matched for indication for initial surgery and approximate operative date. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative risk factors were examined. At our institution between 1989 and 1995, 35 adult patients developed spinal wound infection requiring operative debridement; 16 infections were caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS). Significant risk factors for MRS infection were lymphopenia, history of chronic infections, alcohol abuse, recent hospitalization, and prolonged postoperative wound drainage. Patients with MRS infections were also somewhat less likely to have received vancomycin prophylaxis. In contrast, the only factor associated with infection caused by other pathogens was alcohol abuse. A number of preoperative risk factors were significantly associated with subsequent MRS spinal wound infection. Chemoprophylaxis with vancomycin should be targeted to patients at increased risk, because overuse may promote the emergence of vancomycin-resistant pathogens.
We prospectively studied orthopedic patients with either large or small blood loss who also received vancomycin prophylaxis to determine the effect of intraoperative volume shifts on serum vancomycin concentrations. There were 6 index patients in the large blood loss group (greater than 2 L), and 7 in the control group (less than 2 L). Mean estimated blood loss for index and controls was 4.4 L and 1.0 L, respectively. Mean intraoperative fluid resuscitation, excluding blood products, was 12.4 L and 5.1 L, respectively. There was a modest inverse correlation between blood loss and intraoperative serum half-life of vancomycin. Although controls maintained slightly higher intraoperative vancomycin concentrations at each time-point, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups with regard to absolute concentrations or rate of decline. After 8 hours, the serum vancomycin concentration exceeded the MIC-90 for Staphylococcus aureus by approximately eightfold in all but one case patient. This was a morbidly obese patient with massive blood loss. Thus, blood loss during orthopedic procedures has minimal effects on intraoperative kinetics of vancomycin. Redosing is rarely indicated, although a preoperative 1.5 gram-dose should be considered for patients weighing more than 90 kg.