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infects every niche of the human host. In response to microbial infection, vertebrates have an arsenal of antimicrobial compounds that inhibit bacterial growth or kill bacterial cells. One class of antimicrobial compounds consists of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are highly abundant in eukaryotes and encountered by at the host-pathogen interface. Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids in vertebrates and is released in large amounts during the oxidative burst. Most of the released AA is converted to bioactive signaling molecules, but, independently of its role in inflammatory signaling, AA is toxic to Here, we report that AA kills through a lipid peroxidation mechanism whereby AA is oxidized to reactive electrophiles that modify macromolecules, eliciting toxicity. This process is rescued by cotreatment with antioxidants as well as in a strain genetically inactivated for (USA300 mutant) that produces lower levels of reactive oxygen species. However, resistance to AA stress in the USA300 mutant comes at a cost, making the mutant more susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics and attenuated for pathogenesis in a murine infection model compared to the parental methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strain, indicating that resistance to AA toxicity increases susceptibility to other stressors encountered during infection. This report defines the mechanism by which AA is toxic to and identifies lipid peroxidation as a pathway that can be modulated for the development of future therapeutics to treat infections. Despite the ability of the human immune system to generate a plethora of molecules to control infections, is among the pathogens with the greatest impact on human health. One class of host molecules toxic to consists of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we investigated the antibacterial properties of arachidonic acid, one of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans, and discovered that the mechanism of toxicity against proceeds through lipid peroxidation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which the immune system kills , and by which avoids host killing, will enable the optimal design of therapeutics that complement the ability of the vertebrate immune response to eliminate infections.
Copyright © 2019 Beavers et al.
Adverse alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of obesity and a variety of chronic diseases. Re-engineering the gut microbiota to produce beneficial metabolites is a potential strategy for treating these chronic diseases. N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are a family of bioactive lipids with known anti-obesity properties. Previous studies showed that administration of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) engineered with Arabidopsis thaliana NAPE synthase to produce NAPEs imparted resistance to obesity induced by a high-fat diet that persisted after ending their administration. In prior studies, mice were pre-treated with ampicillin prior to administering engineered EcN for 8 weeks in drinking water. If use of antibiotics and long-term administration are required for beneficial effects, implementation of this strategy in humans might be problematic. Studies were therefore undertaken to determine if less onerous protocols could still impart persistent resistance and sustained NAPE biosynthesis. Administration of engineered EcN for only 2 weeks without pre-treatment with antibiotics sufficed to establish persistent resistance. Sustained NAPE biosynthesis by EcN was required as antibiotic treatment after administration of the engineered EcN markedly attenuated its effects. Finally, heterologous expression of human phospholipase A/acyltransferase-2 (PLAAT2) in EcN provided similar resistance to obesity as heterologous expression of A. thaliana NAPE synthase, confirming that NAPEs are the bioactive mediator of this resistance.
BACKGROUND - Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where antibiotics are often obtained without a prescription. H. pylori antimicrobial resistance patterns are informative for patient care and gastric cancer prevention programs, have been shown to correlate with general antimicrobial consumption, and may guide antimicrobial stewardship programs in LMICs. We report H. pylori resistance and antimicrobial utilization patterns for western Honduras, representative of rural Central America.
METHODS - In the context of the western Honduras gastric cancer epidemiology initiative, gastric biopsies from 189 patients were studied for culture and resistance patterns. Antimicrobial utilization was investigated for common H. pylori treatment regimens from regional public (7 antimicrobials) and national private (4 antimicrobials) data, analyzed in accordance with WHO anatomical therapeutic chemical defined daily doses (DDD) method and expressed as DDD/1000 inhabitants per day (DID) and per year (DIY).
RESULTS - H. pylori was successfully cultured from 116 patients (56% males, mean age: 54), and nearly all strains were cagA+ and vacAs1m1+ positive (99% and 90.4%, respectively). Unexpectedly, high resistance was noted for levofloxacin (20.9%) and amoxicillin (10.7%), while metronidazole (67.9%) and clarithromycin (11.2%) were similar to data from Latin America. Significant associations with age, gender, or histology were not noted, with the exception of levofloxacin (28%, P = 0.01) in those with histology limited to non-atrophic gastritis. Total antimicrobial usage in western Honduras of amoxicillin (17.3 DID) and the quinolones had the highest relative utilizations compared with other representative nations.
CONCLUSIONS - We observed significant H. pylori resistance to amoxicillin and levofloxacin in the context of high community antimicrobial utilization. This has implications in Central America for H. pylori treatment guidelines as well as antimicrobial stewardship programs.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
"Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes current knowledge regarding DFI epidemiology, disease pathogenesis, and the impact of antimicrobial resistance among DFI. An evidence-based approach to clinical assessment, diagnosing osteomyelitis, as well as medical and surgical treatment is discussed, including a review of empiric and directed antibiotic treatment recommendations. The current state and needs of the clinical literature are identified throughout, with a discussion of the supporting role of infectious diseases specialists as well as future directions of the field."
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen capable of causing wound infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia. During infection, A. baumannii must acquire Zn to survive and colonize the host. Vertebrates have evolved mechanisms to sequester Zn from invading pathogens by a process termed nutritional immunity. One of the most upregulated genes during Zn starvation encodes a putative cell wall-modifying enzyme which we named ZrlA. We found that inactivation of zrlA diminished growth of A. baumannii during Zn starvation. Additionally, this mutant strain displays increased cell envelope permeability, decreased membrane barrier function, and aberrant peptidoglycan muropeptide abundances. This altered envelope increases antibiotic efficacy both in vitro and in an animal model of A. baumannii pneumonia. These results establish ZrlA as a crucial link between nutrient metal uptake and cell envelope homeostasis during A. baumannii pathogenesis, which could be targeted for therapeutic development.
Copyright © 2019 Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
There has been renewed interest in combining traditional small-molecule antimicrobial agents with nontraditional therapies to potentiate antimicrobial effects. Apotransferrin, which decreases iron availability to microbes, is one such approach. We conducted a 48-h one-compartment infection model to explore the impact of apotransferrin on the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin. The challenge panel included four isolates with ciprofloxacin MIC values ranging from 0.08 to 32 mg/liter. Each challenge isolate was subjected to an ineffective ciprofloxacin monotherapy exposure (free-drug area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h divided by the MIC [AUC/MIC ratio] ranging from 0.19 to 96.6) with and without apotransferrin. As expected, the no-treatment and apotransferrin control arms showed unaltered prototypical logarithmic bacterial growth. We identified relationships between exposure and change in bacterial density for ciprofloxacin alone ( = 0.64) and ciprofloxacin in combination with apotransferrin ( = 0.84). Addition of apotransferrin to ciprofloxacin enabled a remarkable reduction in bacterial density across a wide range of ciprofloxacin exposures. For instance, at a ciprofloxacin AUC/MIC ratio of 20, ciprofloxacin monotherapy resulted in nearly 2 log CFU increase in bacterial density, while the combination of apotransferrin and ciprofloxacin resulted in 2 log CFU reduction in bacterial density. Furthermore, addition of apotransferrin significantly reduced the emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant subpopulations compared to monotherapy. These data demonstrate that decreasing the rate of bacterial replication with apotransferrin in combination with antimicrobial therapy represents an opportunity to increase the magnitude of the bactericidal effect and to suppress the growth rate of drug-resistant subpopulations.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.
BACKGROUND - Vancomycin is a prevalent cause of the severe hypersensitivity syndrome drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), which leads to significant morbidity and mortality and commonly occurs in the setting of combination antibiotic therapy, affecting future treatment choices. Variations in HLA class I in particular have been associated with serious T cell-mediated adverse drug reactions, which has led to preventive screening strategies for some drugs.
OBJECTIVE - We sought to determine whether variation in the HLA region is associated with vancomycin-induced DRESS.
METHODS - Probable vancomycin-induced DRESS cases were matched 1:2 with tolerant control subjects based on sex, race, and age by using BioVU, Vanderbilt's deidentified electronic health record database. Associations between DRESS and carriage of HLA class I and II alleles were assessed by means of conditional logistic regression. An extended sample set from BioVU was used to conduct a time-to-event analysis of those exposed to vancomycin with and without the identified HLA risk allele.
RESULTS - Twenty-three subjects met the inclusion criteria for vancomycin-associated DRESS. Nineteen (82.6%) of 23 cases carried HLA-A*32:01 compared with 0 (0%) of 46 of the matched vancomycin-tolerant control subjects (P = 1 × 10) and 6.3% of the BioVU population (n = 54,249, P = 2 × 10). Time-to-event analysis of DRESS development during vancomycin treatment among the HLA-A*32:01-positive group indicated that 19.2% had DRESS and did so within 4 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS - HLA-A*32:01 is strongly associated with vancomycin-induced DRESS in a population of predominantly European ancestry. HLA-A*32:01 testing could improve antibiotic safety, help implicate vancomycin as the causal drug, and preserve future treatment options with coadministered antibiotics.
Copyright © 2019 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Antibiotics are the commonest cause of life-threatening immune-mediated drug reactions that are considered off-target, including anaphylaxis, and organ-specific and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. However, many antibiotic reactions documented as allergies were unknown or not remembered by the patient, cutaneous reactions unrelated to drug hypersensitivity, drug-infection interactions, or drug intolerances. Although such reactions pose negligible risk to patients, they currently represent a global threat to public health. Antibiotic allergy labels result in displacement of first-line therapies for antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment. A penicillin allergy label, in particular, is associated with increased use of broad-spectrum and non-β-lactam antibiotics, which results in increased adverse events and antibiotic resistance. Most patients labelled as allergic to penicillins are not allergic when appropriately stratified for risk, tested, and re-challenged. Given the public health importance of penicillin allergy, this Review provides a global update on antibiotic allergy epidemiology, classification, mechanisms, and management.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.