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Results: 1 to 10 of 15629

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Maternal microbial molecules affect offspring health.
Ferguson J
(2020) Science 367: 978-979
MeSH Terms: Animals, Child, Child Health, Diet, High-Fat, Female, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Mice, Obesity, Phenotype, Pregnancy
Added March 3, 2020
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10 MeSH Terms
Analysis of a Therapeutic Antibody Cocktail Reveals Determinants for Cooperative and Broad Ebolavirus Neutralization.
Gilchuk P, Murin CD, Milligan JC, Cross RW, Mire CE, Ilinykh PA, Huang K, Kuzmina N, Altman PX, Hui S, Gunn BM, Bryan AL, Davidson E, Doranz BJ, Turner HL, Alkutkar T, Flinko R, Orlandi C, Carnahan R, Nargi R, Bombardi RG, Vodzak ME, Li S, Okoli A, Ibeawuchi M, Ohiaeri B, Lewis GK, Alter G, Bukreyev A, Saphire EO, Geisbert TW, Ward AB, Crowe JE
(2020) Immunity 52: 388-403.e12
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Cell Line, Disease Models, Animal, Drug Therapy, Combination, Ebolavirus, Epitopes, Female, Glycoproteins, Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola, Humans, Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments, Macaca mulatta, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Molecular Mimicry, Protein Conformation
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2020
Structural principles underlying the composition of protective antiviral monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktails are poorly defined. Here, we exploited antibody cooperativity to develop a therapeutic mAb cocktail against Ebola virus. We systematically analyzed the antibody repertoire in human survivors and identified a pair of potently neutralizing mAbs that cooperatively bound to the ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP). High-resolution structures revealed that in a two-antibody cocktail, molecular mimicry was a major feature of mAb-GP interactions. Broadly neutralizing mAb rEBOV-520 targeted a conserved epitope on the GP base region. mAb rEBOV-548 bound to a glycan cap epitope, possessed neutralizing and Fc-mediated effector function activities, and potentiated neutralization by rEBOV-520. Remodeling of the glycan cap structures by the cocktail enabled enhanced GP binding and virus neutralization. The cocktail demonstrated resistance to virus escape and protected non-human primates (NHPs) against Ebola virus disease. These data illuminate structural principles of antibody cooperativity with implications for development of antiviral immunotherapeutics.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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20 MeSH Terms
Cell-free hemoglobin increases inflammation, lung apoptosis, and microvascular permeability in murine polymicrobial sepsis.
Meegan JE, Shaver CM, Putz ND, Jesse JJ, Landstreet SR, Lee HNR, Sidorova TN, McNeil JB, Wynn JL, Cheung-Flynn J, Komalavilas P, Brophy CM, Ware LB, Bastarache JA
(2020) PLoS One 15: e0228727
MeSH Terms: Animals, Apoptosis, Capillary Permeability, Endothelial Cells, Female, Hemoglobins, Humans, Inflammation, Lung, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Oxidative Stress, Sepsis
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Increased endothelial permeability is central to the pathogenesis of sepsis and leads to organ dysfunction and death but the endogenous mechanisms that drive increased endothelial permeability are not completely understood. We previously reported that cell-free hemoglobin (CFH), elevated in 80% of patients with sepsis, increases lung microvascular permeability in an ex vivo human lung model and cultured endothelial cells. In this study, we augmented a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis with elevated circulating CFH to test the hypothesis that CFH increases microvascular endothelial permeability by inducing endothelial apoptosis. Mice were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of cecal slurry with or without a single intravenous injection of CFH. Severity of illness, mortality, systemic and lung inflammation, endothelial injury and dysfunction and lung apoptosis were measured at selected time points. We found that CFH added to CS increased sepsis mortality, plasma inflammatory cytokines as well as lung apoptosis, edema and inflammation without affecting large vessel reactivity or vascular injury marker concentrations. These results suggest that CFH is an endogenous mediator of increased endothelial permeability and apoptosis in sepsis and may be a promising therapeutic target.
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13 MeSH Terms
Broad dengue neutralization in mosquitoes expressing an engineered antibody.
Buchman A, Gamez S, Li M, Antoshechkin I, Li HH, Wang HW, Chen CH, Klein MJ, Duchemin JB, Crowe JE, Paradkar PN, Akbari OS
(2020) PLoS Pathog 16: e1008103
MeSH Terms: Aedes, Animals, Antibodies, Viral, Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies, Dengue Virus, Female, Humans, Male, Protein Engineering, Single-Chain Antibodies
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2020
With dengue virus (DENV) becoming endemic in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, there is a pressing global demand for effective strategies to control the mosquitoes that spread this disease. Recent advances in genetic engineering technologies have made it possible to create mosquitoes with reduced vector competence, limiting their ability to acquire and transmit pathogens. Here we describe the development of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes synthetically engineered to impede vector competence to DENV. These mosquitoes express a gene encoding an engineered single-chain variable fragment derived from a broadly neutralizing DENV human monoclonal antibody and have significantly reduced viral infection, dissemination, and transmission rates for all four major antigenically distinct DENV serotypes. Importantly, this is the first engineered approach that targets all DENV serotypes, which is crucial for effective disease suppression. These results provide a compelling route for developing effective genetic-based DENV control strategies, which could be extended to curtail other arboviruses.
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Phenome-based approach identifies RIC1-linked Mendelian syndrome through zebrafish models, biobank associations and clinical studies.
Unlu G, Qi X, Gamazon ER, Melville DB, Patel N, Rushing AR, Hashem M, Al-Faifi A, Chen R, Li B, Cox NJ, Alkuraya FS, Knapik EW
(2020) Nat Med 26: 98-109
MeSH Terms: Abnormalities, Multiple, Animals, Behavior, Animal, Biological Specimen Banks, Chondrocytes, Disease Models, Animal, Extracellular Matrix, Fibroblasts, Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors, Humans, Models, Biological, Musculoskeletal System, Osteogenesis, Phenomics, Phenotype, Procollagen, Protein Transport, Secretory Pathway, Syndrome, Zebrafish, Zebrafish Proteins
Show Abstract · Added January 15, 2020
Discovery of genotype-phenotype relationships remains a major challenge in clinical medicine. Here, we combined three sources of phenotypic data to uncover a new mechanism for rare and common diseases resulting from collagen secretion deficits. Using a zebrafish genetic screen, we identified the ric1 gene as being essential for skeletal biology. Using a gene-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) in the EHR-linked BioVU biobank, we show that reduced genetically determined expression of RIC1 is associated with musculoskeletal and dental conditions. Whole-exome sequencing identified individuals homozygous-by-descent for a rare variant in RIC1 and, through a guided clinical re-evaluation, it was discovered that they share signs with the BioVU-associated phenome. We named this new Mendelian syndrome CATIFA (cleft lip, cataract, tooth abnormality, intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and revealed further disease mechanisms. This gene-based, PheWAS-guided approach can accelerate the discovery of clinically relevant disease phenome and associated biological mechanisms.
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21 MeSH Terms
Structures of the AMPA receptor in complex with its auxiliary subunit cornichon.
Nakagawa T
(2019) Science 366: 1259-1263
MeSH Terms: Animals, Brain, Cryoelectron Microscopy, Glutamic Acid, Ion Channel Gating, Protein Structure, Secondary, Protein Transport, Rats, Receptors, AMPA, Receptors, Glutamate, Synaptic Transmission
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
In the brain, AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) form complexes with their auxiliary subunits and mediate the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission. Signals transduced by these complexes are critical for synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. The two major categories of AMPAR auxiliary subunits are transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) and cornichon homologs (CNIHs); these subunits share little homology and play distinct roles in controlling ion channel gating and trafficking of AMPAR. Here, I report high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of AMPAR in complex with CNIH3. Contrary to its predicted membrane topology, CNIH3 lacks an extracellular domain and instead contains four membrane-spanning helices. The protein-protein interaction interface that dictates channel modulation and the lipids surrounding the complex are revealed. These structures provide insights into the molecular mechanism for ion channel modulation and assembly of AMPAR/CNIH3 complexes.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
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Local, nonlinear effects of cGMP and Ca2+ reduce single photon response variability in retinal rods.
Caruso G, Gurevich VV, Klaus C, Hamm H, Makino CL, DiBenedetto E
(2019) PLoS One 14: e0225948
MeSH Terms: Algorithms, Animals, Biomarkers, Calcium, Cyclic GMP, Mice, Models, Biological, Photons, Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells, Rod Cell Outer Segment, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
The single photon response (SPR) in vertebrate photoreceptors is inherently variable due to several stochastic events in the phototransduction cascade, the main one being the shutoff of photoactivated rhodopsin. Deactivation is driven by a random number of steps, each of random duration with final quenching occurring after a random delay. Nevertheless, variability of the SPR is relatively low, making the signal highly reliable. Several biophysical and mathematical mechanisms contributing to variability suppression have been examined by the authors. Here we investigate the contribution of local depletion of cGMP by PDE*, the non linear dependence of the photocurrent on cGMP, Ca2+ feedback by making use of a fully space resolved (FSR) mathematical model, applied to two species (mouse and salamander), by varying the cGMP diffusion rate severalfold and rod outer segment diameter by an order of magnitude, and by introducing new, more refined, and time dependent variability functionals. Globally well stirred (GWS) models, and to a lesser extent transversally well stirred models (TWS), underestimate the role of nonlinearities and local cGMP depletion in quenching the variability of the circulating current with respect to fully space resolved models (FSR). These distortions minimize the true extent to which SPR is stabilized by locality in cGMP depletion, nonlinear effects linking cGMP to current, and Ca2+ feedback arising from the physical separation of E* from the ion channels located on the outer shell, and the diffusion of these second messengers in the cytoplasm.
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Interpreting an apoptotic corpse as anti-inflammatory involves a chloride sensing pathway.
Perry JSA, Morioka S, Medina CB, Iker Etchegaray J, Barron B, Raymond MH, Lucas CD, Onengut-Gumuscu S, Delpire E, Ravichandran KS
(2019) Nat Cell Biol 21: 1532-1543
MeSH Terms: Animals, Apoptosis, Biological Transport, Cell Line, Cell Line, Tumor, Chlorides, Humans, Inflammation, Jurkat Cells, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Oxidative Stress, Phagocytes, Phagocytosis, Signal Transduction, Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters, Transcription, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
Apoptotic cell clearance (efferocytosis) elicits an anti-inflammatory response by phagocytes, but the mechanisms that underlie this response are still being defined. Here, we uncover a chloride-sensing signalling pathway that controls both the phagocyte 'appetite' and its anti-inflammatory response. Efferocytosis transcriptionally altered the genes that encode the solute carrier (SLC) proteins SLC12A2 and SLC12A4. Interfering with SLC12A2 expression or function resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic corpse uptake per phagocyte, whereas the loss of SLC12A4 inhibited corpse uptake. In SLC12A2-deficient phagocytes, the canonical anti-inflammatory program was replaced by pro-inflammatory and oxidative-stress-associated gene programs. This 'switch' to pro-inflammatory sensing of apoptotic cells resulted from the disruption of the chloride-sensing pathway (and not due to corpse overload or poor degradation), including the chloride-sensing kinases WNK1, OSR1 and SPAK-which function upstream of SLC12A2-had a similar effect on efferocytosis. Collectively, the WNK1-OSR1-SPAK-SLC12A2/SLC12A4 chloride-sensing pathway and chloride flux in phagocytes are key modifiers of the manner in which phagocytes interpret the engulfed apoptotic corpse.
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Influenza H7N9 Virus Neuraminidase-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies Inhibit Viral Egress and Protect from Lethal Influenza Infection in Mice.
Gilchuk IM, Bangaru S, Gilchuk P, Irving RP, Kose N, Bombardi RG, Thornburg NJ, Creech CB, Edwards KM, Li S, Turner HL, Yu W, Zhu X, Wilson IA, Ward AB, Crowe JE
(2019) Cell Host Microbe 26: 715-728.e8
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antibodies, Heterophile, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Birds, Epitopes, Humans, Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype, Influenza Vaccines, Influenza in Birds, Influenza, Human, Mice, Neuraminidase, Orthomyxoviridae Infections, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis, Vaccination, Vaccines, Inactivated, Viral Proteins, Virus Release
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2020
H7N9 avian influenza virus causes severe infections and might have the potential to trigger a major pandemic. Molecular determinants of human humoral immune response to N9 neuraminidase (NA) proteins, which exhibit unusual features compared with seasonal influenza virus NA proteins, are ill-defined. We isolated 35 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from two H7N9 survivors and two vaccinees. These mAbs react to NA in a subtype-specific manner and recognize diverse antigenic sites on the surface of N9 NA, including epitopes overlapping with, or distinct from, the enzyme active site. Despite recognizing multiple antigenic sites, the mAbs use a common mechanism of action by blocking egress of nascent virions from infected cells, thereby providing an antiviral prophylactic and therapeutic protection in vivo in mice. Studies of breadth, potency, and diversity of antigenic recognition from four subjects suggest that vaccination with inactivated adjuvanted vaccine induce NA-reactive responses comparable to that of H7N9 natural infection.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Structural Basis of Protection against H7N9 Influenza Virus by Human Anti-N9 Neuraminidase Antibodies.
Zhu X, Turner HL, Lang S, McBride R, Bangaru S, Gilchuk IM, Yu W, Paulson JC, Crowe JE, Ward AB, Wilson IA
(2019) Cell Host Microbe 26: 729-738.e4
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Antiviral Agents, Cryoelectron Microscopy, Epitopes, Humans, Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype, Influenza Vaccines, Neuraminidase, Orthomyxoviridae Infections, Viral Proteins
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2020
Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) is a major target for small-molecule antiviral drugs. Antibodies targeting the NA surface antigen could also inhibit virus entry and egress to provide host protection. However, our understanding of the nature and range of target epitopes is limited because of a lack of human antibody structures with influenza neuraminidase. Here, we describe crystal and cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of NAs from human-infecting avian H7N9 viruses in complex with five human anti-N9 antibodies, systematically defining several antigenic sites and antibody epitope footprints. These antibodies either fully or partially block the NA active site or bind to epitopes distant from the active site while still showing neuraminidase inhibition. The inhibition of antibodies to NAs was further analyzed by glycan array and solution-based NA activity assays. Together, these structural studies provide insights into protection by anti-NA antibodies and templates for the development of NA-based influenza virus vaccines and therapeutics.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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13 MeSH Terms