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Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds to and is activated by collagens. DDR1 expression increases following kidney injury and accumulating evidence suggests that it contributes to the progression of injury. To this end, deletion of DDR1 is beneficial in ameliorating kidney injury induced by angiotensin infusion, unilateral ureteral obstruction, or nephrotoxic nephritis. Most of the beneficial effects observed in the DDR1-null mice are attributed to reduced inflammatory cell infiltration to the site of injury, suggesting that DDR1 plays a pro-inflammatory effect. The goal of this study was to determine whether, in addition to its pro-inflammatory effect, DDR1 plays a deleterious effect in kidney injury by directly regulating extracellular matrix production. We show that DDR1-null mice have reduced deposition of glomerular collagens I and IV as well as decreased proteinuria following the partial renal ablation model of kidney injury. Using mesangial cells isolated from DDR1-null mice, we show that these cells produce significantly less collagen compared to DDR1-null cells reconstituted with wild type DDR1. Moreover, mutagenesis analysis revealed that mutations in the collagen binding site or in the kinase domain significantly reduce DDR1-mediated collagen production. Finally, we provide evidence that blocking DDR1 kinase activity with an ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitor reduces collagen production. In conclusion, our studies indicate that the kinase activity of DDR1 plays a key role in DDR1-induced collagen synthesis and suggest that blocking collagen-mediated DDR1 activation may be beneficial in fibrotic diseases.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Male and female homozygous 129/Sv mice carrying four copies of the human cytochrome P450 4A11 gene (CYP4A11) under control of its native promoter (B-129/Sv-4A11(+/+)) develop hypertension (142 ± 8 versus 113 ± 7 mm Hg systolic blood pressure (BP)), and exhibit increased 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in kidney and urine. The hypertension is reversible by a low-sodium diet and by the CYP4A inhibitor HET0016. B-129/Sv-4A11(+/+) mice display an 18% increase of plasma potassium (p < 0.02), but plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II (ANGII), and renin activities are unchanged. This phenotype resembles human genetic disorders with elevated activity of the sodium chloride co-transporter (NCC) and, accordingly, NCC abundance is increased by 50% in transgenic mice, and NCC levels are normalized by HET0016. ANGII is known to increase NCC abundance, and renal mRNA levels of its precursor angiotensinogen are increased 2-fold in B-129/Sv-4A11(+/+), and blockade of the ANGII receptor type 1 with losartan normalizes BP. A pro-hypertensive role for 20-HETE was implicated by normalization of BP and reversal of renal angiotensin mRNA increases by administration of the 20-HETE antagonists 2-((6Z,15Z)-20-hydroxyicosa-6,15-dienamido)acetate or (S)-2-((6Z,15Z)-20-hydroxyicosa-6,15-dienamido)succinate. SGK1 expression is also increased in B-129/Sv-4A11(+/+) mice and paralleled increases seen for NCC. Losartan, HET0016, and 20-HETE antagonists each normalized SGK1 mRNA expression. These results point to a potential 20-HETE dependence of intrarenal angiotensinogen production and ANGII receptor type 1 activation that are associated with increases in NCC and SGK1 and identify elevated P450 4A11 activity and 20-HETE as potential risk factors for salt-sensitive human hypertension by perturbation of the renal renin-angiotensin axis.
© 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Substantial evidence demonstrates a link of increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and glomerulosclerosis and kidney fibrosis, providing a novel therapeutic option for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney diseases. Several mechanisms contributing to increased PAI-1 will be addressed, including classic key profibrotic factors such as the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b???and novel molecules identified by proteomic analysis, such as thymosin- b4. The fibrotic sequelae caused by increased PAI-1 in kidney depend not only on its classic inhibition of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA), but also its influence on cell migration.
Multidimensional liquid chromatography of peptides produced by protease digestion of complex protein mixtures followed by tandem mass spectrometry can be coupled with automated database searching to identify large numbers of proteins in complex samples. These methods avoid the limitations of gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestions by directly identifying protein mixtures in solution.
Regardless of the initial injury, the long-term consequence for the patient depends upon the ensuing balance of profibrotic vs reparative modulators activated. The glomerulus has some capacity for repair. Even when sclerosis has developed with accumulation of extracellular matrix, this lesion may be remodeled, with a change in balance between profibrotic and antifibrotic and collagen synthesis vs proteolytic mediators. We will focus here on the interplay between mediators of fibrosis and reparative mechanisms and potential regression of fibrosis. Based on the clinical efficacy of interventions that inhibit angiotensin, we will focus on factors related to the renin-angiotensin system.
It is not clear whether endothelial cell (EC) activation by the hormone angiotensin II (Ang II) modulates contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the vasculature and whether impairment of this regulation in vivo contributes to hypertension. Delineation of the actions of Ang II through the type 1 receptor (AT1R) on ECs in the blood vessels has been a challenging problem because of the predominance of the AT1R functions in VSMCs that lie underneath the endothelium. We have obviated this limitation by generating transgenic (TG) mice engineered to target expression of the constitutively active N111G mutant AT1R only in ECs. In these TG mice, the enhanced angiotensinergic signal in ECs without infusion of Ang II resulted in hypotension and bradycardia. The pressor response to acute infusion of Ang II was significantly reduced. Increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and production of hypotensive mediators, nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate, cause these phenotypes. Hypotension and bradycardia observed in the TG mice could be rescued by treatment with an AT1R-selective antagonist. Our results imply that the Ang II action by means of EC-AT1R is antagonistic to vasoconstriction in general, and it may moderate the magnitude of functional response to Ang II in VSMCs. This control mechanism in vivo most likely is a determinant of altered hemodynamic regulation involved in endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive cardiovascular disease.
BACKGROUND - Glomerular and vascular sclerosis increase with aging, and angiotensin inhibitors ameliorate progression of this injury. We investigated the potential for achieving regression of existing age-related sclerosis, and the mechanisms by which angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AIIRA) may affect remodeling of this sclerosis. We focused on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) because it is directly induced by angiotensin, inhibits matrix degradation, and may thus be pivotal in remodeling.
METHODS - Eighteen-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the AIIRA losartan (N = 8, 80 mg/L, dry weight), sacrificed at age 21 and 24 months, and compared with age-matched untreated controls (N = 15). Blood pressure and renal function were monitored, and morphological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were done on aorta and kidney.
RESULTS - Body weight increased in both groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and serum creatinine remained normal (24-month MAP 115 +/- 8 vs. 113 +/- 6 mm Hg, controls vs. AIIRA, P = NS). Aorta wall thickness ratio was reduced by AIIRA at 21 and 24 months vs. age-matched controls (21 months 0. 12 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.01, P = 0.006; 24 months 0.10 +/- 0.005 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.003, AIIRA vs. controls, respectively, P = 0.0027). The aorta wall thickness ratio after treatment with AIIRA for six months was even lower than that of 18-month control rats (P = 0.018). AIIRA reduced proteinuria versus age-matched control at 24 months (253 +/- 62 vs. 390 +/- 51 mg/24 h, P = 0.0017). AIIRA at 24 months decreased glomerulosclerosis versus age-matched control (sclerosis index, 0 to 4+ scale: 0.06 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.12, P = 0.0082) to levels even lower than the 18-month baseline (0.37 +/- 0.14, P = 0.014). Renal collagen content increased with aging and was decreased by AIIRA at 24 months (5.0 +/- 0.7 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.5% collagen, P < 0.05). Apoptosis, assessed by TUNEL, was increased in tubular and interstitial cells in aging and was reduced by AIIRA versus control and baseline, respectively (TUNEL scoring, AIIRA 24 months 0.33 +/- 0.16 vs. 1.06 +/- 0.23 and 0.80 +/- 0.05, P < 0.05). PAI-1 mRNA in kidney was decreased at 24 months in AIIRA versus age-matched controls (PAI-1/GAPDH density ratio: AIIRA 24 months 0. 34 +/- 0.05 vs. 24-month controls 0.99 +/- 0.05, P < 0.05). Increased glomerular PAI-1 immunostaining with aging was decreased by AIIRA at 24 months versus age-matched controls, even below baseline (staining score 0 to 4+, 0.57 +/- 0.15 vs. control 0.90 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05; baseline 1.05 +/- 0.02, P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION - We conclude that AIIRA not only slows the progression of glomerular and vascular sclerosis in aging, but can also induce regression of these processes. The mechanisms appear to involve modulation of cortical cell turnover and inhibition of PAI-1 expression.
In vitro and in vivo data provide compelling evidence for an interaction between the RAS and thrombosis. Furthermore, angiotensin and AT1 receptor blockers may influence platelet function. ACE is strategically poised to regulate these interactions. ACE catalyzes the conversion of Ang I to Ang II, which in turn stimulates the production of PAI-1, sensitizes platelets, promotes the production of superoxide radicals that scavenge free NO, and induces the expression of tissue factor. Conversely, ACE catalyzes the breakdown of bradykinin, a potent stimulus to t-PA secretion. These data suggest that clinical, genetic, or environmental factors (such as salt intake and medications) that alter ACE activity and Ang II production would be expected to impact on clotting and fibrinolytic mechanisms.
We have developed chimeric mice carrying 'regional' null mutation of the angiotensin type 1A (AT1A) receptor, the AT1 receptor subtype exclusively present in mouse juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. The chimeric mouse (Agtr1a -/- <--> +/+) is made up of wild-type (Agtr1a +/+) cells or cells homozygous for Agtr1a deletion (Agtr1a -/-). In the latter, the AT1A coding exon was replaced with a reporter gene, lacZ. In Agtr1a -/- <--> +/+ mice, these two clones of cells are found to be clustered and display patchy distributions in the kidney and heart. Tracking of lacZ activities in hetero- (Agtr1a +/-) and homozygous (Agtr1a -/-) deletion mutant offspring from Agtr1a -/- <--> +/+ mice revealed that the promoter activity of Agtr1a is localized in JG cells, afferent arteriolar walls, glomerular mesangial region and endothelial cells, and apical and basolateral proximal tubule membranes. The JG apparatuses of Agtr1a -/- mice are markedly enlarged with intense expression of renin mRNA and protein. In Agtr1a -/- <--> +/+ mice, these changes were proportional to the degree of chimerism. Within a given Agtr1a -/- <--> +/+ mouse, however, the degree of JG hypertrophy/hyperplasia and the expression of renin mRNA and protein were identical between Agtr1a +/+ and Agtr1a -/- cells. Thus, in the in vivo condition tested, the local interaction between angiotensin and the AT1 receptor on the JG cells has little functional contribution to the feedback regulation of JG renin synthesis.