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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - Clinical measurements of cerebral perfusion have been increasingly performed with multiecho dynamic susceptibility contrast-MR imaging techniques due to their ability to remove confounding T1 effects of contrast agent extravasation from perfusion quantification. However, to this point, the extra information provided by multiecho techniques has not been used to improve the process of estimating the arterial input function, which is critical to accurate perfusion quantification. The purpose of this study is to investigate methods by which multiecho DSC-MRI data can be used to automatically avoid voxels whose signal decreases to the level of noise when calculating the arterial input function.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Here we compare postprocessing strategies for clinical multiecho DSC-MR imaging data to test whether arterial input function measures could be improved by automatically identifying and removing voxels exhibiting signal attenuation (truncation) artifacts.
RESULTS - In a clinical pediatric population, we found that the Pearson correlation coefficient between ΔR2* time-series calculated from each TE individually was a valuable criterion for automated estimation of the arterial input function, resulting in higher peak arterial input function values while maintaining smooth and reliable arterial input function shapes.
CONCLUSIONS - This work is the first to demonstrate that multiecho information may be useful in clinically important automatic arterial input function estimation because it can be used to improve automatic selection of voxels from which the arterial input function should be measured.
© 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
OBJECTIVE Quantification of the severity of vasculopathy and its impact on parenchymal hemodynamics is a necessary prerequisite for informing management decisions and evaluating intervention response in patients with moyamoya. The authors performed digital subtraction angiography and noninvasive structural and hemodynamic MRI, and they outline a new classification system for patients with moyamoya that they have named Prior Infarcts, Reactivity, and Angiography in Moyamoya Disease (PIRAMD). METHODS Healthy control volunteers (n = 11; age 46 ± 12 years [mean ± SD]) and patients (n = 25; 42 ± 13.5 years) with angiographically confirmed moyamoya provided informed consent and underwent structural (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, FLAIR, MR angiography) and hemodynamic (T2*- and cerebral blood flow-weighted) 3-T MRI. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in the internal carotid artery territory was assessed using susceptibility-weighted MRI during a hypercapnic stimulus. Only hemispheres without prior revascularization were assessed. Each hemisphere was considered symptomatic if localizing signs were present on neurological examination and/or there was a history of transient ischemic attack with symptoms referable to that hemisphere. The PIRAMD factor weighting versus symptomatology was optimized using binary logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with bootstrapping. The PIRAMD finding was scored from 0 to 10. For each hemisphere, 1 point was assigned for prior infarct, 3 points for reduced CVR, 3 points for a modified Suzuki Score ≥ Grade II, and 3 points for flow impairment in ≥ 2 of 7 predefined vascular territories. Hemispheres were divided into 3 severity grades based on total PIRAMD score, as follows: Grade 1, 0-5 points; Grade 2, 6-9 points; and Grade 3, 10 points. RESULTS In 28 of 46 (60.9%) hemispheres the findings met clinical symptomatic criteria. With decreased CVR, the odds ratio of having a symptomatic hemisphere was 13 (95% CI 1.1-22.6, p = 0.002). The area under the curve for individual PIRAMD factors was 0.67-0.72, and for the PIRAMD grade it was 0.845. There were 0/8 (0%), 10/18 (55.6%), and 18/20 (90%) symptomatic PIRAMD Grade 1, 2, and 3 hemispheres, respectively. CONCLUSIONS A scoring system for total impairment is proposed that uses noninvasive MRI parameters. This scoring system correlates with symptomatology and may provide a measure of hemodynamic severity in moyamoya, which could be used for guiding management decisions and evaluating intervention response.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - The safety of using adult-sized neuroendovascular devices in the smaller pediatric vasculature is not known. In this study we measure vessel diameters in the cervical and cranial circulation in children to characterize when adult-approved devices might be compatible in children.
METHODS - For 54 children without vasculopathy (mean age 9.5±4.9 years (range 0.02-17.8), 20F/34M) undergoing catheter angiography, the diameters of the large vessels in the cervical and cranial circulation (10 locations, 611 total measurements) were assessed by three radiologists. Mean±SD diameter was calculated for the following age groups: 0-6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years. To compare with adult sizes, each vessel measurement was normalized to the respective region mean diameter in the oldest age group (15-18 years). Normalized measurements were compared with age and fitted to a segmented regression.
RESULTS - Vessel diameters increased rapidly from 0 to 5 years of age (slope=0.069/year) but changed minimally beyond that (slope=0.005/year) (R(2)=0.2). The regression model calculated that, at 5 years of age, vessels would be 94% of the diameter of the oldest age group (compared with 59% at birth). In addition, most vessels in children under 5, while smaller, were still potentially large enough to be compatible with many adult devices.
CONCLUSIONS - The growth curve of the cervicocerebral vasculature displays rapid growth until age 5, at which point most children's vessels are nearly adult size. By age 5, most neuroendovascular devices are size-compatible, including thrombectomy devices for stroke. Under 5 years of age, some devices might still be compatible.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
IMPORTANCE - Moyamoya syndrome is a rare, occlusive cerebrovascular arteriopathy with significant risk for stroke. Populations that frequently undergo otolaryngologic procedures, including patients with Down syndrome and sickle cell disease, are particularly at risk for moyamoya. The initial presentation of moyamoya syndrome as stroke in the perioperative period of an otolaryngologic procedure has not been reported.
OBSERVATIONS - A retrospective medical record review assessed the relationship of otolaryngologic operations and the onset of moyamoya symptoms. Moyamoya syndrome was present in 137 patients. Of these, 19 patients underwent otolaryngologic procedures; 3 children had strokes 2 to 4 days after adenotonsillectomy, including 2 children with Down syndrome. Intraoperative carotid artery injury was considered but was proven not to be the cause of stroke. Bilateral moyamoya disease was diagnosed in all 3 patients via vascular imaging studies; all subsequently underwent revascularization procedures.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE - Clinicians should be aware of an elevated prevalence of moyamoya syndrome in Down syndrome and sickle cell disease populations and should consider moyamoya syndrome in the differential diagnosis of postoperative stroke. Stroke risk is magnified in the perioperative setting related to perioperative dehydration and hypotension. Awareness and screening for cerebral vasculopathy in high-risk populations could prompt measures to decrease the occurrence of postoperative strokes after adenotonsillectomies.
The authors report the case of a 4-year-old boy with a spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) related to an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) that was not found with good-quality magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography. Both modalities were used serially in the acute phase and at 2 and 7 months of follow-up. Digital subtraction angiography identified the peripheral AVM when the patient experienced rehemorrhaging 1 year after his initial presentation. This case illustrates the need for a complete diagnostic evaluation including conventional angiography in cases of idiopathic ICH in children.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - Catheter-based cerebral angiography remains an important diagnostic tool in the pediatric population, particularly considering the currently growing interest in diagnosing and treating cerebrovascular disorders in children. There are no recent estimates of the complication rate associated with modern diagnostic digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to estimate the rate of complications occurring during cerebral angiography in children.
METHODS - Data from 241 consecutive pediatric cerebral angiograms performed at a single institution were entered into an institutional review board-approved database. Information on patient demographics, DSA indication, neurovascular diagnosis, and intra procedural and postprocedural complications was collected.
RESULTS - Our population included 115 boys and 90 girls, with age ranging from 1 week to 18 years (mean+/-SD, 12+/-5 years). All angiograms were technically successful. No intraprocedural complication was noted; in particular, there was no occurrence of iatrogenic vessel injury (dissection) and no transient or permanent neurological deficit secondary to a thromboembolic event. One child with a complex dural arteriovenous fistula experienced a fatal intracranial rehemorrhage secondary to a posterior fossa varix rupture 3 hours after completion of an uneventful diagnostic angiogram. The rates of intraprocedural and postprocedural complications were therefore 0.0% (95% CI, 0.0% to 1.4%) and 0.4% (95% CI, 0.012% to 2.29%), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS - The rate of immediate complications occurring during diagnostic cerebral angiography in children is very low. No intraprocedural complication was documented in the reported series. DSA performed by experienced angiographers is a safe procedure that can provide critical diagnostic information.
PURPOSE - To prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of CO(2) and gadolinium to iodinated contrast material for inferior vena cavography before inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Forty patients underwent injection of iodinated contrast material, CO(2), and gadolinium. Iodinated contrast material was used as the standard. Caval diameter was determined with calibrated software. Three readers blinded to contrast agent used measured the distance from the superior image border to the inferior margin of the renal veins and from the inferior image border to the iliac bifurcation. The measurements with CO(2) and gadolinium were compared to those with iodinated contrast material to obtain the interobserver and intraobserver variability. The presence or absence of caval thrombus and variant anatomy was noted. The same readers reexamined 12 studies in a separate session to determine intraobserver variability and correlation.
RESULTS - Caval diameter differed by 0.4 mm or less for all three agents. Measurements with all agents were within 2 mm of each other for all patients. Gadolinium and CO(2) were not significantly different from one another in measuring caval diameter. At the initial reading, compared with iodinated contrast material, gadolinium had greater mean interobserver error in measuring the distance to the iliac bifurcation and both renal veins (range, 1.6-1.8 mm) than CO(2) (range, 0.2-1.4 mm). This finding, although statistically significant for gadolinium (P <.05), was of doubtful clinical relevance. Interobserver correlation was significantly worse for CO(2) at the levels of the iliac bifurcation (P =.02) and right renal vein (P =.008). Interobserver correlation for gadolinium was similar to that for iodinated contrast material at all levels. At repeat reading, there was significantly inferior intraobserver correlation with use of CO(2) for both renal veins (P <.05) compared to iodinated contrast material and for the left renal vein (P <.05) compared to gadolinium. Gadolinium identified three of three renal vein anomalies identified with iodinated contrast material whereas CO(2) localized one of three.
CONCLUSION - CO(2) and gadolinium had limitations when compared with iodinated contrast material. Gadolinium provided superior consistency in identifying relevant landmarks for filter placement. CO(2) demonstrated significantly greater mean correlative error than gadolinium at initial and repeat readings.